[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increase of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake contributes to the prevention of chronic diseases, but could also significantly increase pesticide exposure and may thus be of health concern. Following a previous pesticide exposure assessment study, the present study was carried out to determine actual levels of pesticides within 400 g of F&V intake and to evaluate consumer risk. Forty-three Active Substances (AS) exceeding 10 % of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) in balanced menus established for our previous theoretical study were considered. Fifty-six pooled food samples were analyzed: 28 fruit samples and 28 vegetable samples. Pesticide values were compared to Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) and to the "toxicological credit" derived from ADI. It was observed that 23 out of the 43 retained AS were never detected, 5 were detected both in F&V samples, 12 only in fruits and 3 only in vegetables. The most frequently detected AS were carbendazim, iprodione and dithiocarbamates. When detected, AS were more frequently found in fruit samples (74 %) than in vegetable samples (26 %). A maximum of 3 AS were detected at once in a given sample. Overall, we observed 8 and 14 overruns of the MRL in 1204 measures in pooled vegetable and fruit samples, respectively (0.7 % and 1.2 % of cases, respectively). Chronic exposure for adults was the highest for dithiocarbamates but did not exceed 23.7 % of the ADI in F&V. It was concluded that raising both F&V consumption up to 400 g/day (~5 F&V/day) according to recommendations of the national health and nutrition plan, does not induce pesticide overexposure and should not represent a risk for the consumer.
Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B Pesticides Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maternal seafood intake is of great health interest since it constitutes an important source of n-3 fatty acids, but provides also an important pathway for fetal exposure to Hg. The objective of the present study was to determine associations between Hg contamination and both maternal seafood consumption and fetal growth in French pregnant women. Pregnant women included in the 'EDEN mother-child' cohort study answered FFQ on their usual diet in the year before and during the last 3 months of pregnancy, from which frequencies of seafood intake were evaluated. Total hair-Hg level was determined for the first 691 included women. Associations between Hg level, seafood intake and several neonatal measurements were studied using linear regressions adjusted for confounding variables. The median Hg level for mothers was 0.52 μg/g. Maternal seafood intake was associated with Hg level (r 0.33; P < 0.0001). There was no association between Hg level and fetal growth in the whole sample of women, except for an early negative relationship with biparietal diameter. A positive association was found between seafood intake and fetal growth in overweight women only which remained unchanged after adjustment for Hg level (birth weight: +101 g for a difference of 1 sd in seafood consumption; P = 0.008). Although seafood intake was associated with Hg contamination in French pregnant women, the contamination level was low. There was no consistent association between Hg level and fetal growth. Taking into account Hg level did not modify associations between seafood intake and fetal growth.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · The British journal of nutrition