[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-23 is the key cytokine that induces the expansion of Th17 cells. It is composed of p19 and p40 subunits of IL-12. The p40 subunit binds competitively to the receptor of IL-23 and blocks its activity. Our aim was to assess the preventive and therapeutic effect of the IL-12p40 homodimer (p40)2 subunit in autoimmune arthritis animal models. In the current study, using IL-1R antagonist-knockout mice and a collagen-induced arthritis model, we investigated the suppressive effect of (p40)2 on inflammatory arthritis. We demonstrated that the recombinant adenovirus-expressing mouse (p40)2 model prevented the development of arthritis when given before the onset of arthritis. It also decreased the arthritis index and joint erosions in the mouse model if transferred after arthritis was established. (p40)2 inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines and Ag-specific T cell proliferation. It also induced CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3 regulatory T (Treg) cells in vitro and in vivo, whereas the generation of retinoic acid receptor-related organ receptor γt and Th17 cells was suppressed. The induction of Treg cells and the suppression of Th17 cells were mediated via activated STAT5 and suppressed STAT3. Our data suggest that (p40)2 suppressed inflammatory arthritis successfully. This could be a useful therapeutic approach in autoimmune arthritis to regulate the Th17/Treg balance and IL-23 signaling.
Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) are a major cell population of the pannus that invades adjacent cartilage and bone in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study was undertaken to determine the effect of interleukin-17 (IL-17) on the survival and/or proliferation of FLSs from RA patients and to investigate whether signal tranducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is implicated in this process.
Bcl-2 and Bax expression in FLSs was determined using the real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The expression of Bcl-2 and phosphoSTAT3 in synovial tissues was investigated by confocal microscope. Apoptosis of FLSs was detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and/or phase contrast microscopy. The proliferation of FLSs was determined by CCK-8 ELISA assay.
The pro-apoptotic Bax is decreased and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 is increased in FLSs from RA patients compared with those from patients with osteoarthritis (OA). IL-17 upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 in FLSs from RA patients, but not in FLSs from OA patients. STAT3 was found to mediate IL-17-induced Bcl-2 upregulation in FLSs from RA patients. Additionally, IL-17 promoted the survival and proliferation of FLSs from RA patients. Most importantly, treatment with STAT3 inhibitor reversed the protective effect of IL-17 on FLSs apoptosis induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP).
Our data demonstrate that STAT3 is critical in IL-17-induced survival of FLS from RA patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that target the IL-17/STAT3 pathway might be strong candidates for RA treatment modalities.
Preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Arthritis research & therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the effects of administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2)/JES6-1 (anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody) immune complexes on the expansion and activation of regulatory T (Treg) cells, the down-regulation of T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, and the control of the severity of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Wild-type and CIA-induced wild-type mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with IL-2 or IL-2/JES6-1 complex three times at 2-day intervals. Treg cell surface markers were analysed by flow cytometry. After injecting IL-2 or IL-2/JES6-1, the time kinetics of IL-2 signalling molecules was examined by FACS and Western blotting. Concentrations of IL-17 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA. Injection of IL-2/JES6-1 increased the proportion of Foxp3(+) Treg cells among splenic CD4(+) T cells, which reached the highest level on day 4 after injection. Up-regulation of CTLA4, GITR and glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant (GARP) was observed. Activation of p-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) was apparent within 3 hr after injection of IL-2/JES6-1 complexes. Expression of IL-2 signalling molecules, including p-AKT and p-p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase, was also higher in splenocytes treated with IL-2/JES6-1 complexes. Injection of IL-2/JES6-1 complexes suppressed the induction of CIA and the production of IL-17 and inflammatory responses while increasing the level of IL-10 in the spleen. The expansion of Treg cells (via STAT5) and the concomitant increase in IL-2 signalling pathways by IL-2/JES6-1 complexes suggests their potential use as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of autoimmune arthritis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the impact of STAT-3–mediated regulation on Th17 differentiation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
CD4+ T cells isolated from peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) were stimulated to differentiate into Th17 cells or Treg cells. The activity of STAT-3 was knocked down by transfecting CD4+ T cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA). After 3 days in culture, the proportions of Th17 cells and Treg cells were measured by flow cytometry, and the production of interleukin-17 (IL-17) was measured by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The levels of IL-17, IL-6, IL-23, IL-1, and tumor necrosis factor α were significantly higher in RA SF and synovial tissue than in SF and synovial tissue from osteoarthritis patients. In RA synovial tissue, the expression of STAT-3 increased in proportion to the severity of synovitis, as shown by stromal cellularity, intimal hyperplasia, and inflammatory infiltration. The degree of Th17 differentiation was highest in RA SF, followed by RA PB, and lowest in normal subjects. In CD4+ T cells, transfection with STAT-3 siRNA prevented Th17 differentiation of mononuclear cells from RA PB and SF but increased the proportion of Treg cells. In contrast, inhibition of STAT-5, the transcription factor for Treg cells, increased the proportion of Th17 cells and reduced that of Treg cells.
Our findings indicate that modulation of STAT-3 in CD4+ T cells affects the differentiation of Th17 cells and Treg cells in patients with RA. This role of STAT-3 in RA synovial T cells may provide a new therapeutic target for the management of RA.
Preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is an inflammatory cytokine that modulates several biological responses by inducing chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that TWEAK could promote secretion of IL-17, an amplifier of inflammatory arthritis. To test this, we investigated the capacity of TWEAK to induce IL-17 production in T cells via the fibroblast growth factor-inducible gene 14 (Fn14, also known as TWEAK receptor) signal pathway in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fn14 and IL-17 were highly expressed in arthritic tissues of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. TWEAK induced production of IL-17 alone and synergistically with lipopolysaccharide. In naïve murine T cells, TWEAK promoted Th17 differentiation. The expression of Fn14 was predominant in Th17 cells. TWEAK and IL-17 concentrations were significantly higher in synovial fluid and serum in RA patients than OA patients. In addition, we identified CD4(+)IL-17(+)Fn14(+) cells in synovium from RA patients. TWEAK promoted IL-17 production synergistically with IL-23 or IL-21 and blockade of Fn14 with Fn14-Fc suppressed Th17 differentiation. Conversely, this treatment enhanced Treg differentiation. These results suggest that TWEAK induces IL-17 production and may be a therapeutic target in the treatment of RA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinoic acid is the active vitamin A derivative and is well-known to have diverse immunomodulatory actions. In this study, we investigated the impact of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a biologic key metabolite of vitamin A, on the development of arthritis and the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which ATRA might have antiarthritic effects in animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA; collagen-induced arthritis [CIA] in DBA/1J mice). We showed that treatment with ATRA markedly suppressed the clinical and histologic signs of arthritis in the CIA mice. It reduced the expression of IL-17 in the arthritic joints. Interestingly, Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells were markedly increased and IL-17-producing CD4(+) T cells (Th17 cells) were decreased in the spleens of ATRA-treated mice. In vitro treatment with ATRA induced the expression of Foxp3 and repressed the IL-17 expression in the CD4(+) T cells in mice. ATRA suppressed the production of total IgG and IgG2a in splenocytes that were stimulated by LPS. It also reduced serum levels of total IgG and IgG2 anti-collagen Abs and germinal center formation in CIA mice. In addition, the ATRA-treated mice showed decreased osteoclast formation in arthritic joints. Moreover, ATRA downregulated the expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, the leading player of osteoclastogenesis, in the CD4(+) T cells and fibroblast-like synoviocytes from patients with RA. Furthermore, ATRA prevented both human monocytes and mice bone marrow-derived monocytes/macrophage cells from differentiating into osteoclasts. These data suggest ATRA might be an effective treatment modality for RA patients.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maintaining an appropriate balance between subsets of CD4(+) helper T cells and T regulatory cells (Tregs) is a critical process in immune homeostasis and a protective mechanism against autoimmunity and inflammation. To identify the role of vitamin A-related compounds, we investigated the regulation of interleukin (IL)-17-producing helper T cells (Th17 cells) and Tregs treated with all-trans-retinal (retinal). CD4(+)T cells or total cells from the spleens of C57BL/6 mice were stimulated under Treg-polarizing (anti-CD3/CD28 and TGF-β) or Th17-polarizing (anti-CD3/CD28, TGF-β, and IL-6) conditions in the presence or absence of retinal. To analyze their suppressive abilities, retinal-induced Tregs or TGF-β-induced Tregs were co-cultured with responder T cells. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was established in interferon (IFN)-γ knockout mice. On day 13, retinal-induced Tregs were adoptively transferred to mice with established CIA after second immunizations. Compared with TGF-β-induced Treg cells, retinal-induced Tregs showed increased Foxp3 expression and mediated stronger suppressive activity. Under Th17-polarizing conditions, retinal inhibited the production of IL-17 and increased the expression of Foxp3.Retinal-induced Tregs showed therapeutic effects in IFN-γ knockout CIA mice. Thus, we demonstrated that retinal reciprocally regulates Foxp3(+) Tregs and Th17 cells. These findings suggest that retinal, a vitamin A metabolite, can regulate the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory immunity. A better understanding of the manipulation of Foxp3 and Tregs may enable the application of this tremendous therapeutic potential in various autoimmune diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the regulatory role of interleukin-22 (IL-22) in the expression of RANKL and induction of osteoclastogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Concentrations of IL-22 and RANKL in the serum and synovial fluid of RA patients were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RA synovial fibroblasts were treated with recombinant human IL-22 (rhIL-22), and the expression of RANKL messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and intracellular immunostaining. Human monocytes were cocultured with IL-22-prestimulated RA synovial fibroblasts and macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and osteoclastogenesis was assessed by counting the multinucleated cells (those staining positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase).
The IL-22 concentration in the synovial fluid was higher in RA patients than in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). The serum IL-22 concentration was also higher in RA patients than in OA patients and healthy volunteers, and this correlated with serum titers of rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies. In RA synovial fibroblasts treated with rhIL-22, the expression of RANKL mRNA and protein was increased in a dose-dependent manner. IL-22-induced RANKL expression was down-regulated significantly by the inhibition of p38 MAPK/NF-κB or JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling. In human monocytes cocultured with IL-22-prestimulated RA synovial fibroblasts in the absence of exogenous RANKL, the monocytes differentiated into osteoclasts, but this osteoclastogenesis decreased after p38 MAPK/NF-κB or JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling was inhibited.
These results show that IL-22 up-regulates RANKL expression in RA synovial fibroblasts and induces osteoclastogenesis. These effects are mediated by the p38 MAPK/NF-κB and JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-17 plays important roles in synovial inflammation and bone destruction in the mouse model of autoimmune arthritis and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Cadherin-11 determines the behavior of synovial cells in their proinflammatory and destructive tissue response in inflammatory arthritis, and promotes the invasive behavior of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of IL-17 on the expression of cadherin-11 in autoimmune experimental arthritis and in RA synovium. The severity of synovial inflammation and bone destruction were examined in IL-17-injected knee joints of mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Cadherin-11 expression was examined in the synovium of mice with CIA, of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)-deficient mice and of patients with RA and osteoarthritis (OA). Cadherin-11 expression was also examined in the synovium of IL-17 injected knee joints from CIA mice and in IL-17-stimulated FLS of CIA mice and RA patients. IL-17 aggravated synovial inflammation and bone destruction in CIA. By immunohistochemistry, cadherin-11 expression was increased in the synovium of mice with CIA and IL-1Ra-deficient mice and in patients with RA. Synovial cadherin-11 expression in IL-17-injected knee joints, measured by real-time RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry, was increased in CIA. Cadherin-11 expression was significantly increased by IL-17 in cultured FLS of CIA mice and RA patients, and these increases were blocked by NF-κB inhibitors. IL-17 increased the expression of cadherin-11 in vivo and in vitro, which implies that an IL-17-induced increase of cadherin-11 is involved in IL-17-induced aggravation of joint destruction and inflammation.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Immunology letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interleukin-33 (IL-33)/ST2 pathway has emerged as an intercellular signaling system that participates in antigen-allergen response, autoimmunity and fibrosis. It has been suggested that IL-33/ST2 signaling has been involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), because IL-33 and its receptor have been specifically mapped to RA synovium. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of IL-33 and sST2 in sera and synovial fluids in patients with RA. The serum level of IL-33 was significantly higher in patients with RA (294.9 ± 464.0 pg/mL) than in healthy controls (96.0 ± 236.9 pg/mL, P = 0.002). The synovial fluid level of IL-33 was significantly higher in RA patients than in osteoarthritis patients. The level of serum sST2 was higher in RA patients than in healthy controls (P = 0.042). A significant relationship was found between the levels of IL-33 and IL-1β (r = 0.311, P = 0.005), and IL-33 and IL-6 (r = 0.264, P = 0.017) in 81 RA patients. The levels of IL-33, sST2 and C-reactive protein decreased after conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs treatment in 10 patients with treatment-naïve RA. Conclusively, IL-33 is involved in the pathogenesis of RA and may reflect the degree of inflammation in patients with RA.
Preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of Korean medical science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of arthritis. We conducted this study to determine the effect of interleukin (IL)-17 on the expression and production of RAGE in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activator 1 (Act1) in IL-17-induced RAGE expression in RA-FLS was also evaluated.
RAGE expression in synovial tissues was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. RAGE mRNA production was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Act-1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was produced and treated to evaluate the role of Act-1 on RAGE production.
RAGE, IL-17, and Act-1 expression increased in RA synovium compared to osteoarthritis synovium. RAGE expression and production increased by IL-17 and IL-1β (*P <0.05 vs. untreated cells) treatment but not by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in RA-FLS. The combined stimuli of both IL-17 and IL-1β significantly increased RAGE production compared to a single stimulus with IL-17 or IL-1β alone (P <0.05 vs. 10 ng/ml IL-17). Act-1 shRNA added to the RA-FLS culture supernatant completely suppressed the enhanced production of RAGE induced by IL-17.
RAGE was overexpressed in RA synovial tissues, and RAGE production was stimulated by IL-17 and IL-1β. Act-1 contributed to the stimulatory effect of IL-17 on RAGE production, suggesting a possible inhibitory target for RA treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a key negative regulator of immune responses and has been implicated in tumor tolerance, autoimmune disease and asthma. IDO was detected in the joint synovial tissue in the inflammatory microenvironment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but IDO expression in joint synovial tissue is not sufficient to overcome the inflamed synovial environment. This study aimed to unravel the mechanisms involving the failure to activate tolerogenic IDO in the inflamed joint. We demonstrate that both poly (I:C) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induce expression of IDO in synovial fibroblasts. However, inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17, TNF-alpha, IL-12, IL-23 and IL-16 did not induce IDO expression. Poly (I:C) appeared to induce higher IDO expression than did LPS. Surprisingly, toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated IDO expression was upregulated after depletion of myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) in synovial fibroblasts using small interfering RNA (siRNA). IDO, TLR3 and TLR4 were highly expressed in synovial tissue of RA patients compared with that of osteoarthritis patients. In addition, RA patients with severe disease activity had higher levels of expression of IDO, TLR3 and TLR4 in the synovium than patients with mild disease activity. These data suggest that upregulation of IDO expression in synovial fibroblasts involves TLR3 and TLR4 activation by microbial constituents. We showed that the mechanisms responsible for IDO regulation primarily involve MyD88 signaling in synovial fibroblasts, as demonstrated by siRNAmediated knockdown of MyD88.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Experimental and Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is one of key regulators in acute and chronic immune-inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined the effect of MIF on osteoclastogenesis, which is known to play a crucial role in bone destruction in RA.
The concentration of MIF and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in the synovial fluid was measured by ELISA. MIF-induced RANKL expression of RA synovial fibroblasts was determined by real-time PCR and western blot. Osteoclastogenesis was analyzed in culture of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with MIF. Osteoclastogenesis was also determined after co-cultures of rhMIF-stimulated RA synovial fibroblasts with human PBMC.
Synovial fluid MIF concentration in RA patients was significantly higher than in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. The concentration of RANKL correlated with that of MIF in RA synovial fluids (r = 0.6, P < 0.001). MIF stimulated the expression of RANKL mRNA and protein in RA synovial fibroblasts, which was partially reduced by blocking of interleukin (IL)-1β. Osteoclasts were differentiated from PBMC cultures with MIF and M-CSF, even without RANKL. Osteoclastogenesis was increased after co-culture of MIF-stimulated RA synovial fibroblasts with PBMC and this effect was diminished by RANKL neutralization. Blocking of PI3 kinase, p38 MAP kinase, JAK-2, NF-κB, and AP-1 also led to a marked reduction in RANKL expression and osteoclastogenesis.
The interactions among MIF, synovial fibroblasts, osteoclasts, RANKL, and IL-1β have a close connection in osteoclastogenesis and they could be a potential gateway leading to new therapeutic approaches in treating bone destruction in RA.
Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Arthritis research & therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis, which is a critical step in the initiation and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), involves pro-angiogenic factors, including interleukin (IL)-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We investigated the role of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in the regulation of pro-angiogenic factors in RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS).
FLS were isolated from RA synovial tissues and stimulated with the TLR3 ligand, poly (I:C). The levels of VEGF and IL-8 in the culture supernatants were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the mRNA levels were assessed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The expression patterns of VEGF and IL-8 in the RA synovium and osteoarthritis (OA) synovium were compared using immunohistochemistry.
The expression levels of TLR3, VEGF, and IL-8 were significantly higher in the RA synovium than in the OA synovium. VEGF and IL-8 production were increased in the culture supernatants of RA FLS stimulated with poly (I:C), and the genes for these proteins were up-regulated at the transcriptional level after poly (I:C) treatment. Treatment with inhibitors of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), i.e., pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and parthenolide, abrogated the stimulatory effect of poly (I:C) on the production of VEGF and IL-8 in RA FLS.
Our results suggest that the activation of TLR3 in RA FLS promotes the production of proangiogenic factors, in a process that is mediated by the NF-κB signaling pathway. Therefore, targeting the TLR3 pathway may be a promising approach to preventing pathologic angiogenesis in RA.
Preview · Article · Dec 2010 · The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), which is the antioxidant derived from grape seeds, has been reported to possess a variety of potent properties. We have previously shown that GSPE attenuates collagen-induced arthritis. However the mechanism by which GSPE regulates the immune response remains unclear, although it may involve effects on the regulation of pathogenic T cells in autoimmune arthritis. To clarify this issue, we have assessed the effects of GSPE on differential regulation of Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells subsets in vitro in mouse and human CD4(+) T cells. We observed that GSPE decreased the frequency of IL-17(+)CD4(+)Th17 cells and increased induction of CD4(+)CD25(+)forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3)(+) Treg cells. In vivo, GSPE effectively attenuated clinical symptoms of established collagen-induced arthritis in mice with concomitant suppression of IL-17 production and enhancement of Foxp3 expression (type II collagen-reactive Treg cells) in CD4(+) T cells of joints and splenocytes. The presence of GSPE decreased the levels of IL-21, IL-22, IL-26 and IL-17 production by human CD4(+) T cells in a STAT3-dependent manner. In contrast, GSPE induces Foxp3(+) Treg cells in humans. Our results suggest that GSPE possesses a reciprocal control over IL-17 and Foxp3. By potently regulating inflammatory T cell differentiation, GSPE may serve as a possible novel therapeutic agent for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Immunology letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-15 (IL-15) recruits and activates synovial T cells, and IL-15 plays an important role in amplifying and perpetuating inflammation in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a potent chemoattractant for memory T cells in the inflamed RA synovium. This study investigated the effect of IL-15 on SDF-1 production in RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS).
Preview · Article · Jan 2010 · The Journal of the Korean Rheumatism Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, TLR9, and their correlations with the expression of cytokines that are associated with activation of CD4(+) T cells and inflammation including interferon gamma (IFNgamma), interleukin 4 (IL4), interleukin 17 (IL17), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in muscle tissues of patients with dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM). The expressions of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, IFNgamma, IL4, IL17, and TNFalpha were measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in muscle tissues from 14 patients with DM and PM (nine patients with DM, five patients with PM) and three controls. The expressions of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 were also localized with immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, IFNgamma, IL4, IL17, and TNFalpha were significantly high in patients with DM and PM compared with those in the controls, and the expression levels of TLR4 and TLR9 had significant positive correlations with the expressions of IFNgamma, IL4, IL17, and TNFalpha. Immunohistochemistry showed that TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 were expressed by infiltrating cells of perimysium in DM, whereas they were expressed by infiltrating cells of endomysium in PM. These results suggest that the involvement of TLR4 and TLR9 in immunopathogenesis of DM and PM might be connected with activation of CD4(+) T cells.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Clinical Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-17-producing CD4(+) T cells (Th17 cells) are the dominant pathogenic cellular component in autoimmune inflammatory diseases, including autoimmune arthritis. IL-10 promotes the generation of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells via the IL-10 receptor signal. The objective of this study was to examine whether IL-10, which acts as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, has a suppressive effect on the activation of human Th17 cells. Expression of IL-17 and IL-10 was examined immunohistochemically in tissue obtained from rheumatoid arthritis patients. Human peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells were isolated and cultured under various stimulatory conditions. Th17 cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells were detected by flow cytometry. The gene expression of related cytokines and transcription factors were assessed by ELISA and RT-PCR. IL-17 was overexpressed in rheumatoid arthritis patients. IL-10 treatment significantly decreased the numbers of IL-17-producing and RORc-expressing cells among human CD4(+) T cells that had been activated in vitro by Th17-differentiating conditions in autoimmune arthritis patients. IL-10 induced Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in the human CD4(+) T cell population. Our results demonstrate that IL-17 is overexpressed in autoimmune disease patients and that IL-10 suppresses IL-17 expression. IL-10 may be useful in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Immunology letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) and IgG fusion protein, CTLA4-Ig, is a therapeutic agent used for rheumatoid arthritis. It binds B7 molecules on dendritic cells (DCs) and thereby blocks B7/CD28 costimulatory interaction and inhibits effective T cell proliferation. However, the effect of CTLA4-Ig on the regulatory T cell (Treg) is still not known. In this study, we investigated the influence of CTLA4-Ig on the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg population in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. CTLA4-Ig suppressed CIA and increased the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg population in joint and spleen. When CD11c + DCs and CD4+T cells from CIA mice were cultured with anti-CD3, CTLA4-Ig increased the CD4+CD25 + Foxp3+ Treg population in a TGF-beta-dependent manner. When CD11c + DCs from CIA mice were treated with CTLA4-Ig and adoptively transferred into CIA-induced mice, arthritis did not develop in association with the increase in CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg population. However, in CTLA4-Ig-untreated DC-transferred CIA mice, arthritis developed and then rapidly progressed. Our study demonstrated that CTLA4-Ig suppressed CIA by modifying DCs from CIA mice into tolerogenic DCs to increase the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg population and this seems to be the new immune regulatory mechanism of CTLA4-Ig.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Journal of Autoimmunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) which is known to act as an antioxidant has therapeutic effect on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice, an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. Mice were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of GSPE (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg) or saline. Clinical, histological, and biochemical parameters were assessed. The effects of GSPE on osteoclastogenesis were determined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining of the inflamed joints and bone-marrow cells cultured with the receptor activator of nuclear factor B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide were determined using carboxy-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. GSPE treatment significantly attenuated the severity of CIA in a dose-dependent manner and reduced the histology scores for synovial inflammation, cartilage erosion, bone erosion, and the number of TRAP+ osteoclasts. GSPE treatment significantly reduced the numbers of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)- or interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing cells in the synovial tissue and the spontaneous production of TNF-alpha and IL-17 by splenocytes compared with those in the control mice. The serum levels of type-II-collagen-specific IgG2a and plasma levels of 8-isoprostane in the GSPE-treated mice were significantly lower than those in the control mice. GSPE dose-dependently suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro. GSPE significantly reduced hydrogen peroxide production by anti-CD3-monoclonal-antibody-stimulated CD4+ splenocytes. These results indicate that intraperitoneal injection of GSPE attenuated CIA in mice. GSPE may be useful in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.