Publications (11)66.33 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chloroplast proteins of the Alb3/YidC/Oxa1p family are necessary for assembly of photosynthetic complexes in the thylakoid membranes. Alb3p in Arabidopsis thaliana is essential for posttranslational LHCII-integration into thylakoid membranes and participates in cotranslational assembly of D1. However, the pleiotropic defects of an Alb3p mutant, albino3, suggest additional functions for Alb3p. To obtain an impression of such potential further Alb3p activities from phenotypic manifestations, properties of mutants disturbed in thylakoid membrane protein transport or carotenoid biosynthesis were compared with the albino3 mutant. Specific defects observed in albino3 were similar to those in a carotenoid synthesis mutant. While this correlation did not provide tangible evidence for Alb3p being involved in the integration of carotenoids in photosynthetic complexes, it suggests a possible avenue for future investigations.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dynamics of photosystem I assembly in cyanobacteria have been addressed using in vivo pulse-chase labeling of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 proteins in combination with blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The analyses indicate the existence of three different monomeric photosystem I complexes and also the high stability of photosystem I trimers. We show that in addition to a complete photosystem I monomer, containing all 11 subunits, we detected a PsaK-less monomer and a short-lived PsaL/PsaK-less complex. The latter two monomers were missing in the ycf37 mutant of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 that accumulates also less trimers. Pulse-chase experiments suggest that the three monomeric complexes have different functions in the biogenesis of the trimer. Based on these findings we propose a model where PsaK is incorporated in the latest step of photosystem I assembly. The PsaK-less photosystem I monomer may represent an intermediate complex that is important for the exchange of the two PsaK variants during high light acclimation. Implications of the presented data with respect to Ycf37 function are discussed.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 Slr1471p, an Oxa1p/Alb3/YidC homolog, is an essential protein for cell viability for which functions in thylakoid membrane biogenesis and cell division have been proposed. Using a fusion of green fluorescent protein to the C terminus of Slr1471p, we found that the mutant slr1471-gfp is photochemically inhibited when light intensities increase to 80 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1). We show that photoinhibition correlates with an increased redox potential of the reaction center quinone Q(A)(-) and a decreased redox potential of Q(B)(-). Analysis reveals that membrane integration of the D1 precursor protein is affected, leading to the accumulation of pD1 in the membrane phase. We show that Slr1471p interacts directly with the D1 protein and discuss why the accumulation of pD1 in two reaction center assembly intermediates is dependent on Slr1471p.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteins of the YidC/Oxa1p/ALB3 family play an important role in inserting proteins into membranes of mitochondria, bacteria, and chloroplasts. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, one member of this family, Albino3.1 (Alb3.1), was previously shown to be mainly involved in the assembly of the light-harvesting complex. Here, we show that a second member, Alb3.2, is located in the thylakoid membrane, where it is associated with large molecular weight complexes. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that Alb3.2 interacts with Alb3.1 and the reaction center polypeptides of photosystem I and II as well as with VIPP1, which is involved in thylakoid formation. Moreover, depletion of Alb3.2 by RNA interference to 25 to 40% of wild-type levels leads to a reduction in photosystems I and II, indicating that the level of Alb3.2 is limiting for the assembly and/or maintenance of these complexes in the thylakoid membrane. Although the levels of several photosynthetic proteins are reduced under these conditions, other proteins are overproduced, such as VIPP1 and the chloroplast chaperone pair Hsp70/Cdj2. These changes are accompanied by a large increase in vacuolar size and, after a prolonged period, by cell death. We conclude that Alb3.2 is required directly or indirectly, through its impact on thylakoid protein biogenesis, for cell survival.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The light reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis are mediated by multisubunit pigment-protein complexes situated within the specialized thylakoid membrane system. The biogenesis of these complexes is regulated by transacting factors that affect the expression of the respective subunit genes and/or the assembly of their products. Here we report on the analysis of the PratA gene from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 that encodes a periplasmic tetratricopeptide repeat protein of formerly unknown function. Targeted inactivation of PratA resulted in drastically reduced photosystem II (PSII) content. Protein pulse labeling experiments of PSII subunits indicated that the C-terminal processing of the precursor of the reaction center protein D1 is compromised in the pratA mutant. Moreover, a direct interaction of PratA and precursor D1 was demonstrated by applying yeast two-hybrid analyses. This suggests that PratA represents a factor facilitating D1 maturation via the endoprotease CtpA. The periplasmic localization of PratA supports a model that predicts the initial steps of PSII biogenesis to occur at the plasma membrane of cyanobacterial cells.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vipp1 (vesicle-inducing protein in plastids 1) is found in Cyanobacteria and chloroplasts of photosynthetic eukaryotes where it is essential for the formation of the thylakoid membrane. Vipp1 is closely related to the phage shock protein A (PspA), a bacterial protein induced under diverse stress conditions. Vipp1 proteins differ from PspA by an additional C-terminal domain that is required for Vipp1 function in thylakoid biogenesis. We show here that in Cyanobacteria, green algae, and vascular plants, Vipp1 is part of a high molecular mass complex. The complex is formed by multiple copies of Vipp1, and complex formation involves interaction of the central alpha-helical domain that is common to Vipp1 as well as to PspA proteins. In chloroplasts of vascular plants, the Vipp1 complex can be visualized by green fluorescent protein fusion in discrete locations at the inner envelope. Green fluorescent protein fusion analysis furthermore revealed that complex formation is important for proper positioning of Vipp1 at the inner envelope of chloroplasts.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alb3 homologs Oxa1 and YidC have been shown to be required for the integration of newly synthesized proteins into membranes. Here, we show that although Alb3.1p is not required for integration of the plastid-encoded photosystem II core subunit D1 into the thylakoid membrane of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the insertion of D1 into functional photosystem II complexes is retarded in the Alb3.1 deletion mutant ac29. Alb3.1p is associated with D1 upon its insertion into the membrane, indicating that Alb3.1p is essential for the efficient assembly of photosystem II. Furthermore, levels of nucleus-encoded light-harvesting proteins are vastly reduced in ac29; however, the remaining antenna systems are still connected to photosystem II reaction centers. Thus, Alb3.1p has a dual function and is required for the accumulation of both nucleus- and plastid-encoded protein subunits in photosynthetic complexes of C. reinhardtii.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intrachloroplastic localization of post-transcriptional gene expression steps represents one key determinant for the regulation of chloroplast development. We have characterized an RNA binding protein of 63 kDa (RBP63) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts, which cofractionates with stromal thylakoid membranes. Solubility properties suggest that RBP63 is a peripheral membrane protein. Among RNA probes from different 5' untranslated regions of chloroplast transcripts, RBP63 preferentially binds to the psbA leader. This binding is dependent on a region comprising seven consecutive A residues, which is required for D1 protein synthesis. A possible role for this newly discovered RNA binding protein in membrane targeting of psbA gene expression is discussed.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have constructed and analysed a cyanobacterial mutant that lacks the putative homologue of ycf37, the chloroplast open reading frame 37, which is conserved in different algae, but missing in the plastome of higher plants. In this report we show that Ycf37 of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 contains three tetratrico-peptide repeat (TPR) units resembling the structural organization of Ycf3, a protein that has been suggested to function as a chaperone during photosystem (PS) I complex formation. We demonstrate a light-activated transcript accumulation of this gene. Inactivation of ycf37 leads to a lower PSI/PSII ratio and a higher phycocyanin/chlorophyll ratio in Synechocystis cells. The observed alterations in the ycf37 mutants and the structural organization of the gene product suggest a functional role in PSI stability or assembly.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chloroplast translation is mediated by nucleus-encoded factors that interact with distinct cis-acting RNA elements. A U-rich sequence within the 5′ untranslated region of the psbD mRNA has previously been shown to be required for its translation inChlamydomonas reinhardtii. By using UV cross-linking assays, we have identified a 40-kDa RNA binding protein, which binds to the wild-type psbD leader, but is unable to recognize a nonfunctional leader mutant lacking the U-rich motif. RNA binding is restored in a chloroplast cis-acting suppressor. The functions of several site-directed psbD leader mutants were analyzed with transgenic C. reinhardtii chloroplasts and the in vitro RNA binding assay. A clear correlation between photosynthetic activity and the capability to bind RNA by the 40-kDa protein was observed. Furthermore, the data obtained suggest that the poly(U) region serves as a molecular spacer between two previously characterized cis-acting elements, which are involved in RNA stabilization and translation. RNA-protein complex formation depends on the nuclear Nac2 gene product that is part of a protein complex required for the stabilization of the psbDmRNA. The sedimentation properties of the 40-kDa RNA binding protein suggest that it interacts directly with this Nac2 complex and, as a result, links processes of chloroplast RNA metabolism and translation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The psbD mRNA, which encodes the D2 reaction center polypeptide of photosystem II, is one of the most abundant chloroplast mRNAs. We have used genomic complementation to isolate the nuclear Nac2 gene, which is required for the stable accumulation of the psbD mRNA in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Nac2 encodes a hydrophilic polypeptide of 1385 amino acids with nine tetratricopeptide-like repeats (TPRs) in its C-terminal half. Cell fractionation studies indicate that the Nac2 protein is localized in the stromal compartment of the chloroplast. It is part of a high molecular weight complex that is associated with non-polysomal RNA. Change of a conserved alanine residue of the fourth TPR motif by site-directed mutagenesis leads to aggregation of Nac2 protein and completely abrogates its function, indicating that this TPR is important for proper folding of the protein and for psbD mRNA stability, processing and/or translation.
Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
- Institute of Molecular Botany