[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue virus (DENV), an emerging pathogen from the Flaviviridae family with neither vaccine nor antiviral treatment available, causes a serious worldwide public health threat. In theory, there are several ways by which small molecules could inhibit the replication cycle of DENV. Here, we show that the nucleoside analogue beta-d-2'-ethynyl-7-deaza-adenosine inhibits representative strains of all four serotypes of DENV with an EC(50) around or below 1microM. Using membrane-associated native replicase complex as well as recombinant RNA polymerase from each DENV serotype in enzymatic assays, we provide evidence that beta-d-2'-ethynyl-7-deaza-adenosine triphosphate (2'E-7D-ATP) targets viral replication at the polymerase active site by competing with the natural nucleotide substrate with an apparent K(i) of 0.060+/-0.016microM. In single-nucleotide incorporation experiments, the catalytic efficiency of 2'E-7D-ATP is 10-fold lower than for natural ATP, and the incorporated nucleotide analogue causes immediate chain termination. A combination of bioinformatics and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrates that 2'E-7D-ATP is equipotent across all serotypes because the nucleotide binding site residues are conserved in dengue virus. Overall, beta-d-2'-ethynyl-7-deaza-adenosine provides a promising scaffold for the development of inhibitors of dengue virus polymerase.
No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Antiviral research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 2 is a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase group of signaling proteins. MAP kinases share a common sequence insertion called "MAP kinase insert", which, for ERK2, has been shown to interact with regulatory proteins and, for p38alpha, has been proposed to be involved in the regulation of catalytic activity. We have determined the crystal structure of human JNK2 complexed with an indazole inhibitor by applying a high-throughput protein engineering and surface-site mutagenesis approach. A novel conformation of the activation loop is observed, which is not compatible with its phosphorylation by upstream kinases. This activation inhibitory conformation of JNK2 is stabilized by the MAP kinase insert that interacts with the activation loop in an induced-fit manner. We therefore suggest that the MAP kinase insert of JNK2 plays a role in the regulation of JNK2 activation, possibly by interacting with intracellular binding partners.
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Journal of Molecular Biology