[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the emergency department (ED), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used as a rescue treatment modality for patients with refractory circulatory and/or respiratory failure. Serious consideration must be given to the indication, and the PRESERVE and RESP scores for mortality have been investigated. However these scores were validated to predict survival in patients who received mainly veno-venous (VV) ECMO in the intensive care unit. The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that predicted the outcomes for patients who received mixed mode (veno-arterial [VA] and VV) ECMO support in the ED.
This single center retrospective study included 65 patients who received ECMO support at the ED for circulatory or respiratory failure between January 2009 and December 2013. Pre-ECMO SAPS II and other variables were evaluated and compared for predicting mortality.
Fifty-four percent of patients received ECMO-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR), 31 % received VA and V-AV ECMO, and 15 % received VV ECMO. The 28-day and 60-month mortality rates were 52 % and 63 %. In the multivariate analysis, only the pre-ECMO Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) (odd ratio: 1.189, 95 % confidence interval: 1.032-1.370, p = 0.016) could predict the 28-day mortality. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the optimal cutoff value for pre-ECMO SAPS II in predicting 28-day mortality was 0.852 (95 % CI: 0.753-0.951, p < 0.001) and 80 (sensitivity of 97.1 % and specificity of 71.0 %), respectively. Validation of the 80 cutoff value revealed a statistically significant difference for the 28-day and 60-month mortality rates in the overall, E-CPR, and VA groups (28-day: p < 0.001, p = 0.004, p = 0.005; 60-month: p < 0.001, p = 0.004, p = 0.020). In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the 28-day and 60-month survival rates were lower among the patients with a pre-ECMO SAPS II of ≤80, compared to those with a score of >80 (both, p < 0.001).
The pre-ECMO SAPS II could be helpful for identifying patients with refractory acute circulatory and/or respiratory failure who will respond to ECMO support in the ED.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sedative effect of dexmedetomidine (DEX) added to ropivacaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block (BPB) using the bispectral index (BIS).
Sixty patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2, aged 20-65 years) undergoing wrist and hand surgery under supraclavicular BPB were randomly allocated to two groups. Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular BPB was performed with 40 ml of ropivacaine 0.5% and 1 µg/kg of DEX (Group RD) or 0.01 ml/kg of normal saline (Group R). The primary endpoint was the BIS change during 60 min after block. The secondary endpoint was the change in the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and SpO2 and the onset time and duration of the sensory and motor block.
In Group RD, the BIS decreased significantly until 30 min after the block (69.2 ± 13.7), but remained relatively constant to 60 min (63.8 ± 15.3). The MAP, HR and BIS were significantly decreased compared with Group R. The onset time of the sensory and motor block were significantly faster in Group RD than in Group R. The duration of the sensory and motor block were significantly increased in Group RD.
DEX added to ropivacaine for brachial plexus block induced sedation that corresponds to a BIS value of 60 from which patients are easily awakened in a lucid state. In addition, perineural DEX shortened the onset time and prolonged the duration of the sensory and motor blocks.
Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Korean journal of anesthesiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate our institutional experience with veno-venous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with severe acute respiratory failure (ARF).
From January 2007 to August 2013, 31 patients with severe ARF that was due to various causes and refractory to mechanical ventilation with conventional therapy were supported with VV ECMO. A partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO₂)/inspired fraction of oxygen (FiO₂) <100 mm Hg at an FiO₂ of 1.0 or a pH <7.25 due to CO₂ retention were set as criteria for VV ECMO.
Overall, 68% of patients survived among those who had received VV ECMO with a mean PaO₂/FiO₂ of 56.8 mm Hg. Furthermore, in trauma patients, early use of ECMO had the best outcome with a 94% survival rate.
VV ECMO is an excellent, life-saving treatment option in patients suffering from acute and life-threatening respiratory failure due to various causes, especially trauma, and early use of VV ECMO therapy improved outcomes in these patients.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Yonsei Medical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tracheobronchial injury is uncommon in children, but may result in life-threatening conditions. We present a case of transection of the right intermediate bronchus, right middle lobe bronchus and right lower lobe bronchus in a 28-month-old child with blunt chest injury. The gold standard for diagnosis is tracheobronchoscopy, however, the bronchoscopy may not always be available for little children. For diagnosis in similar cases, a high index of suspicion should be needed based on symptoms, chest X-ray and computed tomography findings. In addition, anesthesiologists should be aware of this dangerous condition and must be fully prepared for rapid and appropriate management during operation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the results of ultrasonographically guided axillary nerve block (ANB) combined with suprascapular nerve block (SSNB) with those of SSNB alone on postoperative pain and satisfaction within the first 48 hours after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Methods: Forty-two patients with rotator cuff tears who had undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were enrolled in this study. Among them, 21 patients were randomly allocated to group 1 and received both SSNB and ANB with 10 mL ropivacaine. The other 21 patients were allocated to group 2 and received SSNB with 10 mL 0.75% ropivacaine and ANB with 10 mL saline. Visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, patient satisfaction (SAT), and lateral pain index (LPI) was checked at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 hours postoperatively. Results: Group 1 showed a significantly lower mean VAS score at postoperative 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours compared with group 2 (5.1 < 7.6, 4.4 < 6.3, 3.7 < 5.3, 3.2 < 4.5, 2.7 < 4.0, and 2.7 < 3.4, respectively). A significantly high mean SAT and low mean LPI was observed in group 1 at postoperative 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 hours (4.9 > 2.4, 5.9 > 3.7, 6.3 > 5.0, 6.8 > 5.7, 7.3 > 6.2, 7.5 > 6.6, and 7.7 > 7.0, respectively), (1.1 < 3.0, 0.8 < 2.5, 0.7 < 2.0, 0.7 < 1.6, 0.6 < 1.3, 0.6 < 1.0, and 0.4 < 0.7, respectively). The frequency of rebound pain decreased in group 1 compared with group 2 (P.032). In addition, rebound phenomenon showed a correlation with ANB on univariate logistic regression (P.034; odds ratio, 0.246). Conclusions: Ultrasonographically guided ANB combined with SSNB in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair showed an improved mean VAS in the first 24 hours after surgery compared with SSNB alone. The mean SAT and LPI of the combined blocks were better than those of the single block within the first 36 hours. Ultrasonographically guided ANB combined with SSNB also decreased the rebound phenomenon.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-type calcium channels (T-channels) play an important role in controlling excitability of nociceptors. We have previously shown that a synthetic series of 5β-reduced steroids induce a voltage-dependent blockade of T-currents in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells in vitro and induce potent analgesia to thermal stimuli in rats in vivo (Mol Pharmacol 66:1223-1235, 2004).
Here, we investigated the effects of the endogenous 5β-reduced neuroactive steroid molecule, epipregnanolone [(3β,5β)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one], on peripheral nociception.
We used acutely dissociated DRG cells in vitro from adult rats as well as in vivo pain studies in mice and rats to investigate the effects of epipregnanolone on DRG T-channels.
We found that epipregnanolone reversibly blocked DRG T-currents with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2 μM and stabilized the channel in the inactive state. However, sodium, potassium, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated ionic currents were not sensitive to the blocking effects of epipregnanolone even at 10 μM. In ensuing in vivo studies, we found that intraplantar (i.pl.) injections of epipregnanolone directly into peripheral receptive fields reduced responses to nociceptive heat stimuli in rats in a dose-dependent fashion. Furthermore, i.pl. epipregnanolone injections effectively reduced responses to peripheral nociceptive thermal and mechanical stimuli in wild-type mice but had no effect on the responses of CaV3.2 knockout mice.
We conclude that the inhibition of peripheral CaV3.2 T-channels contributes to the potent analgesic effect of the endogenous steroid epipregnanolone.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Psychopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently showed that streptozotocin (STZ) injections in rats lead to the development of painful peripheral diabetic neuropathy (PDN) accompanied by enhancement of CaV3.2 T-type calcium currents (T-currents) and hyperexcitability in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Here we used the classical peripherally acting T-channel blocker mibefradil to examine the role of CaV3.2 T-channels as pharmacological targets for treatment of painful PDN. When administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), at clinically relevant doses, mibefradil effectively alleviated heat, cold and mechanical hypersensitivities in STZ-treated diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner. We also found that CaV3.2 antisense (AS)-treated diabetic rats exhibit a significant decrease in painful PDN compared with mismatch antisense (MIS)-treated diabetic rats. Co-treatment with mibefradil (9 mg/kg i.p.) resulted in reversal of heat, cold and mechanical hypersensitivity in MIS-treated but not in AS-treated diabetic rats, suggesting that mibefradil and CaV3.2 AS share the same cellular target. Using patch-clamp recordings from acutely dissociated DRG neurons, we demonstrated that mibefradil similarly blocked T-currents in diabetic and healthy rats in a voltage-dependent manner by stabilizing inactive states of T-channels. We conclude that antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects of mibefradil in PDN are at least partly mediated by inhibition of CaV3.2 channels in peripheral nociceptors. Hence, peripherally acting voltage-dependent T-channel blockers could be very useful in the treatment of painful symptoms of PDN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This prospective study aimed to evaluate the satisfaction of patients who participated in the decision-making process for selecting an anesthesia method for surgery; the patients' preferred role (active, collaborative or passive) in the decision-making; and the patients' preferred choice of anesthetic method. The study included 257 patients scheduled for simple elective surgeries involving the upper or lower extremities. During the preanesthetic visit, patients were informed regarding two methods of anesthesia for their surgeries, and participated in selecting one option. Of the 257 patients, 69.6% preferred a collaborative role, 18.3% and 12.1% preferred an active and a passive role, respectively. Among patients requiring surgery on an upper extremity and on a lower extremity, 64.3% and 51.3% expressed a preference for general anesthesia over regional anesthesia, respectively. After surgery, the majority of our patients were satisfied (93.4%) and felt respected (97.7%). Furthermore, the patients expressed a change in preference for assuming an active role (49.4%) and a collaborative role (43.6%) in the decision-making process for their future anesthesia needs. This study may help to promote patient centered care in a department of anesthesiology.
Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of Korean medical science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) neuromodulation of suprascpaular nerve (SSN) in patients with chronic shoulder pain due to adhesive capsulitis and/or rotator cuff tear.
The study included 11 patients suffering from chronic shoulder pain for at least 6 months who were diagnosed with adhesive capsulitis (n=4), rotator cuff tear (n=5), or adhesive capsulitis+rotator cuff tear (n=2) using shoulder magnetic resonance imaging or extremity ultrasonography. After a favorable response to a diagnostic suprascapular nerve block twice a week (pain improvement >50%), PRF neuromodulation was performed. Shoulder pain and quality of life were assessed using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) before the diagnostic block and every month after PRF neuromodulation over a 9-month period.
The mean VAS score of 11 patients before PRF was 6.4±1.49, and the scores at 6-month and 9 month follow-up were 1.0±0.73 and 1.5±1.23, respectively. A significant pain reduction (p<0.001) was observed. The mean OSS score of 11 patients before PRF was 22.7±8.1, and the scores at 6-month and 9 month follow-up were 41.5±6.65 and 41.0±6.67, respectively. A significant OSS improvement (p<0.001) was observed.
PRF neuromodulation of the suprascapular nerve is an effective treatment for chronic shoulder pain, and the effect was sustained over a relatively long period in patients with medically intractable shoulder pain.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) leading to cardiopulmonary dysfunction is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients with central nervous system lesions. This case report describes a 28-yr woman with life-threatening fulminant NPE, which was refractory to conventional respiratory treatment, following the rupture of an aneurysm. She was treated successfully with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), although ECMO therapy is generally contraindicated in neurological injuries such as brain trauma and diseases that are likely to require surgical intervention. The success of this treatment suggests that ECMO therapy should not be withheld from patients with life-threatening fulminant NPE after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Korean medical science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An airway-exchange catheter (AEC) can increase the safety of exchanges of endotracheal tubes (ETTs); however, the procedure is associated with potential risks. We describe a case of esophageal misplacement of a single-lumen ETT after switching from a double-lumen tube, despite the use of an AEC as a guidewire. To avoid this, physicians should consider the insertion depth and maintenance depth of the AEC and should verify its position before changing ETTs and should perform, if possible, with simultaneous visualization of the glottis with direct or video laryngoscopy during the exchange. Additionally, the new ETT position should be confirmed by auscultation, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and portable chest X-ray.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopy-guided direct suprascapular nerve block performed after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. METHODS: In the present prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical study, 30 patients were divided into two groups: 15 patients (group I) were treated with arthroscopy-guided suprascapular nerve block using 10 mL 0.5 % ropivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine, and 15 patients (group II) were treated with placebo using 10 mL 0.9 % saline after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Patient pain levels were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h post-operatively. Additionally, the number of boluses and total amount of fentanyl dispensed by patient-controlled analgesia administration during the 24-h post-operative period were evaluated. RESULTS: VAS scores did not differ significantly between groups I and II during the 24-h post-operative period, but mean fentanyl bolus consumption was significantly less in group I compared with group II (p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Arthroscopy-guided suprascapular nerve block at the end of a rotator cuff repair was safe and less time-consuming than expected. Although this procedure did not significantly reduce the post-operative pain, the post-operative need for fentanyl boluses as analgesia was reduced significantly, and it would be beneficial if this procedure involved a sensory branch of axillary nerve block or was performed at the beginning of the arthroscopic procedure. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial, Level I.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Dexmedetomidine, a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, has analgesic and sedative effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of small, single-dose intravenous dexmedetomidine administration after hyperbaric bupivacaine spinal anesthesia.
Sixty adult patients classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2 and scheduled for lower extremity surgery under spinal anesthesia were studied. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups and administered hyperbaric intrathecal bupivacaine 12 mg. 5 min after spinal anesthesia, patients in groups 1, 2, and 3 received normal saline 10 ml, dexmedetomidine 0.25 μg/kg, and dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg, respectively, over 10-min intravenous administration. The onset time, maximum block level, two-dermatome sensory regression time, duration of motor and sensory anesthesia, and side effects were assessed.
The two-dermatome sensory regression time was significantly increased in groups 2 and 3. The duration of motor and sensory anesthesia was significantly increased in group 3. Onset time, maximum block level, level of sedation, and incidence of hypotension and treatment-needed bradycardia were no different among the groups.
Single-dose intravenous dexmedetomidine 0.25-0.5 μg/kg, administered 5 min after intrathecal injection of hyperbaric bupivacaine, improved the duration of spinal anesthesia without significant side effects. This method may be useful for increasing the duration of spinal anesthesia, even after intrathecal injection of local anesthetics.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Anesthesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This prospective study evaluated the effects of continuous sedation using midazolam, with or without remifentanil, on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing myringoplasty.
Sixty patients undergoing myringoplasty were sedated with midazolam in the presence of remifentanil (group MR), or after saline injection instead of remifentanil (group M).
Three patients (10%) in group M complained of nausea; two vomited. Four patients (13%) in group MR complained of nausea and vomited within 24 h after surgery. Rescue drugs were given to the six patients who vomited. No significant difference was detected between the two groups regarding the incidence or severity of nausea, incidence of vomiting, or need for rescue drugs.
Midazolam-based continuous sedation can reduce PONV after myringoplasty. Compared with midazolam alone, midazolam with remifentanil produced no difference in the incidence or severity of nausea, incidence of vomiting, or need for rescue drugs.
Preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Yonsei medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a difficult case of tracheostomy in a 34-year-old obese woman with a short neck. The tracheostomy tube placement repeatedly failed because of anatomical changes due to obesity and a short neck, tracheal mucosal swelling due to prolonged intubation, and unexpected false passage; however, it was successfully performed using an endotracheal tube exchanger as a guidewire.
Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Korean journal of anesthesiology