[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the field of muscular dystrophy, striated muscle function is often assessed in vitro in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice in order to test the impact of a potential treatment strategy. Although many past studies have assessed diaphragm contractile function at or near room temperature, the diaphragm performs in vivo at 37°C. To improve translation of bench-top results to possible clinical application, we studied temperature-dependence of contractile performance in wild-type (C57BL/10) and mdx muscle strips at temperatures from 25°C to 37°C. Maximal tetanic force in wild-type muscles was higher at 37°C (198 ± 11 vs. 155 ± 9 mN/mm(2) at 25°C), while the difference between wild-type and mdx was extremely similar: wild-type muscles produced 45.9% and 45.1% more force at 25°C and 37°C respectively. At 37°C twitch contraction kinetics and 50% rise time to tetanic plateau were slower in mdx diaphragm. A fatigue/injury protocol indicated 2-fold fatigue/contraction-induced force deficit in mdx muscles. We conclude that assessment of diaphragm muscle strips can be reliably and reproducibly performed at 37°C.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Frontiers in Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nearly universal cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) contributes to heart failure and death. Because DMD patients show myocardial fibrosis well before functional impairment, we postulated that earlier treatment using drugs with antifibrotic effect may be beneficial.
Three groups of 10 utrn(+/-);mdx, or "het" mice, deficient for dystrophin and haploinsufficient for utrophin with skeletal myopathy and cardiomyopathy that closely mimics clinical DMD were studied. One het group received spironolactone and lisinopril starting at 8 weeks of life (het-treated-8); a second received the same starting at 4 weeks of life (het-treated-4), and the third het group was untreated. At 20 weeks, all mice had normal ejection fractions though circumferential strain rate was abnormal (-0.21±0.08) in untreated hets. This improved to -0.40±0.07 in het-treated-8 mice (P=0.003) and further improved to -0.56±0.10 in het-treated-4 mice (P=0.014 for het-treated-4 versus het-treated-8). Treated mice showed less cardiomyocyte damage, with a 44% reduction in intracardiomyocyte serum immunoglobulin G localization in het-treated-8 mice (P<0.0001) and a further 53% reduction in het-treated-4 mice (P=0.0003 versus het-treated-8); matrix metalloproteinases were similarly reduced. Cardiac, limb, and diaphragm function by ex vivo muscle testing remained at 80% of normal with early treatment compared to a decline to 40% of normal skeletal muscle function without treatment.
These findings offer clinically available medications with proven antifibrotic effect as a new therapeutic strategy in DMD. Early initiation greatly attenuated myocardial disease and, for the first time with these drugs, improved skeletal myopathy. Thus, early initiation of such agents warrants further clinical evaluation to maintain ambulatory, respiratory, and cardiac function for patients with DMD and related myopathies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chronic treatment with the beta 2 adrenergic receptor agonist clenbuterol on endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in a well-characterized model of heart failure, the muscle LIM protein knockout (MLP(-/-)) mouse. MLP(-/-) mice were treated daily with clenbuterol (2 mg/kg) or saline subcutaneously for 6 weeks. Clenbuterol led to a 30% increase in CD31(+) cells in the bone marrow of MLP(-/-) heart failure mice (p < 0.004). Clenbuterol did not improve ejection fraction. Clenbuterol treatment in MLP(-/-) mice was associated with significant changes in the following circulating factors: tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-type 1, leukemia inhibitory factor 1, C-reactive protein, apolipoprotein A1, fibroblast growth factor 2, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, macrophage-derived chemokine, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-3. Clenbuterol treatment in the MLP(-/-) model of heart failure did not rescue heart function, yet did increase CD31(+) cells in the bone marrow. This is the first evidence that a beta 2 agonist increases EPC proliferation in the bone marrow in a preclinical model of heart failure.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research