- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously we showed that expansion of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) into the internal capsule greatly aggravated neurological symptoms in mice. Here we examined ICH-associated events in the internal capsule with relation to neurological dysfunction. Corticospinal axons labeled by biotinylated dextran amine exhibited fragmented appearance after ICH induced by local injection of collagenase into the internal capsule. Fragmentation of axonal structures was confirmed by neurofilament-H immunostaining, which was evident from 6h after induction of ICH. We also observed accumulation of amyloid precursor protein, which indicated compromised axonal transport, from 3h after induction of ICH. The early defect in axonal transport was accompanied by a robust decline in motor performance. Local application of an axonal transport inhibitor colchicine to the internal capsule induced a prompt decline in motor performance, suggesting that compromised axonal transport is closely associated with early neurological dysfunction in ICH. Arrest of axonal transport and fragmentation of axonal structures were also induced by local injection of thrombin, but not by thrombin receptor activator peptide-6, a protease-activated receptor-1 agonist. These results suggest that receptor-independent actions of thrombin mediate disruption of structure and function of axons by hemorrhage expansion into the internal capsule, which leads to severe neurological dysfunction.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that a synthetic retinoic acid receptor agonist, Am80, attenuated intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced neuropathological changes and neurological dysfunction. Because inflammatory events are among the prominent features of ICH pathology that are affected by Am80, this study investigated the potential involvement of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the effect of Am80 on ICH. ICH induced by collagenase injection into mouse striatum caused prominent upregulation of mRNAs for interleukin (IL)−1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, CXCL1, CXCL2, and CCL3. We found that dexamethasone (DEX) and Am80 differently modulated the increase in expression of these cytokines/chemokines; TNF-α expression was attenuated only by DEX, whereas CXCL2 expression was attenuated only by Am80. Expression of IL-1β and IL-6 was inhibited both by DEX and Am80. Neurological assessments revealed that Am80, but not DEX, significantly alleviated motor dysfunction of mice after ICH. From these results, we suspected that CXCL2 might be critically involved in determining the extent of motor dysfunction. Indeed, magnetic resonance imaging-based classification of ICH in individual mice revealed that invasion of hematoma into the internal capsule, which has been shown to cause severe neurological disabilities, was associated with higher levels of CXCL2 expression than ICH without internal capsule invasion. Moreover, a CXCR1/2 antagonist reparixin ameliorated neurological deficits after ICH. Overall, suppression of CXCL2 expression may contribute to the beneficial effect of Am80 as a therapeutic agent for ICH, and interruption of CXCL2 signaling may provide a promising target for ICH therapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is featured by poor prognosis such as high mortality rate and severe neurological dysfunction. In humans, several valuables including hematoma volume and ventricular expansion of hemorrhage are known to correlate with the extent of mortality and neurological dysfunction. However, relationship between hematoma conditions and the severity of symptoms in animal ICH models has not been clarified. Here we addressed this issue by using 7-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on collagenase-induced ICH model in mice. We found that the mortality rate and the performance in behavioral tests did not correlate well with the volume of hematoma. In contrast, when hemorrhage invaded the internal capsule, mice exhibited high mortality and showed poor sensorimotor performance. High mortality rate and poor performance in behavioral tests were also observed when hemorrhage invaded the lateral ventricle, although worsened symptoms associated with ventricular hemorrhage were apparent only during early phase of the disease. These results clearly indicate that invasion of the internal capsule or the lateral ventricle by hematoma is a critical determinant of poor prognosis in experimental ICH model in mice as well as in human ICH patients. MRI assessment may be a powerful tool to refine investigations of pathogenic mechanisms and evaluations of drug effects in animal models of ICH.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have demonstrated previously that nicotine affords neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects against intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-associated neuropathological changes. The present study was undertaken to clarify whether subtype-specific agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) could preserve tissue integrity in mouse ICH model in vivo. ICH was induced by unilateral injection of collagenase into the striatum of male C57BL/6 mice. Daily intraperitoneal injection of α7 nAChR agonist PNU-282987 (3-10mg/kg) for 3 days, starting from 3h after induction of ICH, significantly increased the number of surviving neurons in the central and the peripheral regions of hematoma at 3 days after ICH. In contrast, α4β2 nAChR agonist RJR-2403 (2-10 mg/kg) given in the same regimen showed no significant effect. PNU-282987 and RJR-2403 did not affect either the size of hemorrhage or the extent of brain edema associated with ICH. PNU-282987 decreased the number of activated microglia/macrophages accumulating in the perihematoma region at 3 days after ICH, in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, the number of microglia/macrophages in the central region of hematoma at early phase of pathology (6 h after ICH) was increased by 10mg/kg PNU-282987. These results suggest that α7 nAChR agonist can provide neuroprotective effect on ICH-induced injury, independently of its anti-inflammatory actions.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently proposed that retinoic acid receptor (NR1B) is a promising target of neuroprotective therapy for intracerebral hemorrhage, since pretreatment of mice with an NR1B1/NR1B2 agonist Am80 attenuated various pathological and neurological abnormalities associated with the disease. In the present study we further addressed the effects of retinoids as potential therapeutic drugs, using a collagenase-induced model of intracerebral hemorrhage. Daily oral administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA; 5 and 15 mg/kg), a naturally occurring NR1B agonist, from 1 day before collagenase injection significantly inhibited loss of neurons within the hematoma. ATRA in the same treatment regimen also decreased the number of activated microglia/macrophages around the hematoma but did not affect the hematoma volume. ATRA (15 mg/kg) as well as Am80 (5mg/kg) rescued neurons in the central region of hematoma, even when drug administration was started from 6h after induction of intracerebral hemorrhage. However, in this post-treatment regimen, only Am80 significantly decreased the number of activated microglia/macrophages. With regard to neurological deficits, both ATRA (15 mg/kg) and Am80 (5mg/kg) given in the post-treatment regimen improved performance of mice in the beam-walking test and the modified limb-placing test. ATRA and Am80 also significantly attenuated damage of axon tracts as revealed by amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemistry. These results underscore potential therapeutic values of NR1B agonists for intracerebral hemorrhage.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) resulting from the leakage of blood into the brain parenchyma triggers severe tissue damage involving neurodegeneration and inflammation. Increasing lines of evidence indicate that the stimulation of central nicotinic acetylcholine receptors affords neuroprotection against various insults and also suppresses the proinflammatory activation of microglia. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether the administration of nicotine modifies the pathological consequences of ICH, using a mouse model of ICH induced by intrastriatal injection of collagenase. Daily intraperitoneal administration of nicotine (2 mg/kg), starting from 3 h after the induction of ICH, inhibited apoptosis and decreased the number of remaining striatal neurons at 3 days after the insult. We also found that nicotine administration increased the relative expression level of the antiapoptotic protein B cell lymphoma-2 versus that of the proapoptotic protein Bax in the brain. In addition, nicotine administration attenuated the activation of microglia/macrophages, infiltration of neutrophils, and increases in oxidative stress associated with ICH, without affecting hematoma expansion and brain edema. It is noteworthy that mice treated with nicotine exhibited improved sensorimotor performance and a marked increase in survival rate after ICH. These results indicate that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may serve as a novel target for emergency therapy for ICH.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Am80 (tamibarotene) is a retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonist clinically available for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. As intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accompanies inflammatory reactions in the brain and also because retinoids may suppress activation of microglia, we investigated the effect of Am80 on collagenase-induced experimental model of ICH in adult mice. Daily oral administration of Am80 (5 mg/kg) starting from 1 day before or from up to 6 hours after intrastriatal injection of collagenase significantly inhibited the decrease in the number of striatal neurons at 3 days after the insult. Am80 showed no significant effect on the hematoma size and the extent of edema associated with hemorrhage. Prominent expression of RARα was observed in activated microglia/macrophages, and the number of activated microglia/macrophages in the perihematoma region was lower in Am80-treated mice than in vehicle-treated mice. Am80 treatment also reduced areas affected by hemorrhage-associated oxidative stress as indicated by nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity, and attenuated heme oxygenase-1 expression in activated microglia/macrophages. Moreover, Am80-treated mice exhibited better recovery from hemorrhage-induced neurologic deficits than vehicle-treated mice. These results suggest that RAR is a promising target of neuroprotective therapy for ICH.
Kumamoto, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan
- Department of Chemico-Pharmacological Sciences