[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data on clinical, mycologic characteristics, and outcome of posttraumatic mucormycosis are scarce and often limited to case reports. From the French nationwide "RetroZygo" study, we compared posttraumatic mucormycosis cases with other forms of mucormycosis. We also reviewed reports of posttraumatic mucormycosis in the English-language literature from 1993 to 2013. We included all proven or probable cases for which underlying condition, route of infection, surgical and antifungal treatments, and outcome were detailed. From our cohort, posttraumatic mucormycosis (n = 16) differed significantly from other forms (n = 85) by rarity of underlying disease (31.2% vs 81%, p < 0.0001), frequency of cutaneous localization (87% vs 7%, p < 0.0001), short time before diagnosis (4.5 vs 21 d, p = 0.0002), species involved (Apophysomyces elegans complex and Saksenaea vasiformis), surgical requirement (93.7% vs 47%, p = 0.0006) and better survival (87.5% vs 47.6% at day 90, p = 0.03). We studied 122 cases of posttraumatic mucormycosis through our literature review. Most frequently reported traumas were traffic (37%), domestic accidents (15.1%), or natural disasters (13.4%). Mucormycosis occurred after extensive soft-tissue damage in 47.5% cases, with symptoms occurring a median of 9.5 days after trauma with necrosis being reported in 76.2% cases. Dissemination was found in 9% of patients, and bacterial coinfection in 41%. Nineteen percent of cases occurred in the Middle East or in India where Apophysomyces elegans complex was the predominant species recovered. Awareness of mucormycosis as a cause of posttrauma soft-tissue infection is warranted, especially in cases of soil-contaminated wounds. Survival is higher than in other forms of mucormycosis, but morbidity remains high.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maxillofacial trauma caused by severe ballistic injuries requires many steps of reconstruction and is often associated with disappointing results. The authors report on two clinical cases of facial allografting.
After a preclinical anatomical study of 10 fresh cadavers, the authors performed allotransplantation of the lower two-thirds of the face in two patients in March and August of 2009. The grafts included all perioral muscles, facial nerves, parotid glands, the anterior region of the maxilla, and part of the mandible. The mandibular osteotomy included only the chin in one case, and the mandibular arch from one angle to the other in the second case.
The cadaveric study confirmed that relying only on the anastomoses between the facial and the maxillary artery for vascularization of the posterior part of the maxilla was unsafe. Periosteal vascularization seemed essential. The clinical results confirmed that complete revascularization from a single facial pedicle was possible: the first end-to-end arterial anastomosis to the left external carotid artery was sufficient for full perioperative revascularization of the flap and immediate reestablishment of bilateral venous flow. The facial appearance of both recipients improved gradually, with the development of changes in expression and the appearance of nasolabial folds. Preoperatively placed gastrostomies and tracheostomies were able to be removed in both patients within 6 weeks postoperatively. The procurement part of the operation was performed in 7 hours.
Partial facial composite tissue allotransplantation of the lower two-thirds of the face along with parts of the maxilla and mandible (chin or entire-toothed mandible) is technically feasible, with a good cosmetic and functional outcome in typical cases of attempted suicide with rifles.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors report the technical difficulties involved in the procurement of a total human face graft for allotransplantation.
After completing a preclinical study that involved 13 fresh cadavers, the authors harvested a total face graft for allotransplantation onto a patient in April of 2009. The harvested tissue specimen included the entire face along with the scalp and the auricles. The authors then removed the unnecessary parts, specifically, the lips and the skin overlying the chin.
The preclinical study and clinical results confirmed that complete revascularization of a total face graft, complete with the scalp and auricles, from a single external carotid vascular pedicle was possible. All dissections were completed in less than 6 hours during the preclinical study. Graft procurement for the clinical case took 11 hours. Facial soft tissues were harvested en bloc to decrease graft harvest time and prevent tissue injury. A resin mask that covered the entire face of the donor provided excellent cosmetic results. All nerves and eyelid structures were easily reattached. One month after transplantation, skin necrosis necessitated several stages of excision. Biopsy specimens from the transplanted tissue were negative for immune-mediated rejection. Unfortunately, the patient experienced a cardiac arrest during follow-up surgery and died 2 months after the transplant procedure.
A composite tissue allotransplantation of the total face along with the scalp and the auricles is technically feasible. The authors' flap provided reliable vascularization and was obtained in a standardized fashion in less than 11 hours. The graft contained all of the perioral muscles, branches of the facial nerve, eyelid structures, and major salivary glands.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery