[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kallmann syndrome (KS) is an inherited developmental disorder defined as the association of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia or hyposmia. KS has been shown to be a genetically heterogeneous disease with different modes of inheritance. However, variants in any of the causative genes identified so far are only found in approximately one third of KS patients, thus indicating that other genes or pathways remain to be discovered. Here, we report a large Han Chinese family with inherited KS which harbors two novel variants, KAL1 c.146G>T (p.Cys49Phe) and mitochondrial tRNA(cys) (m.5800A>G). Although two variants can't exert obvious effects on the migration of GnRH neurons, they show the synergistic effect, which can account for the occurrence of the disorder in this family. Furthermore, the disturbance of the mitochondrial cysteinyl-tRNA pathway can significantly affect the migration of GnRH cells in vitro and in vivo by influencing the chemomigration function of anosmin-1. Our work highlights a new mode of inheritance underlay the genetic etiology of KS and provide valuable clues to understand the disease development.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Azoospermia, cryptozoospermia and necrospermia can markedly decrease the ability of males to achieve pregnancy in fertile females. However, patients with these severe conditions still have the option to be treated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to become biological fathers. This study analyzed the fertilization ability and the developmental viabilities of the derived embryos after ICSI treatment of the sperm from these patients compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment of the proven-fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes as a control. On the day of oocyte retrieval, the number of sperm suitable for ICSI collected from two ejaculates or testicular sperm extraction was lower than the oocytes, and therefore, excess sibling oocytes were treated by IVF with donor sperm. From 72 couples (73 cycles), 1117 metaphase II oocytes were divided into 512 for ICSI and 605 for IVF. Compared with the control, husbands' sperm produced a lower fertilization rate in nonobstructive azoospermia (65.4% vs 83.2%; P< 0.001), crytozoospermia (68.8% vs 75.5%; P< 0.05) and necrospermia (65.0% vs 85.2%; P< 0.05). The zygotes derived in nonobstructive azoospermia had a lower cleavage rate (96.4% vs 99.4%; P< 0.05), but the rate of resultant good-quality embryos was not different. Analysis of the rates of cleaved and good-quality embryos in crytozoospermia and necrospermia did not exhibit a significant difference from the control. In conclusion, although the sperm from severe male infertility reduced the fertilization ability, the derived embryos had potential developmental viabilities that might be predictive for the expected clinical outcomes.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Asian Journal of Andrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the methods and solve the technical bottlenecks in the preparation of recombinant human protein hZP3 using the baculovirus expression system and pave the technical ground for the production and application of recombinant hZP3.
The recombinant vector pFASTBAC HTa-hZP3 was constructed and transferred to competent E. coli cells carrying bacmid to produce recombinant bacmid by homologous recombination. Sf9 cells were transfected with the recombinant bacmid to produce recombinant baculovirus. Full-length recombinant hZP3 (amino acids 1-424) and truncated recombinant hZP3 (amino acids 23-348) were expressed in the sf9 cells by infection with the recombinant baculovirus. The expression time of hZP3 was determined by Western blot and its purification was explored.
The recombinant bacmid and baculovirus were successfully constructed for expressing both the full-length and truncated hZP3. The maximal expression of recombinant hZP3 in the sf9 cells was achieved at 72-96 hours after baculovirus infection. Some of the recombinant hZP3 with His-tag could bind affinity matrix and got purified but most of the solubilized hZP3 passed through and the reasons remained unknown. Purified recombinant hZP3 labeled with Dylight Dye488 was able to bind human sperm.
It is feasible to express recombinant hZP3 in insect cells using the baculovirus system though the yield of hZP3 needs to be optimized. The methods for efficient enrichment and purification of recombinant hZP3 require further exploration.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well known that cell surface glycans or glycocalyx play important roles in sperm motility, maturation and fertilization. A comprehensive profile of the sperm surface glycans will greatly facilitate both basic research (sperm glycobiology) and clinical studies, such as diagnostics of infertility. As a group of natural glycan binders, lectin is an ideal tool for cell surface glycan profiling. However, because of the lack of effective technology, only a few lectins have been tested for lectin-sperm binding profiles. To address this challenge, we have developed a procedure for high-throughput probing of mammalian sperm with 91 lectins on lectin microarrays. Normal sperm from human, boar, bull, goat and rabbit were collected and analyzed on the lectin microarrays. Positive bindings of a set of ~50 lectins were observed for all the sperm of 5 species, which indicated a wide range of glycans are on the surface of mammalian sperm. Species specific lectin bindings were also observed. Clustering analysis revealed that the distances of the five species according to the lectin binding profiles are consistent with that of the genome sequence based phylogenetic tree except for rabbit. The procedure that we established in this study could be generally applicable for sperm from other species or defect sperm from the same species. We believe the lectin binding profiles of the mammalian sperm that we established in this study are valuable for both basic research and clinical studies.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Clinical Proteomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetamiprid (ACE) and imidacloprid (IMI) are two major members in the family of neonicotinoid pesticides, which are synthesized with a higher selectivity to insects. The present study determined and compared in vitro effects of ACE, IMI and nicotine on mammalian reproduction by using an integrated testing strategy for reproductive toxicology, which covered sperm quality, sperm penetration into oocytes and preimplantation embryonic development. Direct chemical exposure (500 µM or 5 mM) on spermatozoa during capacitation was performed, and in vitro fertilization (IVF) process, zygotes and 2-cell embryos were respectively incubated with chemical-supplemented medium until blastocyst formation to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of these chemicals and monitor the stages mainly affected. Generally, treatment of 500 µM or 5 mM chemicals for 30 min did not change sperm motility and DNA integrity significantly but the fertilization ability in in vitro fertilization (IVF) process, indicating that IVF process could detect and distinguish subtle effect of spermatozoa exposed to different chemicals. Culture experiment in the presence of chemicals in medium showed that fertilization process and zygotes are adversely affected by direct exposure of chemicals (P<0.05), in an order of nicotine>IMI>ACE, whereas developmental progression of 2-cell stage embryos was similar to controls (P>0.05). These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of neonicotinoid pesticides exposure on mammalian sperm fertilization ability as well as embryonic development, raising the concerns that neonicotinoid pesticides may pose reproductive risks on human reproductive health, especially in professional populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to determine the reproductive hazards of Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) on mouse spermatozoa and embryos in vitro and genomic changes in vivo. Direct low-level DEHP exposure (1 μg/ml) on spermatozoa and embryos was investigated by in vitro fertilization (IVF) process, culture of preimplanted embryos in DEHP-supplemented medium and embryo transfer to achieve full term development. Big Blue® transgenic mouse model was employed to evaluate the mutagenesis of testicular genome with in vivo exposure concentration of DEHP (500 mg/kg/day). Generally, DEHP-treated spermatozoa (1 μg/ml, 30 min) presented reduced fertilization ability (P<0.05) and the resultant embryos had decreased developmental potential compared to DMSO controls (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the transferred 2-cell stage embryos derived from treated spermatozoa also exhibited decreased birth rate than that of control (P<0.05). When fertilized oocytes or 2-cell stage embryos were recovered by in vivo fertilization (without treatment) and then exposed to DEHP, the subsequent development proceed to blastocysts was different, fertilized oocytes were significantly affected (P<0.05) whereas developmental progression of 2-cell stage embryos was similar to controls (P>0.05). Testes of the Big Blue® transgenic mice treated with DEHP for 4 weeks indicated an approximately 3-fold increase in genomic DNA mutation frequency compared with controls (P<0.05). These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of direct low-level exposure of DEHP on spermatozoa's fertilization ability as well as embryonic development, and proved that in vivo DEHP exposure posed mutagenic risks in the reproductive organ - at least in testes, are of great concern to human male reproductive health.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prohibitin (PHB) is a highly conserved major sperm mitochondrial membrane protein whose absence in somatic cells is associated with mitochondrial membrane depolarization and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our recent findings suggest that high levels of oxidants in human semen may contribute to male infertility and that sperm motility could be the earliest and most sensitive indicator of oxidative damage. Based on PHB's roles in mitochondrial sub-compartmentalization and respiratory chain assembly, we examine sperm PHB expression and mitochondrial membrane potential (MITO) in infertile men with poor sperm motility (asthenospermia, A) and/or low sperm concentrations (oligoasthenospermia, OA). Here, we demonstrate that MITO is significantly lower in sperm from A and OA subjects than in normospermic (N) subjects; the decrease is more severe for OA than for A subjects. PHB expression is also significantly lower in sperm from A and OA subjects. Significantly positive correlations are found among PHB expression, MITO, and sperm motility in normospermic, asthenospermic, and oligoasthenospermic subjects. Collectively, our observations lead to the hypothesis that PHB expression is an indicator of sperm quality in infertile men, and that it regulates sperm motility via an alteration in MITO and increased ROS levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 (hZP3) by virtue of its critical role during fertilization has been proposed as a promising candidate antigen to develop a contraceptive vaccine. In this direction, it is imperative to map minimal motifs of the B cell epitopes (BCEs) so as to avoid ZP-specific oophoritogenic T cell epitopes (TCEs) in the ZP3-based immunogens. In this study, based on known results of mapping marmoset and bonnet monkey ZP3 (mstZP3 and bmZP3), two predictable epitopes(23-30 and 301-320) on hZP3 were first confirmed and five minimal motifs within four epitopes on hZP3 were defined using serum to recombinant hZP3a(22-176) or hZP3b(177-348) as well as a biosynthetic peptide strategy. These defined minimal motifs were QPLWLL(23-28) for hZP3(23-30), MQVTDD(103-108) for hZP3(93-110), EENW(178-181) for hZP3(172-190), as well as SNSWF(306-310) and EGP(313-315) for hZP3(301-320), respectively. Furthermore, the antigenicity of two peptides for hZP3(172-187) and hZP3(301-315) and specificity of the antibody response to these peptides were also evaluated, which produced high-titer antibodies in immunized animals that were capable of reacting to ZP on human oocytes, r-hZP3b(177-348) protein, as well as r-hZP3(172-190), r-hZP3(303-310), and r-hZP3(313-320) epitope peptides fused with truncated GST188 protein.
Preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Clinical and Developmental Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Basal generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was essential for male reproductive function, whereas high ROS levels may be linked to low quality of sperm and male infertility. We examined the associations between ROS levels in whole ejaculates and sperm quality among 1092 male factor infertility (MFI) patients and 50 donors with normal semen characteristics. ROS levels were significantly positively correlated with abnormal morphology rate, head defect, and sperm deformity index. Further, we investigated whether seminal plasma from MFI patients with high ROS levels affects sperm motility from donors with normal semen characteristics. After cross-culturing fresh human sperm from donors possessing normal semen characteristics with seminal plasma from infertitle men, sperm motility was measured at different ROS levels. Seminal plasma from MFI patients significantly reduced motility of sperm and the reduction rate increased with increasing ROS levels in seminal plasma. On the other hand, we found MFI patients with the ROS levels in the lowest 25th percentile had similar ROS levels to donors with normal semen characteristics. Collectively, our observations lead to the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a critical role in the development of MFI among those with high ROS levels, but not those with low ROS levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to observe the in vivo effect of 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) on embryo implantation in rats and its in vitro effect on cell adhesion.
The anti-implantation efficacy of AEBSF in rats was determined by counting the number of visible implanted embryos on day 8 of pregnancy following intrauterine (5 mg and 10 mg AEBSF per horn) or tail vein (10 mg AEBSF per rat) administration on day 3 of pregnancy. The effects of AEBSF on cell adhesion were detected, respectively, by using the mouse blastocysts-endometrial cells or the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)-HeLa cells co-culture model. The alteration in protein secretion pattern of HUVECs and HeLa cells was detected by the proteome analysis.
4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride showed an in vivo inhibitory effect on embryo implantation in rat. In vitro, AEBSF could disturb the growth of blastocysts on endometrial cells and inhibit the adhesion of HeLa cells on HUVECs. The treatment of AEBSF could alter the protein secretion pattern of co-cultured HUVEC-HeLa cells.
4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride might be a potential leading compound for novel contraceptives, and its inhibitory effect on implantation might result from the interference in extracellular matrix remodeling process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) results after swim-up are related to fertilization rates, embryo quality and pregnancy rates following in vitro fertilization (IVF). A total of 223 couples undergoing IVF in our hospital from October 2008 to September 2009 were included in this study. Data on the IVF process and sperm chromatin structure assay results were collected. Fertilization rate, embryo quality and IVF success rates of different DNA fragmentation index (DFI) subgroups and high DNA stainability (HDS) subgroups were compared. There were no significant differences in fertilization rate, clinical pregnancy or delivery rates between the DFI and HDS subgroups. However, the group with abnormal DFI had a lower good embryo rate. So, we concluded that the SCSA variables, either DFI or HDS after swim-up preparation, were not valuable in predicting fertilization failure or pregnancy rate, but an abnormal DFI meant a lower good embryo rate following IVF.
Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Asian Journal of Andrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preservation of mammalian spermatozoa now plays an important role in fertility treatment, in generating hybrid animals, and in protecting endangered or extinct species. To date, the most common method of sperm preservation is freezing in liquid nitrogen (LN(2)). However, this method requires constant supplementation of the LN(2) and also involves some safety issues in transporting LN(2). Here we describe a new sperm preservation method that does not involve freezing. Mouse spermatozoa were cultured in four basic media (HEPES-CZB, potassium simplex optimization medium with amino acids [KSOMaa], K(+)-rich nuclear isolation medium [NIM], and PBS) with or without 10% bovine serum albumin (BSA) or 15% Ficoll as a protectant, and preserved in a refrigerator for up to 6 mo. These preserved sperm were then injected into fresh oocytes and cultured to the blastocyst stage in vitro or transferred into recipient females to demonstrate their genetic integrity. The results of sperm preservation for 1 mo suggested that NIM and PBS were better media than HEPES-CZB or KSOMaa and that BSA and Ficoll could improve either blastocyst or full-term development. Surprisingly, 18 pups were obtained using spermatozoa stored in these media for 6 mo. Moreover, this new method allowed easy production of healthy offspring even after transport of spermatozoa between two countries by aircraft at room temperature. In conclusion, this method allows for easy long-term preservation of mouse spermatozoa in a simple, modified medium at refrigerator temperature with very low cost and wide application.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Biology of Reproduction
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been widely used to detect Y-chromosome microdeletions, which is one of the major causes of male infertility. Both the European Academy of Andrology (EAA) and the European Molecular Genetics Quality Network (EMQN) have recommended the use of sY84 and sY86 markers for the detection of azoospermia factor a (AZFa) microdeletion during DNA testing for male infertility. In this study, a large-scale analysis of AZF microdeletion in a total of 630 Chinese males, including healthy semen donors (n=200), infertile males with normal sperm count (n=226) and patients with either nonobstructive azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia (n=204), was performed. A series of nine sequence-tagged site (STS) markers from the AZF region of the Y chromosome was used to detect microdeletions. All primers were designed based on the recommendations of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. An unusually high incidence (73/630, 11.6%) of sY84-absent but sY86-present genotypes was observed in the AZFa microdeletion screening. Sequencing the sY84-flanking region revealed a total of 73 patients with sY84-absent but sY86-present genotypes have a T-to-G transversion at the fifth base from the 5' end of the reverse sY84 primer. These prevalent false positives, which were not only observed in infertile men, but also observed in donors, resulted from a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) named rs72609647 in the targeting sequence of the reverse sY84 primer. Our study suggests that a pre-screening of existence of rs72609647 polymorphism can prevent the frequent false positive results of AZFa microdeletions detection in the infertile Chinese males. Given the SNP rs72609647 was recently found in a deep sequencing of a Chinese individual, the current EAA and EMQN standards may need to be scrutinized among different populations to avoid the potential genetic variations in the primer binding sequences.
Preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Asian Journal of Andrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the patterns of azoospermia factor C (AZFc) microdeletion in the Chinese Han population and optimize the selection of the required sequence tagged sites (STSs) of AZF microdeletion in multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Nine STSs (sY84, sY86, sY127, sY134, sY152, sY145, sY255, sY254 and sY157) were detected by multiplex polymerase reaction for Y chromosome microdeletion in 164 Chinese Han patients with severe oligozoospermia or non-obstructive azoospermia, and another 105 with normal sperm concentration were included as controls. Meanwhile 180 cases of AZFc microdeletion (absence of sY255 and sY254) from multiple reproductive medical centers were analyzed for sY145, sY152 and sY157.
Fourteen (8.5%) of the 164 patients with severe oligozoospermia or non-obstructive azoospermia showed AZFc microdeletion (absence of sY255 and sY254). All the 194 patients with the absence of sY255 and sY254 displayed the presence of sY145 and sY152, only 2 of them with sY157 present. Deletion of sY1206 and DAZ3/DAZ4 copies was confirmed in 1 case of severe oligozoospermia with sY157 absent only.
Deletion of sY255 and sY254 as well as sY157 is the most common pattern of AZFc microdeletion in the Chinese Han population. sY145 and sY152 can be omitted in AZFc screening. Absence of sY157 alone may be a new type of partial AZFc microdeletion in the Chinese Han population, and the clinical significance of unique sY157 absent needs to be further explored.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spermatozoa viability tests based on dual-color flow cytometry after staining with Sybr-14/propidium iodide were performed on 44 men with complete asthenospermia for primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) screening, and seven were identified with PCD by electron microscopy of ultrastructural ciliary defects. Six PCD patients underwent eight intracytoplasmic sperm injection therapy cycles using ejaculated sperm or testicular sperm, obtaining a mean fertilization rate of 46.6%, with three healthy babies born and one in utero at the time of writing.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Fertility and sterility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of cigarette smoking on human sperm DNA integrity.
Totally, 784 cases of male infertility were selected from our case database and grouped according to whether they were smokers or nonsmokers, how much they smoked (< or = 10, 11-19 and > or = 20 cigarettes/d) and how long they smoked (< or = 5, 6-9 and > or = 10 yr). Sperm DNA integrity was measured using sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and flow cytometry. DNA fragmentation and immature spermatozoa were expressed by the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and high DNA stainability (HDS) respectively. Conventional sperm parameters and sperm DNA integrity were compared among different groups.
The total semen volume and percentage of grade a + b sperm were lower and the sperm morphological abnormality was higher in the > or = 20 cigarettes/d and > or = 10 yr groups than in the others (P < 0.05). DFI and HDS were significantly higher in the smokers than in the nonsmokers (P < 0.05). HDS was negatively correlated with the percentage of grade a + b sperm (r = -0.18, P < 0.05) and both DFI and HDS were positively correlated with the rate of sperm malformation (r = 0.31 and r = 0.39, P < 0.05).
Smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day or longer than 10 years has deleterious effects on the semen volume, percentage of grade a + b sperm and sperm morphology of the smokers. Cigarette smoking decreases sperm DNA integrity and nuclear maturation.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the function of the SP3111 protein in fertilization and early embryo development through in vitro fertilization (IVF) experiments following anti-SP111 antibody (Ab2438) blocking.
Sperm samples collected from male mice were divided into an experimental, a blank control and a negative control group before IVF. The sperm of the experimental group was incubated with Ab2438 for 1 h followed by IVF and observed for the rates of fertilization and embryo fragmentation at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 22 h. Then the fertilized eggs were incubated with Ab2438, and the rates of fertilization embryo fragmentation were observed at 22 h.
After the sperm was incubated with Ab2438, the incidences of embryo fragmentation were 5.26, 8.77, 23.25, 43.42 and 59.21% at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 22 h, respectively, with significant differences from the control groups (P < 0.01). After 22 h Ab2438 incubation of the fertilized eggs, the rates of normal and fragmented embryos of the experimental group were 23.64 and 63.64%, respectively, significantly different from those of the control groups (P < 0.01).
Anti-SP3111 antibodies remarkably affected fertilization and early embryo development in mice. The SP3111 protein may be a signal molecule and plays a role in fertilization and early embryo development together with other proteins. Further studies on the function of the SP3111 protein in reproduction may offer a new insight into the molecular mechanism of infertility.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthenozoospermia (AS) is a common cause of human male infertility. In one study, more than 80% of the samples from infertile men had reduced sperm motility. Seminal plasma is a mixture of secretions from the testis, epididymis and several male accessory glands, including the prostate, seminal vesicles and Cowper's gland. Studies have shown that seminal plasma contains proteins that are important for sperm motility. To further explore the pathophysiological character of AS, we separated the seminal plasma proteins from AS patients and healthy donors using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in-gel digestion, and then subjected the proteins to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. A total of 741 proteins were identified in the seminal plasma, with a false discovery rate of 3.3%. Using spectral counting, we found that 45 proteins were threefold upregulated and 56 proteins were threefold downregulated in the AS group when compared with the control. Most of these proteins originated from the epididymis and prostate. This study identified a rich source of biomarker candidates for male infertility and indicates that functional abnormalities of the epididymis and prostate can contribute to AS. We identified DJ-1-a protein that has been shown elsewhere to be involved in the control of oxidative stress (OS)-as a downregulated protein in AS seminal plasma. The levels of DJ-1 in AS seminal plasma were about half of those in the control samples. In addition, the levels of reactive oxygen species were 3.3-fold higher in the AS samples than in the controls. Taken together, these data suggest that downregulation of DJ-1 is involved in OS in semen, and therefore affects the quality of the semen.
Preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Asian Journal of Andrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The existence of RNA has been confirmed in human mature sperm, including mRNA and some members of the microRNA family. Different expressions of sperm mRNA have been found to be correlated with sperm motility and male reproduction. Some sperm specific mRNA and microNA play important roles in the regulation of sperm-oocyte fusion and early embryogenesis. Many published results indicate the variety of sperm RNA in composition and quantity as well as its indispensability for embryogenesis. Further researches on the function of sperm RNA will promote the progress in such fields as male infertility, human assisted reproduction technology and nuclear transfer.
No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) on embryo implantation in mice with a view to identifying whether it might be a suitable agent for postcoital contraception.
The anti-implantation efficacy of AEBSF was determined by counting the number of visible implanted embryos on Day 8 of pregnancy following a single intrauterine injection of AEBSF at doses of 30, 300 and 3000 microg per mouse uterine horn on Day 3 of pregnancy. The reversibility of the inhibitory effect of AEBSF on implantation was further evaluated by observing the outcome of a subsequent pregnancy without AEBSF treatment.
A dose-dependent inhibitory effect of AEBSF on embryo implantation in vivo was observed. Morphological analysis revealed no significant cytotoxicity of AEBSF on the mouse uterine epithelia. Furthermore, the anti-implantation effect of AEBSF was reversible.
Intrauterine administration of AEBSF at an appropriate dose might provide a basis for the development of novel contraception.