Hajime Tanida

Kyoto University, Kioto, Kyōto, Japan

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Publications (170)421.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is a promising positive electrode material for lithium ion batteries because it shows a high potential of 4.7 V vs. Li/Li(+). Its charge-discharge reaction includes two consecutive phase transitions between LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (Li1) ↔ Li0.5Ni0.5Mn1.5O4 (Li0.5) and Li0.5 ↔ Ni0.5Mn1.5O4 (Li0) and the complex transition kinetics that governs the rate capability of LNMO can hardly be analyzed by simple electrochemical techniques. Herein, we apply temperature-controlled operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy to directly capture the reacting phases from -20 °C to 40 °C under potential step (chronoamperometric) conditions and evaluate the phase transition kinetics using the apparent first-order rate constants at various temperatures. The constant for the Li1 ↔ Li0.5 transition (process 1) is larger than that for the Li0.5 ↔ Li0 transition (process 2) at all the measured temperatures, and the corresponding activation energies are 29 and 46 kJ mol(-1) for processes 1 and 2, respectively. The results obtained are discussed to elucidate the limiting factor in this system as well as in other electrode systems.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
  • Naoya Nishi · Tomoya Uruga · Hajime Tanida
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    ABSTRACT: The structure at air interface and water (W) interface of a hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL), trioctylmethylammonium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate ([TOMA+][TFPB−]), has been studied using x-ray reflectometry. Multilayering of ions has been found at the IL/air interface, with the topmost ionic layer having lower density than the IL bulk. For the IL/W interface, x-ray reflectivity data depends on the phase-boundary potential across the IL/W interface. When the phase-boundary potential of W with respect to IL, ΔILWϕ, is + 0.20 V, TFPB− ions are accumulated at the topmost ionic layer on the IL side of the IL/W interface. On the other hand, when ΔILWϕ = - 0.27 V, the accumulation of TOMA+ ions occurs with bilayer thickness, which is probably due to local interaction between TOMA+ ions at the topmost layer and at the second layer through interdigitation of their alkyl chains. To quantitatively analyze the x-ray reflectivity data, we construct a model of the electrical double layer (EDL) at the IL/W interface, by combining the Gouy–Chapman–Stern model on the W side and the Oldham model on the IL side. The constructed model predicts that the EDL on the IL side is within the topmost layer for the phase-boundary potentials in the present study, suggesting that the TOMA+ bilayer found at the negative potential results from the local interaction beyond the framework of the present mean-field theory. Even at the positive potential the surface charge density predicted by the EDL theory is significantly smaller than that estimated from x-ray reflectivity data, which implies that densification of the topmost ionic layer leads us to overestimate the surface charge density.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Zinc-based secondary aqueous batteries are promising candidates as innovative batteries for their high energy density and high safety. Their limited cycle life is chiefly due to the morphology changes of the zinc electrode and thus tracking the zinc distribution during electrochemical processes is indispensable for clarifying the deterioration mechanism of the zinc electrode. We here report the zinc distribution near the electrode in a millimeter scale on zinc reduction and oxidation observed by operando X-ray fluorescence imaging with a high time resolution. The zinc dendritic growth and its dissolution behavior is discussed based on the obtained zinc distribution images.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Electrochemistry -Tokyo-
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    ABSTRACT: The phase transition and domain formation of the adsorbed film of two kinds of hybrid alcohols (CF3(CF2)m-1(CH2)nOH ; FmHnOH), 2-perfluoro-octylethanol (F8H2OH) and 2-perfluorohexylhexanol (F6H6OH) mixture at the hexane/water interface was investigated by interfacial tensiometry and X-ray reflection. The interfacial tension γ vs. total molality m curve of pure F8H2OH has a break point at high concentration and thus the mean area per molecule A changes discontinuously at high interfacial pressure π, corresponding to the phase transition between expanded and condensed films. The Fresnel divided reflectivity R⁄RF vs. Qz plots in the expanded state was well fitted by domain model for incoherent interference to determine the interfacial coverage, which is the fraction of the interface covered by condensed phase. This indicates the expanded film is heterogeneous and consists of condensed F8H2OH domain of which size is larger than X-ray coherence length (~5 μm). In the mixed system, the discontinuous change in A at the phase transition point becomes small with increasing the bulk composition of F6H6OH in the mixture X2, and eventually the A value changes continuously, i.e, the phase transition becomes obscure in X2 ≥ 0.6. This behavior was linked to an increase in interfacial coverage with X2. Furthermore, the R⁄RF vs. Qz plot was fitted by domain model for coherent interference, suggesting that the size of the domain is smaller than 5 μm. These results are probably due to the reduction of domain line tension by preferential adsorption of F6H6OH at the F8H2OH domain boundary.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Journal of Physical Chemistry B
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    ABSTRACT: The adsorbed film of n-tetradecylphosphocholine (C14PC) at the tetradecane (C14)/aqueous solution (W) interface was studied by interfacial tensiometry and X-ray reflection (XR). The interfacial tension γ was measured as a function of molality mC14PC and temperature T under atmospheric pressure. The interfacial density of C14PC ΓC14PCH increases with increasing mC14PC and converges into 3μmolm-2 (first saturation) at mC14PC≈0.08mmolkg-1 and into 4.2μmolm-2 (second saturation) at the critical micelle concentration (CMC). The electron density profile determined by XR indicated that C14PC molecules form monolayer with relatively loose packing at the first saturation. In the second saturation, on the other hand, the molecules form bilayer in which charge separated phosphocholine groups take upside-down arrangement to interact attractively between neighbors. The positive entropy changes associated with adsorption both from monomeric and from micellar states result from that the contribution of dehydration around C14PC molecules, especially around PC groups, by the adsorption from aqueous solution overcomes that of a comparatively ordered molecular orientation at the interface. By comparing the results at the C14/W interface with those at the Air (A)/W one, it was shown that in the monolayer and bilayer states, hydrophobic chains of C14PC molecules are more ordered at the C14/W than at the A/W interface because of attractive interaction between C14PC and C14 molecules. This leads to smaller value of the partial molar entropy and energy changes associated with the adsorption at the C14/W than at the A/W interface. Furthermore the entropy of micelle formation changes from positive to negative with increasing T, suggesting that the entropy gain due to the dehydration exceeds the entropy loss by the aggregation at low temperatures, while the gain is less than the loss at high temperature.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Colloids and Surfaces A Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects
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    ABSTRACT: The lifetime of a lithium-ion battery is often affected by deterioration of the positive electrode. It is well known that the deterioration of the positive electrode can be reduced by electrolyte additives; however, the mechanism underlying this improvement needs to be clarified. In this study, we investigate the electronic structure at the electrode/electrolyte interface using in situ total-reflection fluorescence X-ray absorption spectroscopy to elucidate the mechanism of the cyclability improvement of a LiCoO2 electrode by the addition of vinylene carbonate (VC). The results indicate that the reduction of cobalt ions at the surface of the LiCoO2 electrode that occurs upon the soaking of the electrolyte in the absence of VC is prevented by the presence of the VC additive. The VC additive also suppresses the irreversible change in the electronic structure of the cobalt ions at the LiCoO2 surface during the charge/discharge processes. The effects of the VC additive can be attributed to formation of a layer of decomposed VC at the LiCoO2/electrolyte interface, which plays an important role in the suppression of the irreversibility at the LiCoO2 surface during the charge/discharge processes.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · The Journal of Physical Chemistry C
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of molecular orientation on the miscibility and structure of the adsorbed film of the 1H,1H,10H,10H-perfluorodecane-1,10-diol (FC10diol) - 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanol (FC10OH) mixture at the hexane/water interface were examined by interfacial tension and X-ray reflectivity measurements. The interfacial tension and X-ray reflectivity at the hexane solution/water interface were measured as a function of total molality m and composition of FC10OH in the mixture X_2 under atmospheric pressure at 298.15K. The interfacial pressure vs. mean area per molecule curves showed that two kinds of condensed monolayers (C1 and C2) and multilayer (M) states appeared depending on m and X_2. In the pure component systems, it was found that FC10OH forms condensed monolayer in which the molecules orient almost normally to the interface, and FC10diol orients parallel and is densely packed in the condensed monolayer and then piles spontaneously to form multilayer. In the mixed system, the phase diagram of adsorption indicated that FC10OH molecules are richer in C2 than in C1 state. The X-ray reflectivity measurements manifest that the condensed monolayer below X_2= 0.985 is heterogeneous in which the normal- and parallel-oriented domains coexist at the interface (C1 state), and that above X_2 = 0.985 seems to be homogeneous with normal molecular orientation (C2 state). The structure of M state depends on those of condensed monolayers, on which the molecules pile spontaneously. The heterogeneous structure in C1 state is compared to that previously observed in the mixed system of FC10diol - FC12OH (1H,1H,2H,2H- perfluorododecanol), where FC12OH has longer fluorocarbon chain length than FC10OH, and is discussed in terms of domain line tension.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Journal of Physical Chemistry B
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    ABSTRACT: Reaction distribution in the composite electrode of LiCoO2, an acetylene black and an organic binder was evaluated by two-dimensional X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The valence change of Co ion in LiCoO2 due to the Li de-intercalation during charging was evaluated as the change of the absorption energy of Co K-edge. To demonstrate the reaction distribution due to ionic transportation in the composite cathode, a composite electrode laminated by an aluminum foil and a polyimide film was fabricated in this study. After charging, clear shifts of the absorption energy was observed. The reaction distribution was evaluated by evaluating the peak top energy of Co K-edge as a function of the distance from the edge of the laminated cathode. Two-dimensional mapping of the reaction distribution revealed that the electrochemically active area expands about 700 μm from the edge of the electrode under the charging condition of 0.2 C. This is consistent with a result of electrochemical charging test showing only 42% of the theoretical capacity with the current rate of 0.2 C.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Solid State Ionics
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    ABSTRACT: Surface coating on lithium-ion battery cathodes improves their durability at high potentials, which is a well-known practical application. However, the mechanism is still unclear because the coating influences the electrode/electrolyte interface at a few nanometer-scale and direct observation of the interface under real operating conditions of a battery is challenging. This study reveals the mechanism of the surface coating effect on lithium-ion battery cathodes by using in operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) on well-defined MgO-coated LiCoO2 thin-film electrodes prepared via pulsed laser deposition. Total-reflection in operando XAS measurements reveal that LiCoO2 forms a reductive phase at the interface between the uncoated-LiCoO2 electrode and the electrolyte, while the MgO coating layer inhibits the redox process, leading to an improvement in the cycle performance of the battery. Depth-resolved in operando XAS measurements indicate that a solid solution of the magnesium phase forms at the LiCoO2 surface upon MgO coating. Magnesium ions function as pillars to stabilize the layered structure at the interface between the LiCoO2 electrode and the electrolyte for delithiated states upon cycling at potentials.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Advanced Materials Interfaces
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    ABSTRACT: A novel spectro-electochemical cell for X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the tender X-ray region (TX-XAS) was designed and fabricated to investigate the electrochemical behavior of common battery materials with liquid electrolytes under in situ/operando conditions. The cell has several unique features, such as high X-ray transmittance, high signal to noise ratio, and high vacuum tightness. These features enable us quick and reliable XAS measurements. Operando P K-edge XAS measurements of an olivine-type LiFePO4 composite positive electrode were carried out to clarify its phosphorus environment during the electrochemical charging process. Results of spectral analysis show that there is no significant change in the oxidation state of phosphorus and in the coordination of the phosphate anions in the charging process, but a closer look of the consecutive XAS spectra suggests the shrinkage of the PO4 cage during the charging process, and the structural changes in a biphasic manner. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the cell for in situ/operando TX-XAS observations of light elements in practical batteries.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Review of Scientific Instruments
  • K. Kitada · H. Murayama · A. Mitsui · K. Fukuda · H. Tanida · K. Ohara
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Introduction It is well recognized that reaction distribution inside electrodes greatly affects battery characteristics while its detailed behavior remains unclear. The reaction distribution may trigger low utilization of the active material, accelerated deterioration of the rechargeable capacity, and safety issues caused by partially enhanced current density. The ex-situ analysis of the reaction distribution in cross-section of the composite electrode has been previously reported [1]. However, there has been no report on in-situ techniques for the reaction distribution measurement and therefore its dynamics during the charge-discharge processes has not yet been clarified. Based on these, we here report the development of the energy-scanning confocal XRD method that can capture the reaction distribution in cross-section of the composite electrode in operando during the charge-discharge process. 2. Experiment An aluminum pouch-type three electrode cell was used in which lithium metal foil was used as a counter electrode and a reference electrode. The working composite electrode consisted of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, acetylene black as a conductive additive, and PVDF as a binder mixed in a 90 : 5 : 5 wt% ratio and was coated onto Al foil. The electrolyte was 1M LiPF6 / EC : EMC (3 : 7). The cell was assembled in an Ar-atmosphere glove box. The XRD measurement was performed at BL28XU at SPring-8 (Hyogo, Japan). The confocal area consisting of incident and diffraction beams was set in the cross-section of the electrode to give high spatial resolution XRD analysis while the energy of the incident monochromatic X-ray was continuously scanned to form a XRD spectrum. Observation points in the electrode were changed in turn by moving the height of the sample stage. 3. Result and discussion Figure 1 shows the change of diffraction 113 peaks during the discharge process of the Li0.5Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 electrode at a rate of 139 mA/g. A shift of the 113 peak by Li insertion into the active material was observed all the three positions in the cross-section of the electrode, however the peak positions at the discharge end were different in each position. In a rest period, the 113 peaks value at the counter electrode side and the center were decreased, and that at the current collector side was increased. This suggests that the reaction distribution arose in the cross-section of the electrode during the discharge process, then was relaxed in the rest period. The converged 113 peak positions after relaxation matched well with that expected for the discharged capacity. It is revealed that the reaction proceeds at the counter electrode side faster than the current collector side and this newly developed method have a sufficient spatial resolution and time resolution for the measurement of the reaction distribution in cross-section of the electrode. Acknowledgement This work was supported by the “Research and Development Initiative for Science Innovation of New Generation Battery (Rising project)” of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), Japan. References [1] J. Liu, M. Kunz, K. Chen, N. Tamura and T. J. Richardson, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 1, 2120 (2010).
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
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    ABSTRACT: LiCoO2 thin-films deposited on various platinum substrates, i.e. single crystals of Pt(100), Pt(110) and Pt(111), and polycrystals (Pt-poly), are characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to discuss appropriateness of thin-film modeling of composite electrodes from the electrochemical. and spectroscopic viewpoints. Structural characterization indicates (001) orientation of LiCoO2/Pt(100) and LiCoO2/Pt(111) thin-films, and (104) orientation of LiCoO2/Pt(110). LiCoO2/Pt-poly thin-film is polycrystalline with a broad distribution of tilt angle of LiCoO2 c-axis. The LiCoO2/Pt(100) and LiCoO2/Pt-poly thin-films exhibit reversible CV behavior, while the other two show irreversible behavior. The structural and electrochemical characterization suggests that the c-axis tilt angle is not the predominant factor for reversible. electrochemical behavior of the LiCoO2 electrodes. Instead, polycrystalline structure with weak orientation seems to be preferable for high reversibility. Orientation dependence of XAS also indicates that the LiCoO2/Pt-poly thin-film shows similar spectrum to LiCoO2 powder. Thin-films having strong orientation lead to strong dependence of XAS spectra, and this can result in lack of spectroscopic information. From both the electrochemical and XAS viewpoints, the LiCoO2/Pt-poly thin-film having the polycrystalline structure with the broad distribution of the c-axis tilt angle is the most suitable for the thin-film modeling of the composite electrodes.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of The Electrochemical Society
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    ABSTRACT: For the further development of lithium-ion batteries, improvement of their cyclic performance is crucial. However, the mechanism underlying the deterioration of the battery cyclic performance is not fully understood. We investigated the effects of the electronic structure at the electrode/electrolyte interface on the cyclic performance of the cathode materials via in situ total-reflection fluorescence X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In a LiCoO2 thin-film electrode that exhibits gradual deterioration upon subsequent Li ion extractions and insertions (cycling), the reduction of Co ions at the electrode/electrolyte interface was observed upon immersion in an organic electrolyte, with subsequent irreversible changes after cycling. In contrast, in a LiFePO4 thin-film electrode, the electronic structure at the electrode/electrolyte interface was stable and reversible upon electrolyte immersion with subsequent cycling. The increased stability of the electronic structure at the LiFePO4/electrolyte interface affects its cycling performance.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · The Journal of Physical Chemistry C
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    ABSTRACT: Total-reflection X-ray absorption fine structure (TR-XAFS) technique was applied for the first time to an interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions under potentiostatic control. The hydration structure of bromide ions was investigated at polarized 2-octanone/water interfaces. TR-XAFS spectra at Br K-edge measured in the presence of hexyltrimethylammonium bromide (C6TAB) were slightly modified depending on the Galvani potential difference ([Formula: see text]). The extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis exposed hydration structure changes of bromide ions at the polarized interface. The coordination structure of bromide ions at the interface could be analyzed as compared with bromide ions dissolved in aqueous solution and Br(-)-exchanged resin having quaternary ammonium groups. The results indicated that bromide ions were associated with C6TA(+) at the polarized interface. The relative contribution of ion association form of bromide ions with quaternary ammonium groups was enhanced at a potential close to the ion transfer of C6TA(+), where the interfacial concentration of C6TA(+) is increased as a function of [Formula: see text].
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · The Journal of Chemical Physics
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    ABSTRACT: The oxygen chemical potential of dense Nd2NiO4+δ thin films on Zr0.92Y0.08O1.96 electrolyte was investigated by operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements. Operando XAS at the Ni K-edge was measured under an applied voltage and various oxygen partial pressures at high temperature to simulate the operating conditions of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The absorption edge energy under various polarizations is similar to those measured under equivalent oxygen partial pressures under open circuit condition. Thus, the oxygen chemical potential changes drastically at the electrode/gas interface and the rate-determining step of this model system is the surface reaction. This study provides direct evidence for the rate-determining step of the SOFC cathode reaction.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Electrochemistry -Tokyo-
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    ABSTRACT: Phenomena at electrode/electrolyte interface of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 are studied by in situ total-reflection fluorescence X-ray absorption spectroscopy (TRF-XAS), ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical tests. Flat and well-defined thin films of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are used as model electrodes to facilitate the observation of the interface. The thin-film LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode showed good cycling characteristics at around 4.7 V vs. Li/Li+. The TRF-XAS measurements reveal that nickel and manganese species at the surface have almost the same chemical states and local environments as those in the bulk when in contact with organic electrolyte solutions (1 mol dm−3 LiClO4 in a 1:1 volumetric mixture of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate). This is in sharp contrast to the behavior of a LiCoO2 electrode, in which the surface cobalt species is irreversibly reduced by soaking to the organic electrolyte solutions, leading to gradual material deterioration during the delithiation/lithiation cycling (D. Takamatsu et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Edit., 51 (2012) 11597). It is suggested that the electrolyte decomposition products detected by XPS form a protective layer to restrict the reduction of the surface species of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, leading to good cycling characteristics of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 in spite of its high operating potential.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Power Sources
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    ABSTRACT: The newly installed BL28XU beamline at SPring-8 is dedicated to in situ structural and electronic analysis of rechargeable batteries. It supports the time range (1 ms to 100 s) and spatial range (1 µm to 1 mm) needed for battery analysis. Electrochemical apparatus for battery charging and discharging are available in experimental hutches and in a preparation room. Battery analysis can be carried out efficiently and effectively using X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Here, the design and performance of the beamline are described, and preliminary results are presented.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
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    ABSTRACT: Degradation mechanism of surface coating effects at the cathode/electrolyte interface is investigated using thin-film model electrodes combined with operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). MgO-coated LiCoO2 thin-film electrodes prepared via pulsed laser deposition at room temperature and high temperature are used as model systems. The MgO coating improves the durability of the cathode during high-potential cycling. Operando total reflection fluorescence XAS reveals that initial deterioration due to reduction of Co ions at the surface of the uncoated-LiCoO2 thin film upon electrolyte immersion is inhibited by the MgO coating. Operando depth-resolved XAS reveals that the MgO coating suppresses drastic distortions of local structure at the LiCoO2 surface as observed in the uncoated-LiCoO2 during charging process. The electronic and local structure changes at the electrode/electrolyte interface for two types of surface coating morphologies are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Electrochemistry -Tokyo-
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between the local structure and oxide ionic conduction of Nd2NiO4+δ possessing the K2NiF4 structure was investigated. Various oxygen nonstoichiometry samples of Nd2NiO4+δ prepared with different annealing oxygen partial pressures were examined. The local structure related to oxide ionic conduction was determined by the Nd K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure. The oxide ionic conductivity and surface exchange coefficient were estimated using electronic conductivity relaxation methods. The activation energy for the oxide ionic conductivity was found to have a direct correlation to the surface exchange coefficient. The bottleneck size for oxide ion conduction was strongly correlated to the oxide ionic conduction of interstitial oxygen and the oxygen surface exchange rate.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Electrochemistry -Tokyo-
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    ABSTRACT: X-ray reflectivity measurements were applied to hexadecane wetting film on aqueous solutions of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB). In both cases, the monolayers in which oil molecules are penetrated from hexadecane droplets into surfactant-adsorbed films were found at room temperature. Upon cooling, they showed first-order freezing transitions, however, it was also confirmed that the structures of freezing films were qualitatively different: hexadecane molecules were frozen together with CTAB to form mixed solid monolayer in CTAB-hexadecane while the frozen hexadecane monolayer wetted mixed liquid monolayer in TTAB-hexadecane.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan

Publication Stats

2k Citations
421.47 Total Impact Points


  • 2011-2015
    • Kyoto University
      • Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2001-2015
    • Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI)
      Tatsuno, Hyōgo, Japan
  • 2014
    • Kanazawa University
      • Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology
      Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
  • 2008
    • Kyushu University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka-ken, Japan
  • 2006
    • Australian National University
      • Research School of Earth Sciences
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  • 2005
    • Osaka Prefecture University
      Sakai, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2002
    • Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • School of Materials Science
      KMQ, Ishikawa, Japan
  • 1999
    • RIKEN
      Вако, Saitama, Japan
  • 1993-1998
    • Osaka University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Ōsaka-shi, Osaka-fu, Japan
  • 1994
    • Ryukoku University
      • Department of Materials Chemistry