Yasumoto Yamasaki

Okayama University, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

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Publications (5)33.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is known to have a cytoprotective role under various cellular stresses; however, it also results in robust cell death as an important safeguard mechanism that protects the organism against invading pathogens and unwanted cancer cells. Autophagy is regulated by cell signalling including microRNA (miRNA), a post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression. Here, we show that genetically engineered telomerase-specific oncolytic adenovirus induced miR-7 expression, which is significantly associated with its cytopathic activity in human cancer cells. Virus-mediated miR-7 upregulation depended on enhanced expression of the E2F1 protein. Ectopic expression of miR-7 suppressed cell viability and induced autophagy by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. Our results suggest that oncolytic adenovirus induces autophagic cell death through an E2F1-miR-7-EGFR pathway in human cancer cells, providing a novel insight into the molecular mechanism of an anticancer virotherapy.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · International Journal of Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Oncolytic viruses engineered to replicate in tumour cells but not in normal cells could be used as tumour-specific vectors carrying the therapeutic genes. We previously developed a telomerase-specific oncolytic adenovirus, OBP-301, that causes cell death in human cancer cells with telomerase activities. Here, we further modified OBP-301 to express the wild-type p53 tumour suppressor gene (OBP-702), and investigated whether OBP-702 induces stronger antitumour activity than OBP-301. The antitumour effect of OBP-702 was compared to that of OBP-301 on OBP-301-sensitive (H358 and H460) and OBP-301-resistant (T.Tn and HSC4) human cancer cells. OBP-702 suppressed the viability of both OBP-301-sensitive and OBP-301-resistant cancer cells more efficiently than OBP-301. OBP-702 caused increased apoptosis compared to OBP-301 or a replication-deficient adenovirus expressing the p53 gene (Ad-p53) in H358 and T.Tn cells. Adenovirus E1A-mediated p21 and MDM2 downregulation was involved in the apoptosis caused by OBP-702. Moreover, OBP-702 significantly suppressed tumour growth in subcutaneous tumour xenograft models compared to monotherapy with OBP-301 or Ad-p53. Our data demonstrated that OBP-702 infection expressed adenovirus E1A and then inhibited p21 and MDM2 expression, which in turn efficiently induced apoptotic cell death. This novel apoptotic mechanism suggests that the p53-expressing OBP-702 is a promising antitumour reagent for human cancer and could improve the clinical outcome.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990)
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    ABSTRACT: The inability to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) leads to radiosensitization, such that ionizing radiation combined with molecular inhibition of cellular DSB processing may greatly affect treatment of human cancer. As a variety of viral products interact with the DNA repair machinery, oncolytic virotherapy may improve the therapeutic window of conventional radiotherapy. Here, we describe the mechanistic basis for synergy of irradiation and OBP-301 (Telomelysin), an attenuated type-5 adenovirus with oncolytic potency that contains the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter to regulate viral replication. OBP-301 infection led to E1B55kDa viral protein expression that degraded the complex formed by Mre11, Rad50, and NBS1, which senses DSBs. Subsequently, the phosphorylation of cellular ataxia-telangiectasia mutated protein was inhibited, disrupting the signaling pathway controlling DNA repair. Thus, tumor cells infected with OBP-301 could be rendered sensitive to ionizing radiation. Moreover, by using noninvasive whole-body imaging, we showed that intratumoral injection of OBP-301 followed by regional irradiation induces a substantial antitumor effect, resulting from tumor cell-specific radiosensitization, in an orthotopic human esophageal cancer xenograft model. These results illustrate the potential of combining oncolytic virotherapy and ionizing radiation as a promising strategy in the management of human cancer.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop a less invasive way of targeting lymph node metastasis for the treatment of human gastrointestinal cancer. Lymphatic invasion is a major route for cancer cell dissemination, and adequate treatment of locoregional lymph nodes is required for curative treatment in patients with malignancies. Human telomerase reverse transcription (hTERT) is the catalytic subunit of telomerase, which is highly active in cancer cells but quiescent in most normal somatic cells. OBP-301 (Telomelysin) is an attenuated adenovirus with oncolytic potency that contains the hTERT promoter element to regulate viral replication. We examined whether OBP-301 injected into the primary tumor might be useful for purging micrometastasis from regional lymph nodes in an orthotopic colorectal cancer model. OBP-301 was intratumorally injected into HT29 tumors orthotopically implanted into the rectum in BALB/c nu/nu mice. By using a highly sensitive quantitative PCR analysis that targets the human-specific Alu sequence, we showed that OBP-301 caused viral spread into the regional lymphatic area and selectively replicated in neoplastic lesions, resulting in tumor-cell-specific death in metastatic lymph nodes. Moreover, although the surgical removal of primary tumors increased the tendency of lymph node metastasis, preoperative intratumoral injection of virus significantly reduced lymph node metastasis. Our results indicate that intratumoral injection of OBP-301 mediates effective in vivo purging of metastatic tumor cells from regional lymph nodes, which may help optimize treatment of human cancer, especially gastrointestinal malignancies.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Annals of surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Multimodal approaches combining drugs that differentially function is the most popular regimen for treating human cancer. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic, potentiative, and antagonistic effects of drug combinations could facilitate the discovery of novel efficacious combinations. We previously showed that telomerase-specific replication-competent adenovirus (Telomelysin, OBP-301), in which the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter controls the adenoviral E1 gene expression, induces a selective antitumor effect in human cancer cells. Here, using E1-deleted replication-deficient adenovirus expressing the p53 tumor suppressor gene (Advexin, Ad-p53) and OBP-301, we investigate how these adenoviruses that kill tumor cells with different mechanisms could work in combination on human cancer. We found that E1-deficient Ad-p53 could kill cancer cells more efficiently in the presence of OBP-301 than Ad-p53 alone or OBP-301 alone, because Ad-p53 could become replication-competent by being supplied adenoviral E1 from coinfected OBP-301 in trans. Ad-p53 plus OBP-301 induced high levels of p53 protein expression without p21 induction, resulting in apoptotic cell death documented by active caspase-3 expression with a cytometric bead array and an increased subdiploid apoptotic fraction of the cell cycle. For in vivo evaluation, nude mice xenografted with human lung tumors received intratumoral injection of OBP-301 and/or Ad-p53. Analysis of the growth of implanted tumors showed an enhanced antitumor effect in combination therapy. Our data show that Ad-p53 in combination with OBP-301 induces not only oncolytic but also apoptotic cancer cell death and enhances antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo, providing potential merits as a multimodal treatment for human cancer.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics