Elena Riera

University of the Balearic Islands, Palma, Balearic Islands, Spain

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Publications (5)22.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection has gained importance in recent years as a result of the rapid spread of epidemic strains, including hypervirulent strains and strains with reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials. The molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of C. difficile in the reference hospital of the Balearic Islands (Spain) is reported in this study. One hundred isolates of toxigenic C. difficile from different patients were selected using rapid dual EIA screening test. All isolates were characterized through toxin profile, PCR ribotyping and, in addition, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on fifty selected strains. MICs to metronidazole, vancomycin, erythromycin and moxifloxacin were also determined. A total of 43 different ribotypes were distinguished, with higher prevalence of ribotype 014 (34%). Twenty one per cent of the isolates expressed binary toxin and it is noteworthy that 62% of these were identified as the hypervirulent ribotype 078, the second most prevalent ribotype found in our hospital (13%). A total of 20 different sequence types (STs) were found, including a new described allele and ST. MLST data showed a clear concordance between some ribotypes and STs, mainly represented by ribotype 014/ST-2, ribotype 078/ST-11 and ribotype 001/ST-3. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed that most of the isolates were genetically related, forming a large clonal complex. Finally, ribotypes 078 (ST-11) and 001 (ST-3) were associated with higher resistance to erythromycin and to erythromycin and moxifloxacin, respectively. All these data suggest that the combination of ribotyping and MLST is a good tool for the surveillance of the changing epidemiology of C. difficile. A wide dissemination of clones has been observed in our setting, ribotype 014 (ST-2) being the most prevalent followed by the hypervirulent ribotype 078 (ST-11) and ribotype 001 (ST-3), their spread in our setting probably influenced by their higher resistance.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · International journal of medical microbiology: IJMM
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    ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was described in 1978 and soon became recognized as the main complication of antimicrobial use.…
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: During the COMParative Activity of Carbapenems Testing (COMPACT) surveillance study, 448 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates were obtained from 16 Spanish hospitals. Nonsusceptibility (EUCAST breakpoints) to imipenem (35%), meropenem (33%), and/or doripenem (33%) was observed with 175 isolates (39%). Simultaneous resistance to these three drugs was observed with 126 of the 175 isolates (72%). Except for colistin, high resistance rates were observed among noncarbapenem antibiotics. Clonal relatedness was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SpeI, discriminating 68 patterns. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on 84 isolates representing different PFGE types and all participating hospitals. Thirty-nine sequence types (STs) could be distinguished, and of these, ST175 (48 isolates, 10 hospitals), ST646 (16 isolates, 4 hospitals), ST532 (13 isolates, 3 hospitals), and ST111 (13 isolates, 7 hospitals) were the most frequently encountered. Minimum-spanning tree analysis confirmed a wide dissemination of different clones among participant hospitals, particularly ST175. PFGE pattern comparison within the four most frequent STs revealed that ST175 isolates were relatively uniform, while ST646, ST532, and ST111 isolates were highly diverse, with almost every isolate belonging to a unique pulsotype, even when originating from the same center. The population of carbapenem-nonsusceptible P. aeruginosa isolates from 16 hospitals is highly diverse, with one ST (ST175) representing a highly conserved clone disseminated in 10 of the 16 participant hospitals. This ST175 clone should be added to the list of P. aeruginosa clones at high risk for epidemic spread, such as the Liverpool, Manchester, and Melbourne clones previously found in cystic fibrosis patients and ST235 in the nosocomial setting.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of clinical microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in the 175 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates (39%; 175/448) showing non-susceptibility (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing breakpoints) to imipenem (35%), meropenem (33%) and/or doripenem (33%) recovered in 2008-09 from 16 Spanish hospitals during the Comparative Activity of Carbapenem Testing (COMPACT) surveillance study. MICs (Etest), clonal relatedness (PFGE) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production (Etest-MBL, PCR and sequencing) were determined. Mutation-driven resistance was studied in 60 non-MBL producers according to the doripenem MICs (15 isolates from each of four MIC groups: ≤ 1, 2-4, 8-16 and ≥ 32 mg/L). The expression of ampC, mexB, mexY, mexD and mexF was determined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and the presence of mutations in oprD by PCR and sequencing. Isogenic mutants expressing combinations of mutation-driven carbapenem resistance were constructed. Twelve (6.9%) isolates were MBL (VIM-20, VIM-2 or VIM-13) producers and all showed high-level resistance (MIC 32 mg/L) to all three carbapenems. Regarding mutation-driven resistance, all but 1 of the 60 isolates were non-susceptible (MIC >32 mg/L) to imipenem, linked to oprD inactivation. In addition, 50% of the isolates overexpressed ampC, 33% mexY, 32% mexB and 15% mexF, while none overexpressed mexD. Increasing prevalence of ampC overexpression correlated with increasing doripenem MICs (≤ 1, 13%; 2-4, 53%; 8-16, 60%; and ≥ 32, 73%) while overexpression of efflux pumps correlated only with moderate resistance. Doripenem showed slightly higher activity than meropenem against isolates overexpressing ampC, especially mexB or mexY. The analysis of a collection of isogenic laboratory mutants supported this finding. Although the prevalence of MBL producers is increasing, mutation-driven resistance is still more frequent in Spain. Imipenem resistance was driven by OprD inactivation, while additional AmpC and particularly efflux pump hyperproduction had a lower impact on the activity of doripenem compared with meropenem.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Biofilm growth, mucoid phenotype and proficient resistance development by hypermutable strains dramatically limit the efficacy of current therapies for Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic respiratory infection (CRI) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We evaluated the activity of the new cephalosporin CXA-101, ceftazidime, meropenem and ciprofloxacin against biofilms of wild-type PAO1 and its mucoid (mucA), hypermutable (mutS) and mucoid-hypermutable derivatives, and analysed the capacity of these strains to develop resistance during planktonic and biofilm growth. MICs and MBCs were determined by microdilution, and mutant frequencies were determined at 4x and 16x the MICs. Biofilms were formed using a modified Calgary device and were incubated for 24 h with 0x, 1x, 4x or 16x the MIC of each antibiotic. Biofilms were plated, and total cells and resistant mutants enumerated. CXA-101 showed concentration-independent biofilm bactericidal activity, being the most potent agent tested at 1x the MIC for wild-type, mucoid and hypermutable strains. The spontaneous mutant frequencies for CXA-101 were extremely low (<5 x 10(-11)), even for the hypermutable strain at low concentrations (4x the MIC), in sharp contrast to the other antipseudomonal agents. Accordingly, mutants resistant to 4x the MIC of CXA-101 did not emerge in biofilms for any of the strains/concentrations tested. These data strongly suggest that resistance to CXA-101 (at least 4x the MIC) cannot be driven by single-step mutations, either in planktonic or in biofilm growth. CXA-101 shows encouraging properties for the treatment of CRI by P. aeruginosa, which need to be further evaluated in animal models and pertinent clinical trials.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Publication Stats

128 Citations
22.71 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • University of the Balearic Islands
      Palma, Balearic Islands, Spain
  • 2011-2012
    • Hospital Universitari Son Espases
      • Department of Microbiology
      Palma, Balearic Islands, Spain
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • Department of Medical Microbiology
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2010
    • Institute of Food Science Research
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain