[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon) has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (Δ%) of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure Δ%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration Δ% and the number of steps with blood pressure Δ%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms.
Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of nutrition and metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
We examined the factors considered to change body composition and blood biochemistry indicators in menopausal middle-aged and elderly women. These changes result from exercise by walking as part of their daily activities and lemon consumption by women who live on the small islands of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan's largest citrus fruit (lemon)-producing region.
Between September 2011 and March 2012, we recorded the daily lemon consumption and the number of steps taken by 101 middle-aged and elderly female lemon farmers. We also measured their body dimensions, body compositions, and blood pressure pulse wave velocity and conducted blood tests before and after the survey period. The results before and after the survey period were compared by the t-test and associations were determined on the basis of Pearson's correlation coefficient. Covariance structural analysis was carried out to determine causal associations.
From the results of covariance structure analysis, lemon intake did not have a direct impact on each item examined. The third item, i.e., "the factors related to arteriosclerosis," was affected indirectly via citric acid and fatigue, and anticoagulation was shown. The fourth item, i.e., "the factors related to maintenance of muscle mass," which is affected by menopausal years and the change in walking speed, was shown to be associated with the second item, i.e., "the factors related to lipid metabolism." Menopausal years affected the first, third and fourth items.
Lemon intake did not have a direct impact on each item. Lemon has been shown to indirectly affect the third item through citric acid. Walking affected the second item, the level of total cholesterol, such as HDL cholesterol, through the fourth item. The importance of providing services that lead to sustained physical activity and a well-balanced metabolism between lipids and carbohydrates has been shown.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a survey of 111 healthy middle-aged and older women, aged 40 to 80 years, to elucidate the relationships between blood leptin and adiponectin levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in September 2008. We examined the associations between the blood levels of these adipocytokines and the lumbar spine (L2-L4), left femoral, and distal forearm BMD after adjustment for the age and body fat percentage. No correlation was observed between leptin and the BMD. This is presumably due to the fact that the influence of menopause, age, duration of postmenopausal period, and body fat percentage on the BMD is greater than that of leptin levels in healthy women. The adiponectin levels were significantly correlated negatively with the lumbar spine and femoral BMD in premenopausal women, and with forearm BMD in postmenopausal women, regardless of adjustment for age and body fat percentage. It seems likely that adiponectin influences the BMD at different skeletal sites in pre- and postmenopausal women.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Hiroshima journal of medical sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 国立情報学研究所で電子化 近年, 急速に進みつつある看護・医療系大学院修士課程の実態を考えるため, 国公私立45大学の看護・医療系研究科の構成を調査した。各大学の学生募集要項をもとに研究科名, 専攻名, 専攻分野(領域)および授業科目を整理した。研究科・専攻の構成については(1)母体となる学部学科との関係, あるいは(2)医療系各専門分野との関係から類型化を試みた。本資料がそれぞれの立場から大学院を考えるための参考になることを願う。 Recently, there has been an increase in newly established masters programs in universities and colleges. We took a general view of such graduate schools, in 45 national, public and private universities and colleges. We looked at the organization of schools, departments and major courses by analyzing the guide books of each masters program. The organization styles of masters programs were categorized into groups according to the faculty and department in which they are based, and also according to the major courses. We expect that this information will be useful for consideration of masters programs from a variety of view points.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 報告 Reports 本研究では柑橘類農家中高年女性の生活習慣病に関連する身体的・代謝的特徴を知るため，瀬戸内海島嶼部の健康な女性107名（平均年齢59.9±8.3歳，S・Y町グループ）について骨密度と生活習慣病関連指標を調べ，地方都市居住の女性86名（平均年齢60.2±7.4歳，M市グループ）の結果と比較した。二重X線吸収法（DXA）で測定したS・Y町グループ女性の骨密度はM市グループ女性の測定値よりも高かった。一方，S・Y町グループ女性の生活習慣病関連指標（中性脂肪，HDLコレステロール，LDLコレステロール，HbA1cなどの血中濃度，血圧および上腕―足首間脈波伝播速度）はM市グループ女性よりもリスクが高い値を示した。しかし，S・Y町グループ女性の本研究での測定値はいずれも健常の範囲内であった。S・Y町グループ女性の生活習慣病予防のためには，食生活改善や身体活動推進など，地域の実情に応じた健康のためのライフスタイル改善の推進策が必要と考えられる。 To determine the physical and metabolic features related to metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly women in the citrus fruit farmers, we examined the bone mineral density and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in 107 healthy women （mean age 59.9 ± 8.3） living on a Japan Inland Sea island （S ・Y town group） and compared them with 86 healthy women （mean age 60.2 ± 7.4） living in a local city （M city group） . Bone mineral density in the women of the S ・ Y town group was higher than that of the M city group. On the contrary, the women in the S ・Y town group were at a higher risk for a metabolic syndrome （values of serum lipid, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and HbA1c, blood pressure and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity） . These risk factors for metabolic syndrome in the S ・Y town group were still within normal limits for healthy adults. In order to prevent metabolic syndrome in the S ・Y town group, a health policy based on a community-based strategy should be implemented to encourage the people to change over to a healthy lifestyle, including good eating habits and physical activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 国立情報学研究所で電子化 広島県立保健福祉短期大学の開学から閉学の間の5年間に在学した1115名の入学生(一般入試入学者:752名,推薦入試入学者:349名,社会人入試入学者:14名)について,入試方法,入試成績,学内での成績,国家試験の合否を調査して相互の関係を統計的に分析した。結果の概略は次のようである。(1)一般入試入学者と推薦入試入学者との間で学内成績に有意な違いはみられない。(2)一般入試入学者については,学内成績との相関は調査書評定平均のほうが入試4教科合計点よりも強い。(3)推薦入試入学者については,小論文成績と評定平均が学内成績との間で弱い正の相関を示したが,面接の成績は学内成績との相関は見られない。(4)国家試験合格者の学内成績平均点は不合格者よりも有意に高い。 The purpose of this study is to perform statistical analyses to determine if there is any possible relationship between students' academic performance during college studies and entrance selection methods. The analyses were done on items including the methods of entrance examination, results of the entrance examination, academic performance after admission, the number of dropouts and success/failure in the national examination. The subjects were 1115 students who had entered Hiroshima Prefectural College of Health and Welfare from 1995 through 1999.752 students have entered with regular entrance examinations, 349 students have entered after special examinations for those who had been recommended by their high school principals, and 14 students have entered with special examinations for adults. The results are summarized as follows : (1) No significant difference was found between students who entered by regular entrance examination and those who entered by recommendation on average academic record during college studies. (2) In the students who entered with regular entrance examinations, the high school record is positively correlated to the academic record during college studies. (3) In the students who entered with recommendation entrance examinations, results of essay tests and high school record is positively but weakly correlated to the academic record during college studies. (4) As to the national examination for health professional, those who passed the examination showed higher scores of the academic performance during college studies than those who failed in it.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 国立情報学研究所で電子化 下腿の筋の特徴と脂肪分布を調べるため23名の男性(平均年齢49±18歳)のMR画像を解析した。下腿の近位1/3部でのT1強調像とT2強調像から前脛骨筋,ひらめ筋,腓腹筋のそれぞれについてMR緩和時間(T1値とT2値)を測定し,T1強調像からは筋,皮下組織,下腿総断面での脂肪面積と断面積を算出した。MR画像上で測定した下腿脂肪率(下腿の総断面積中の脂肪面積をパーセントで表す)は体脂肪率および筋の脂肪率(筋の断面積中の脂肪面積をパーセントで表す)と正の相関を示した。腓腹筋のT1値はひらめ筋よりも有意に長く,また腓腹筋のT2値は前脛骨筋よりも有意に長かった。また,いずれの筋においてもT1値,T2値ともに年齢および下腿脂肪率が上がるにつれて長くなる傾向にあった。筋の間でのMR特性値の違いは筋線維組成の他に脂肪や水分量の違いも反映していると考えられた。腓腹筋の筋脂肪率は前脛骨筋よりもすべての年代で高かった。筋,皮下組織,筋膜の間での脂肪分布は年齢ではなく下腿脂肪率と密接に関係していた。筋や皮下組織への脂肪蓄積は年齢よりも個人差にもとづくものと考えられた。 To evaluate the characteristics of muscle and fat distribution in human legs, we examined 23 men (average age 49±18 years) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MR relaxation times (T1 and T2 values) in the gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior were measured on T1-weighted and T2-weighted MR images obtained at the proximal 1/3 position of the leg. Fat area and cross-sectional area of muscles, subcutaneous tissue and whole leg were measured on T1-weighted MR images. The leg fat ratio (percentage of fat area in a total cross-sectional area of leg) measured on MR images was positively correlated to the percentage of body fat and also to the muscle fat ratio (percentage of fat area in a cross-sectional area of muscle). T1 values in the gastrocnemius were significantly elevated compared to the soleus, and T2 values in the gastrocnemius were significantly elevated compared to the tibialis anterior. Longer relaxation times in both T1 and T2 values of the muscles were associated with increase in age and percentage of leg fat ratio. There is a possibility that a difference in MR relaxation times in muscles may reflect a difference in muscle fiber composition and/or other factors like fat and water compositions. The muscle fat ratio in the gastrocnemius and soleus were higher than those in the tibialis anterior in all the ages examined. Fat distribution patterns in muscles, subcutaneous tissue, and peri- and epimysium were not affected by age but by the fat ratio. These results indicate that the accumulation of fat in muscles and subcutaneous tissue in legs has a tendency to depend on the individual variations and is independent of age.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 国立情報学研究所で電子化 社会的に看護の質の向上が求められ, 看護学の基礎となる解剖学教育の再構築が試みられていることから, 解剖遺体見学実習のもつ意義と今後の課題を検討する目的で実習後の学生の感想文の分析を試みた。看護学科学生の特徴を知るために, 理学/作業療法学科学生の感想文との比較も行った。これらの分析をもとに, 今後解剖遺体見学実習をどのように看護教育のなかに生かしていくかについて考察した。学生は心情の変化を伴いながらも解剖学的な学びを確実なものにすると同時に多くの哲学的な学びをしていた。また, 看護学科の学生は生命を司る臓器の記載が多く, 個体差, 性差, 年齢差, 生活の歴史の現れ, 疾患による変化など, 臓器の外観や人体を全体から生活体として見る「看護の視点」からの学びの記載が特徴であった。今後, 解剖学的知識を活用した教科内容の検討, および学生の心情を支援した意図的なオリエンテーションの検討が課題と考える。 Comments, thoughts and feelings expressed by nursing students after their observation of dissected cadavers during a college course of anatomy were analyzed to determine the role of this experience in nursing education. The written comments of the nursing students were compared with those of the students of physical and occupational therapies. Most students including the nursing majors evaluated this experience as an opportunity to better understanding of anatomy and to ponder on the issues of life and death and body-donation. Comparative content analysis of the comments identified distinguishable characteristics in the nursing students' responses. They tended to observe the organs and bodies from the viewpoint of nursing, and to make efforts to overcome their initial feelings of anxiety and disgust. They were more attentive than students of other disciplines to individual differences of those persons who had donated their cadavers in terms of life history, gender, age and the type of the disease they had suffered from. We conclude that it is important for instructors in nursing edudation to design a nursing curriculum in congruence with this experience of cadavers study and to support the students' emotional developments.