Fei Xiong

Yangzhou University, Chiang-tu, Jiangsu Sheng, China

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Publications (33)41.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) is an important wild plant starch resource worldwide. In this work, starch was separated from bracken rhizome, and the physicochemical properties of this starch were systematically investigated and compared with 2 other common starches, that is, starches from waxy maize and potato. There were significant differences in shape, birefringence patterns, size distribution, and amylose content between bracken and the 2 other starches. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that bracken starch exhibited a typical C-type crystalline structure. Bracken starch presented, respectively, lower and higher relative degree of crystallinity than waxy maize and potato starches. Ordered structures in particle surface differed among these 3 starches. The swelling power tendency of bracken starch in different temperature intervals was very similar to that of potato starch. The viscosity parameters during gelatinization were the lowest in waxy maize, followed by bracken and potato starches. The contents of 3 nutritional components, that is, rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches in native, gelatinized, and retrograded starch from bracken rhizome presented more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. These finding indicated that physicochemical properties of bracken starch showed more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Food Science
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    ABSTRACT: Although wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) pericarp starch granule (PSG) has been well-studied, our knowledge of its features and mechanism of accumulation and degradation during pericarp growth is poor. In the present study, developing wheat caryopses were collected and starch granules were extracted from their pericarp to investigate the morphological and structural characteristics of PSGs using microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Relative gene expression levels of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (APGase), granule-bound starch synthase II (GBSS II), and α-amylase (AMY) were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. PSGs presented as single or multiple starch granules and were synthesized both in the amyloplast and chloroplast in the pericarp. PSG degradation occurred in the mesocarp, beginning at 6 days after anthesis. Amylose contents in PSGs were lower and relative degrees of crystallinity were higher at later stages of development than at earlier stages. Short-range ordered structures in the external regions of PSGs showed no differences in the developing pericarp. When hydrolyzed by α-amylase, PSGs at various developmental stages showed high degrees of enzymolysis. Expression levels of AGPase, GBSS II, and AMY were closely related to starch synthesis and degradation. These results help elucidate the mechanisms of accumulation and degradation as well as the functions of PSG during wheat caryopsis development.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Background The objectives of this study were: (i) to observe effects of drought stress (DS) on the structural development of endosperm starch granules; (ii) to investigate effects of DS on composition and physicochemical properties of starches; (iii) to compared the different responses to DS between soft and hard wheat.ResultsDS resulted in large A-type starch granules at 12 d after anthesis (DAA) and a high percentage of B-type starch granules at 18 DAA in endosperm cells of the two wheat cultivars. DS decreased the 1000-grain weight, total starch and amylose contents, and amylose-to-amylopectin ratio of both starches. DS also decreased the percentage of B-type starch granules in NM13 and increased the number of hollows on the surface of A-type starch granules in XM33. DS further increased the swelling power and affected pasting properties of both starches. DS also significantly enhanced the hydrolysis degrees of starches by pancreatic α-amylase, Aspergillus niger amyloglucosidase, and HCl in NM13. DS altered the contents of rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches in native, gelatinized, and retrograded starches.Conclusion Overall, DS can affect the development of endosperm starch granules and the physicochemical properties of starches, thus affecting the qualities of the final wheat products.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  • Xurun Yu · Jing Zhang · Aimin Li · Zhong Wang · Fei Xiong
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    ABSTRACT: Lilium (Liliaceae) is an important wild plant and is used as food and traditional medicine worldwide. One Lilium cultivar (Lilium lancifolium) and 2 wild types (Lilium leucanthum and Lilium rosthornii) that are commonly distributed in Western China were investigated to completely utilize Lilium resources. The morphology of the flowers, bulbs, and scales and soluble sugar, total starch and amylose contents was remarkably different among the 3 Lilium species. Starches from the 3 Lilium species presented different granule size and shape. The starch of L. lancifolium exhibited higher swelling power and solubility than that of L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii. The starches from the 3 Lilium bulbs presented similar X-ray diffraction patterns and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Among the 3 Lilium species, L. lancifolium showed the lowest crystallinity and the largest proportion of ordered structures in granule external region. Gelatinization temperatures and retrogradation percentage were significantly lower, but gelatinization enthalpy was significantly higher in L. lancifolium than those in L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii. Pasting properties of starch were different among the 3 Lilium species. Starch from L. lancifolium showed the highest degree of amylopectin branching, followed by L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii. Starches from L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii showed higher resistance to porcine pancreatic α-amylase hydrolysis compared to that of L. lancifolium. These results indicated that 3 Lilium bulbs exhibited remarkable differences in morphological, crystal, thermal, pasting, and hydrolysis properties of starches. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Food Science
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    ABSTRACT: Gibberellins (GAs) are considered potentially important regulators of cell elongation and expansion in plants. Carrot undergoes significant alteration in organ size during its growth and development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying gibberellin accumulation and perception during carrot growth and development remain unclear. In this study, five stages of carrot growth and development were investigated using morphological and anatomical structural techniques. Gibberellin levels in leaf, petiole, and taproot tissues were also investigated for all five stages. Gibberellin levels in the roots initially increased and then decreased, but these levels were lower than those in the petioles and leaves. Genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis and signaling were identified from the carrotDB, and their expression was analyzed. All of the genes were evidently responsive to carrot growth and development, and some of them showed tissue-specific expression. The results suggested that gibberellin level may play a vital role in carrot elongation and expansion. The relative transcription levels of gibberellin pathway-related genes may be the main cause of the different bioactive GAs levels, thus exerting influences on gibberellin perception and signals. Carrot growth and development may be regulated by modification of the genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, catabolism, and perception.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · HORTICULTURE RESEARCH
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    ABSTRACT: Maize is a main botanical source used for extraction of starch in world market. New maize cultivars with different amylose contents and special starch metabolism characteristics have been generated. Three types of maize cultivars, namely, normal maize, waxy maize (wxwx homozygous mutant), and super-sweet maize (sh2sh2 homozygous mutant), were investigated to determine differences in endosperm structures, morphologies, and physicochemical properties of starches. Maize kernels exhibited significantly different contents of total starch, soluble sugar, and amylose. Normal maize kernels contained the largest proportion of floury endosperm, followed by waxy maize and then super-sweet maize. Normal maize starch (NMS) and waxy maize starch (WMS) were larger in size than super-sweet maize starch (SMS). NMS and WMS were spherical and polygonal in floury and vitreous endosperms, respectively. SMS was spherical both in floury and vitreous endosperms. WMS showed the strongest birefringence patterns, the highest crystallinity and the largest proportion of ordered structure in external region of granules and the largest proportion of double helix components, followed by NMS and then SMS. WMS showed the highest peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown viscosity, gelatinization temperatures (i.e., gelatinization conclusion temperature, gelatinization onset temperature, and gelatinization peak temperature, and gelatinization enthalpies). By contrast, SMS showed the lowest corresponding values for these parameters.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · International Journal of Food Properties
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    ABSTRACT: Lilium lancifolium is an important edible starch plant that is widely cultivated in China. Bulbs and bulbils are starch storage organs of L. lancifolium found below and above ground. To further utilize lily starch resources, starches were extracted from bulbs and bulbils of L. lancifolium. The morphological, structural, thermal, hydrolytic, and in vitro digestive properties of these starches were systematically investigated and compared. The bulb and bulbil starches differed in their amylose content and granule size, as well as their shape and surface morphologies. Compared with bulbil starch, bulb starch had a relatively higher degree of crystallinity. The ordered structure in the external granule region of bulb starch was similar to that of bulbil starch. In addition, bulb starch demonstrated significantly higher solubility, onset temperature, and gelatinization enthalpy than bulbil starch. When hydrolyzed by α-amylase and hydrochloric acid, bulb starch exhibited stronger resistance to enzymolysis but had a higher degree of acidolysis than bulbil starch. In vitro digestion showed that native and gelatinized bulb starches contained lower slowly digestible starch (SDS) content and higher resistant starch (RS) content than bulbil starch. In retrograded starch, bulbs and bulbils had similar amounts of rapidly digestible starch, SDS, and RS. This study sufficiently described the morphological and physicochemical properties of bulb and bulbil starches from L. lancifolium. This information is crucial to the future application of these starches in the food and nonfood industries.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Starch - Starke
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    ABSTRACT: Starch granule development and physicochemical properties of starches in waxy wheat (WW) and non-waxy wheat (NW) were investigated in this paper. Starch granules in WW endosperm showed an early developmental process. Compared with NW starch granules (round-shaped), WW starch granules (ellipse-shaped) were larger and contained more B-type granules. According to the granule size, starch granules were divided into two groups in WW, but were divided into three groups in NW. Compared with non-waxy wheat starch (NWS), waxy wheat starch (WWS) had higher swelling power, gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp, Tc), and relative degree of crystallinity. They showed similar ordered structures on external regions of starch granules. Additionally, WWS had a higher proportion of double helical component and a lower proportion of single helical component than NWS. Based on the results above, it was concluded: (1) WW and NW not only differed in starch granule development, but also in physicochemical properties of starches; (2) WW had more potential value for producing traditional products than NW.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · International Journal of Food Properties
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    ABSTRACT: Cereal conducting tissue was first proposed in maize endosperm. Information on the development of conducting cell and its functions in wheat caryopsis is still insufficient. In the present study, the development of wheat conducting cell was systematically investigated using light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopes. The software Image-Pro Plus was used to determine the number and changes in the area of the conducting cell. The conducting cell was differentiated at approximately 10 days after anthesis (DAA) and positioned between starchy endosperm cells and embryo. Contrary to starchy endosperm cells, no starch granules and protein bodies accumulated in the conducting cells. The number and total area of conducting cell increased initially and then decreased from 8 to 24 DAA. Deformation of conducting cell was observed at 18 DAA when compression resulting from the growing embryo started in the cell wall. Deformation progressed until the cell wall was highly compressed between starchy endosperm cells and the embryo. The conducting cell was probably involved in nutrient transport from the starchy endosperm cells to the scutellum. The area and relative changes in the area of the conducting cell may be related to the generation of environment space for embryonic growth.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Brazilian Journal of Botany
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    ABSTRACT: Celery of the family Apiaceae is a biennial herb that is cultivated and consumed worldwide. Lignin is essential for cell wall structural integrity, stem strength, water transport, mechanical support, and plant pathogen defense. This study discussed the mechanism of lignin formation at different stages of celery development. The transcriptome profile, lignin distribution, anatomical characteristics, and expression profile of leaves at three stages were analyzed. Regulating lignin synthesis in celery growth development has a significant economic value. Celery leaves at three stages were collected, and Illumina paired-end sequencing technology was used to analyze large-scale transcriptome sequences. From Stage 1 to 3, the collenchyma and vascular bundles in the petioles and leaf blades thickened and expanded, whereas the phloem and the xylem extensively developed. Spongy and palisade mesophyll tissues further developed and were tightly arranged. Lignin accumulation increased in the petioles and the mesophyll (palisade and spongy), and the xylem showed strong lignification. Lignin accumulation in different tissues and at different stages of celery development coincides with the anatomic characteristics and transcript levels of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. Identifying the genes that encode lignin biosynthesis-related enzymes accompanied by lignin distribution may help elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of lignin biosynthesis in celery.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Scientific Reports
  • X.R. Yu · L. Zhou · J. Zhang · H. Yu · D.R. Gao · B.Q. Zhang · F. Xiong · Y.J. Gu · Z. Wang
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to compare structural development and biochemical accumulation of waxy and non-waxy wheat (NW) caryopses. The caryopses' microstructure of the waxy wheat (WW) and NW cultivars at different developmental stages were observed under light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscope. The results were as follows: Compared with NW,WWhad a shorter maturation duration, which was reflected in several following characteristics. Programmed cell death of the pericarp began earlier, and the chlorophyll-containing layer in the pericarp was smaller. Vacuoles in chalazal cells accumulated more tannins at different developmental stages. Starch granules and protein bodies in the endosperm showed a higher accumulation level in developing caryopses, and aleurone cells were larger in size with larger numbers of aleurone grains. An analysis of the element content indicated that the mineral elements Mg, P, K, and Ca exhibited a higher content, while the heavy elements Cr, Cd, and Pb exhibited a lower content in the aleurone layer.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Cereal Research Communications
  • Xurun Yu · Liang Zhou · Jing Zhang · Heng Yu · Fei Xiong · Zhong Wang
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    ABSTRACT: Background The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize structural development of starch granule in pericarp and endosperm during wheat caryopsis growth (2) to compare physicochemical properties of starches in pericarp and endosperm (3) to further find out the relationships between pericarp starches and endosperm starches. Wheat pericarp and endosperm at different development stages were observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Structural properties of starches were determined using X-ray power diffraction, and 13C Solid Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.ResultsPericarp starch granules (PSG) accumulated in amyloplasts and chloroplasts, and showed a typical accumulation peak at 5 days after fertilization (DAF), and then gradually decomposed during 5–22 DAF. PSG in the abdominal region showed a higher rate of decomposition compared to the dorsal region of pericarp. Endosperm starch granules (ESG) accumulated in amyloplasts, and occurred in endosperm cells at 5 DAF, then rapidly enriched the endosperm cells until 22 DAF. Compared with ESG, PSG were compound granules of irregular shape and small size distribution. The results also suggested lower amylose content and V-type single-helix content and higher proportions of double-helices, for PSG compared to ESG.Conclusion Based on the structural development of PSG and ESG, we speculated that the saccharides resulting from decomposition of PSG on one hand enabled the pericarp to survive before maturity of wheat caryopsis, and on the other hand provided extra nutrition for the growth of ESG.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  • Yankun Zheng · Fei Xiong · Zhong Wang · Yunjie Gu
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    ABSTRACT: Endosperm transport tissues in sorghum caryopses include endosperm transfer cells, endosperm conducting cells, and the embryo surrounding region. To elucidate the structural changes of these tissues and their relationship with the caryopsis development, sorghum caryopses were analyzed at different days after pollination using light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy. The following results were obtained: post-phloem maternal tissues included the placentochalaza and the nucellar projection-like nucellus. Well-developed endosperm transfer cells exhibited very evident flange-type wall ingrowths. Very few wall ingrowths were present in the initially developed endosperm transfer cells when the level of sucrose from the initially developed vascular system was low. At the middle stage of caryopsis development, the level of sucrose from the well-developed vascular system was high. Endosperm transfer cells increased in both area and layer amount, and their wall ingrowths increased in both length and density. Later in caryopsis development, the level of sucrose from the degenerated vascular system was low and wall ingrowths distorted in the degenerated endosperm transfer cells. Endosperm conducting cells primarily occupied the most part of endosperm, but decreased gradually because the upper part transformed into the starchy endosperm and the lower part degenerated to give space to the embryo growth. Although the embryo surrounding region initially enveloped the small embryo, it rapidly degenerated and finally disappeared. Our data showed that (1) the caryopsis vascular system influenced the differentiation of endosperm transfer cells by controlling the sugar levels (2) and configuration of endosperm transport tissues were probably altered to favor the growth of filial tissues.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Protoplasma
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to understand the developmental regularity of wheat endosperm cells at different Days After Pollination (DAP) using microscopic and histochemical methods. Resin semi-thin sections of the endosperm and the enzymatically dissociated Starchy Endosperm Cells (SECs) were observed under a light microscope. The results showed that: (1) SECs were irregular-shaped and had two types of starch granules: large oval-shaped A-type starch granules and small spherical B-type starch granules. (2) The growth shape of SECs was referred to as S-curve and the fastest cell growth period was at 16-24 DAP. (3) The largest increase and growth of A-type starch granules were mainly at 4-16 DAP. B-type starch granules increased rapidly after 16 DAP and made up over 90% of the total starch granules in SEC during the late stage of endosperm development. (4) The nuclei of SEC deformed and degenerated during the middle and late stages of endosperm development and eventually disappeared. However, starch granules still increased and grew after the cell nuclei had degenerated. The investigations showed the development regularity of starch endosperm cells and starch granules, thereby improving the understanding of wheat endosperm development.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Cereal Research Communications
  • Xu-run Yu · Liang Zhou · Fei Xiong · Zhong Wang
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    ABSTRACT: The development of pericarp, seed coat, starchy endosperm and aleurone of the rice caryopsis was investigated, histochemically and structurally, from the time of flowering to maturity. The results showed that during its growth, the maximum length of the caryopsis was attained first, followed by width and then thickness. Histochemical examination of the caryopsis showed that starch was mainly accumulated in the endosperm, but the endosperm showed no metabolic activity, while embryo and pericarp contained a few starch grains, and embryo and aleurone were strongly active. Aleuronic cells contained many aleurone grains and spherosomes, and aleurone in the dorsal region developed earlier and contained more layers of cells. Amyloplasts in endosperm contained many starch granules and were spherical at early stages but polyhedric at late stages. The protein bodies appeared later than amyloplasts, and the number of protein bodies in subaleurone was greater than those in the starchy endosperm. The white-belly portion of endosperm might be relative to the status of amyloplast development.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Rice Science
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    ABSTRACT: This study provided visual evidence of a nitrogen effect on starch granules (SGs) in wheat endosperm. Winter wheat (Titicum aestivum L.) cultivar Xumai 30 was cultured under no nitrogen (control) and 240 kg ha− 1 of nitrogen applied at the booting stage. The number, morphology, and size of A- and B-type SGs in subaleurone of dorsal endosperm (SDE), center of dorsal endosperm (CDE), modified aleurone (MA), subaleurone of ventral endosperm (SVE), and center of ventral endosperm (CVE) were observed under light and electron microscopes. (1) The distribution of SGs in SDE was similar to that in SVE, the distributions of SGs in CDE and CVE were similar, but the distribution of SGs in MA was different from those in the other four endosperm regions. The number of SGs in the five endosperm regions was in the order SDE > CDE > SVE > CVE > MA. (2) Nitrogen increased the number of A- and B-type SGs in SDE and SVE. Nitrogen also increased the number of B-type SGs but decreased the number of A-type SGs in CDE and CVE. Nitrogen decreased the numbers of A-type and B-type SGs in MA. The results suggest that increased N fertilizer application mainly increased the numbers of small SGs and decreased the numbers of large SGs, but that the results varied in different regions of the wheat endosperm.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present work was to reveal the histological changes of protein bodies (PBs) in the developing wheat endosperm under nitrogen (N) treatment. For this purpose, the development and accumulation of PBs in the dorsal and ventral regions of wheat endosperm affected by N application at booting stage were investigated using light microscopy and Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software. The endosperm without N treatment contained many smaller PBs that were scattered in endosperm cells in an unordered pattern, whereas the endosperm with N treatment contained many larger PBs or aggregations that were concentrated in a certain region of endosperm cells. The amount and relative areas of PBs in wheat varieties cvs. Xumai 30 and Yangmai 13 were significantly increased by N application. However, the cultivars differed with the degree of response to N being cv. Xumai 30 > cv. Yangmai 13. These differences also varied with position in the endosperm in the order ventral > dorsal region. The initiation of PBs occurred 3 days earlier in N-treated endosperm than the control.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Molecular Biology Reports
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    ABSTRACT: The 2, 3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1,2-dioxygenase, which can degrade the 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl, was encoded by a synthesized PsbphCI gene. The PsbphCI gene was transformed into Escherichia coli and the encoding protein purified, had a molecular mass of ∼32 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH for the purified enzyme at 20°C was 9.0, and the optimal temperature at pH 8.0 was 30°C. Subsequently, the PsbphCI gene was transformed into Pseudomonas putida sp. to verify the degradation of 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl by HPLC. The transgenic EG11 strain degraded 65.20% of the 2,3-DHBP after 2 minutes at 30°C, while the wild-type EG11 strain degraded only 37.75%. This study provides guidance for the cultivation of bioengineered biphenyl/PCBs-degrading bacteria which can be applied to the biodegradation of environmental biphenyl/PCBs contamination.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Molecular and Cellular Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: The wheat aleurone is formed from surface endosperm cells, and its developmental status reflects its biogenesis, structural characteristics, and physiological functions. In this report, wheat caryopses at different development stages were embedded in Spurr's low-viscosity embedding medium for observation of the development of aleurone cells (ACs) by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. According to their structures and physiological characterization, the ACs development process was divided into five stages: endosperm cellulization, spherosome formation, aleurone grain formation, filling material proliferation, and maturation. Furthermore, ACs in different parts of the caryopsis formed differently. ACs near the vascular bundle developed earlier and formed transfer cells, but other ACs formed slowly and did not form transfer cells. ACs on the caryopsis backside were a regular square shape; however, ACs in the caryopsis abdomen were mainly irregular. There were also differences in development between wheat varieties. ACs were rectangular in hard wheat but square in soft wheat. ACs were larger and showed a greater degree of filling in hard compared to soft wheat. The storage materials in ACs were different compared to inner endosperm cells (IECs). The concentrations of minerals such as sodium, magnesium, silicon, phosphorus and potassium were higher in ACs than in IECs. ACs contained many aleurone grains and spherosomes, which store lipids and mineral nutrients, respectively. The cell nucleus did not disappear and the cells were still alive during aleurone maturation. However, IECs were dead and mainly contained amyloplast and protein bodies, which store starch and protein, respectively. Overall, the above results characterized major structural features of aleurone and revealed that the wheat aleurone has mainly four functions.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Molecular Biology Reports

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · ACTA AGRONOMICA SINICA

Publication Stats

100 Citations
41.48 Total Impact Points


  • 2008-2015
    • Yangzhou University
      • • College of Bioscience and Biotechnology
      • • Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology of Jiangsu Province
      Chiang-tu, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2011
    • Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China