[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Post-menopausal osteoporosis is a serious age-related disease. After the menopause, estrogen deficiency is common, and excessive osteoclast activity causes osteoporosis. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells generated from the differentiation of monocyte/macrophage precursor cells such as RAW 264.7 cells. The water extract of Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC) is made from the dried root bark of Lycium chinense Mill. and is termed 'Jigolpi' in Korea. Its effects on osteoclastogenesis and post‑menopausal osteoporosis had not previously been tested. In the present study, the effect of LRC on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was demonstrated using a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) assay and pit formation assay. Moreover, in order to analyze molecular mechanisms, we studied osteoclastogenesis-related markers such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), c-Fos, receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), TRAP, cathepsin K (CTK), matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), calcitonin receptor (CTR) and carbonic anhydrase Ⅱ (CAII) using RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. Additionally, we also determined the effect of LRC on an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. We noted that LRC inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation via suppressing osteoclastogenesis-related markers. It also inhibited osteoporosis in the OVX rat model by decreasing loss of bone density and trabecular area. These results suggest that LRC exerts a positive effect on menopausal osteoporosis.
Preview · Article · Feb 2016 · International Journal of Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Gami-hyunggyeyeongyotang (GMHGYGT) is a polyherbal medicine derived from an oriental prescription traditionally used in the treatment of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis (AR). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of GMHGYGT on ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization/challenge-induced AR in BALB/C mice, through examination of allergic inflammatory response regulation, as well as examination of human mast cells (HMC-1).
Nasal symptoms were evaluated in the OVA-induced allergic rhinitis mouse model, and total immunoglobulin (Ig)E and OVA-specific IgE levels in serum were investigated. Eosinophil infiltration and thickness of the nasal mucosa, and levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and caspase-1 were also measured by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, the effect of GMHGYGT on the phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, C-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 in HMC-1 cells was investigated.
GMHGYGT was demonstrated to have antiallergic effects on the nasal symptoms of the OVA-induced mouse model, decreasing serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and levels of the cytokines IL-5, IL-6, IL-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2. GMHGYGT reduced the number of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa and thickness of the nasal septum, and inhibited the expression of IL-1β and caspase-1. Moreover, it inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and C-Jun N-terminal kinase, as well as the activation of nuclear factor-κB on protein level in HMC-1 cells.
These results suggest that GMHGYGT has therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.
Preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of the Chinese Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Xanthii Fructus (XF) is widely used in traditional anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory Asian medicine. Allergic rhinitis is a common inflammatory disease characterized by markedly increased levels of anti-inflammatory factors and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the nasal mucosa. We investigated the effects of XF in the allergen-induced rhinitis model.
Materials and methods:
Following ovalbumin (OVA)/alum intraperitoneal injection on days 0, 7 and 14, the BALB/c mice (albino, laboratory-bred strain of the house mice) were challenged intranasally with OVA for 10 days a week after the last sensitization. The number of sneezes was recorded for 10 days; additionally, the levels of cytokines, histamine, immunoglobulin E (IgE) and OVA-specific serum IgE were estimated. Eosinophil infiltration, thickness of nasal mucosa and expression of caspase-1 were determined by immunohistochemistry. We also evaluated the effect of XF on the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B-alpha (IκB-α) in human mast cell-1 (HMC-1), by Western blotting.
The administration of XF significantly decreased sneezing and the serum levels of histamine, IgE, OVA-specific IgE, and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukine-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-5, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). XF inhibited the changes in thickness of the nasal septum, influx of eosinophils and expression of capase-1. In addition, XF inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB in phorbol-myristate-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) stimulated HMC-1.
This study suggests that XF acts a potent anti-allergic drug which alleviates the allergic responses in ovalbumin-sensitized mouse allergic rhinitis model.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pharmacognosy Magazine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance:
Xanthii fructus (XF) has long been used to treat a variety of inflammatory conditions in Korean traditional medicine, but the underlying mechanisms that could explain the anti-inflammatory actions of XF remain largely unknown.
Aim of the study:
This study aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effects of Xanthii fructus (XF) and to examine its underlying molecular mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.
Materials and methods:
The effect of XF on LPS-induced mRNA and protein expressions of inflammatory mediators and cytokines were determined. Moreover, the activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were explored to elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
XF significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators, interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), without any cytotoxicity. However, it did not affect tissue necrosis factor (TNF)-α or IL-1β production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein were inhibited dose-dependently by XF in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, but there were no changes in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and protein. XF significantly attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitory kappa Bα (IκBα) and consequently reduced the nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB. Pretreatment with XF also strongly inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 kinase and JNK, whereas the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was not affected. In addition, XF led to an increase in HO-1 expression.
Taken together, our findings support that XF inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses by blocking NF-κB activation, inhibiting JNK/p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and enhancing HO-1 expression in macrophages, suggesting that it could be an attractive therapeutic candidate for various inflammatory diseases.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pro-inflammatory S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8) is elevated in the serum of patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but its function in Plasmodium vivax malaria is not yet clear. This function was investigated in P. vivax-infected patients in this study.
The level of S100A8 in the serum was measured with ELISA. Full amino acids of S100A8 were synthesized to verify the functions for maturation of immature dendritic cell (iDC) and evaluation of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) generation by mature DC (mDC).
A higher amount of S100A8 was detected in vivax-infected patients (141.2 ± 61.849 ng/ml, n = 40) compared with normal control group (48.1 ± 27.384 ng/ml, n = 40). The level of S100A8 did not coincide with that of anti-malarial antibody measured by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using parasite-infected red blood cells as antigen. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) was up-regulated on the surface of iDCs following treatment with synthetic S100A8, not with synthetic MSP-1, AMA-1 and CSP, as compared to the expression seen for non-treated iDCs. The addition of red blood cells of infected patients to iDCs also elevated their surface expression of CD86. However, the serum levels of S100A8 decreased with increase in parasitaemia. DCs matured by sera containing S100A8 generated Treg cells from naïve T cells. The ratio of Treg cells generated was inversely proportional to the concentration of S100A8 in sera.
Treg cells suppress the activity of cytotoxic T cells, which kill malaria parasites; therefore, the up-regulation of S100A8 in malaria patients may contribute to pathogen immune escape or tolerance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peiminine is the main biologically active component derived from Fritillaria ussuriensis. Peiminine was investigated in various pulmonary diseases, but its antiallergic effect and the related mechanism have not been reported yet. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of peiminine on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation in HMC-1 cells. The pro-inflammatory cytokine production was measured using ELISA, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway activation, as determined by Western blot analysis. Peiminine inhibits the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-1beta (IL-1β). It was shown to have inhibitory effects on MAPKs phosphorylation and NF-B expression in human mast cells (HMC)-1 using Western blot. HMC-1 cells were observed for confirmation of histamine release. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reactions were evaluated using an animal model and peiminine demonstrated inhibitory effects on IgE-dependent anaphylaxis. These results suggest that peiminine has regulatory potential for allergic inflammatory reactions mediated by HMC-1 cells.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We presented the results for the surface anchoring properties of a nematic liquid crystal (LC) in a wide range of the substrate wettability through thermo-transfer printing of siloxane oligomers. For the modification of the surface energy, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oligomers were directly transferred onto a glass substrate from a bulk PDMS plate by contact printing at elevated temperatures. The hydrophobicity of the PDMS-modified surface was found to increase with the temperature of the substrate during transfer printing. The LC alignment on the PDMS-modified substrate exhibited continuous variations of the pretilt angle from nearly 0° to 90° and the polar anchoring strength according to the surface energy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A double targeting strategy of anti-neoplastic agent paclitaxel (PTX) was developed by incorporating magnetic nanoparticles and RGD peptide for enhanced cell cytotoxicity effect at lower dosage. A dual targeting mechanism including magnetic targeting and RGD ligand-specific targeting enhanced the overall cytotoxicity and reduced the effective dosage of PTX to achieve enhanced and sustained release of PTX in vitro. We addressed the issues of water-insolubility of oleic acid (OA)-stabilized SPIONs and low incorporation efficiency of hydrophobic PTX with SPION nanocarriers by using an amphiphilic polymer poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide-r-acrylamide)-b-l-lactic acid] (PNAL) as micelle-forming materials. A targeting moiety, GGGGRGD peptide, a RGD sequence-containing peptide with a short linker, is attached to the surface of PNAL-SPIONs via a homo-crosslinker. Confocal microscopy image analysis revealed that the cellular uptake was increased from (1.5 ± 0.5 % (PNAL) to 11.7 ± 0.8 % (RGD-PNAL-SPIONs) at 6 h incubation, once both RGD peptide and magnetic force attraction were incorporated into the carriers. Such multi-targeting nanocarriers showed promising potential in cancer-oriented diagnosis and therapy.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Nanoparticle Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-organized wrinkling patterns of a liquid crystalline polymer, dictated by the chemico-physically anisotropic nature of the surface wettability, are demonstrated in confined geometries. The symmetry of the geometrical constraints of the confinement primarily governs the periodic wrinkling patterns of such polymer in the wetting region. In a circular geometry, the number of the radial domains with multi-fold symmetries is linearly proportional to the radius of the confinement. The physical origin of the wrinkling process comes from the periodic bend-splay distortions through the relaxation of the curvature elasticity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The bacteria Orientia tsutsugamushi is the causative agent of scrub typhus, mite-borne disease, which causes an acute febrile illness in patients. An epidemiologic study was conducted to understand the characteristics of scrub typhus in South Korea.
Reporting of tsutsugamushi disease is mandatory in South Korea since 1994. To investigate the prevalence of tsutsugamushi disease from 2001 to 2013, medical records from the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention were reviewed. In total, 70,914 cases were reported during 2001–2013. Of these, 37.16% (26,349) were male and 62.84% (44,565) were female. The highest number of cases was in the 60–69-year-old age group (19,484; 27.48%), and 72.22% (51,212) were in the 50–79-year-old age group. There were 65,100 cases (91.80%) reported during October (24,964; 35.20%) and November (40,136; 56.60%). An almost four-fold increase in the number of patients was observed in 2013 (10,485 cases) compared to 2001 (2,637 cases). The highest number of patients was reported in the Jeonbuk (9,425; 13.29%) and lowest in the Jeju (362; 0.51%).
A rapid increase in the incidence of patients with tsutsugamushi disease was observed in most areas from 2001 to 2013, with the majority of cases reported in the western and southern coast.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between anti- Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein (CSP) antibody levels and the prevalence of malaria in epidemic areas of South Korea was evaluated. Blood samples were collected from inhabitants of Gimpo-si (city), Paju-si, and Yeoncheon-gun (county) in Gyeonggi-do (province), as well as Cheorwon-gun in Gangwon-do from November to December 2004. Microscopic examinations were used to identify malaria parasites. ELISA was used to quantitate anti-circumsporozoite protein (CSP) antibodies against P. vivax. A total of 1,774 blood samples were collected. The overall CSP-ELISA-positive rate was 7.7% (n=139). The annual parasite incidences (APIs) in these areas gradually decreased from 2004 to 2005 (1.09 and 0.80, respectively). The positive rate in Gimpo (10.4%, 44/425) was the highest identified by CSP-ELISA. The highest API was found in Yeoncheon, followed by Cheorwon, Paju, and Gimpo in both years. The positive rates of CSP-ELISA were closely related to the APIs in the study areas. These results suggest that seroepidemiological studies based on CSP may be helpful in estimating the malaria prevalence in certain areas. In addition, this assay can be used to establish and evaluate malaria control and eradication programs in affected areas.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · The Korean Journal of Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colloidal microwires are constructed using anisotropic assembling templates with periodically wrinkled patterns of a liquid crystalline polymer (LCP). The wrinkled LCP patterns with the period of a few micrometers are produced from reactive mesogens on an alignment layer by the oxygen plasma treatment and used for assembling colloidal particles into microwires through a simple slit-coating process. A two-directional assembly of the colloidal particles is also demonstrated on the LCP template with two stamping-assisted rubbing directions. Our approach to the colloidal assembly is applicable for building up advanced photonic and optoelectronic devices.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, hybrid magnetofluorescent structures composed of organic moiety of poly(TMSMA-r-PEGMA) for biomolecules-resistant surfaces and methyl methacrylate for conjugation of europium complex inorganic moiety of magnetic nanoparticles are reported. Lanthanide complex of europium
ion with 4,4,4-Trifluoro-1-(2-naphthyl)-1,3-butanedione (NTA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO)[Eu(NTA)3(TOPO)3] were incorporated into poly(TMSMA-r-PEGMA-r-MMA) matrix. Afterward, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were coated with as prepared polymeric
europium complex (PEC) to construct hierarchical structure of magnetofluorescent probe. The PL spectra of the PEC@SPIONs excited by UV light showed characteristic emission behavior with a hypersensitive transition 5D0→7F2 at 621 nm. About a
20% quenching in the intensity of the emission peak at 621 nm was found after the addition of SPIONs. Interestingly, when the concentration of PEC against SPIONs is increased, the hypersensitive transition 5D0→7F2 at 621 nm is linearly increased,
while 5D1→7F6 at 700 nm is linearly decreased. The cytotoxic effect of PEC@SPIONs was evaluated with U373MG cell by the MTT assay of PEC@SPIONs in cell proliferation. The cell viability in the range of 10–200 ug/ml was more than 80%. No
significant difference in cell proliferation until the concentration of 300 ug/ml (77.61 ± 3.33%). The cellular uptake of PEC@SPIONs evaluated by confocal microscopy showed that the magnetofluorescent nanoparticles were internalized extensively in the cytoplasmic region.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the coarsening dynamics of a liquid-ordered (Lo) domain in a supported lipid membrane under an electric field. In a relatively small nanosmooth region surrounded by geometrical walls of nanocorrugated regions, full coarsening of the Lo domain was produced while in a large nanosmooth region, an intermediate, less-ordered Lo domain was developed so that the diffusion of charged phospholipids in the liquid-disordered (Ld) domain was allowed across the geometrical walls in the presence of an electric field. No appreciable diffusion of the charged lipids into a fully coarsened Lo domain by the electric field implies that the structural ordering of the membrane components plays a significant role on the formation of lipid rafts for biological processes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of the conserved block 9 (CB9) to interspecies conserved block (ICB10) region of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1 (ICB910)) as a serodiagnostic tool for understanding malaria transmission.
Antibody titre in the blood samples collected from the inhabitants of Gimpo city, Paju city and Yeoncheon county of Gyeonggi Province, as well as Cheorwon county of Gangwon Province, South Korea were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Microscopic examination was performed to identify malarial parasites.
MSP-1(ICB910) is encoded by a 1,212-bp sequence, which produced a recombinant protein with a molecular weight of approximately 46 kDa. Antibody titres in 1,774 blood samples were determined with the help of ELISA using purified recombinant MSP-1(ICB910). The overall ELISA-positive rate was 8.08% (n = 146). The annual parasite incidences (APIs) in the regions where the blood sampling was carried out gradually decreased from 2004 to 2005 (1.09 and 0.80, respectively). Yeoncheon county had the highest ELISA-positive rate (10.20%, 46/451). Yeoncheon county also had the highest API both in 2004 and 2005, followed by Cheorwon county, Paju city and Gimpo city.
The MSP-1 (ICB910)-ELISA-positive rates were closely related to API in the geographic areas studied. These results suggest that sero-epidemiological studies employing MSP-1 (ICB910)-ELISA may be helpful in estimating the prevalence of malaria in certain geographic areas. MSP-1(ICB910)-ELISA can be effectively used to establish and evaluate malaria control and eradication programmes in the affected areas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We develop a simple and biocompatible method of patterning proteins on a wettability gradient surface by thermo-transfer printing. The wettability gradient is produced on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-modified glass substrate through the temperature gradient during thermo-transfer
printing. The water contact angle on the PDMS-modified surface is found to gradually increase along the direction of the temperature gradient from a low to a high temperature region. Based on the wettability gradient, the gradual change in the adsorption and immobilization of proteins (cholera
toxin B subunit) is achieved in a microfluidic cell with the PDMS-modified surface.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although there is a growing interest in the use of acupuncture during pregnancy, the safety of acupuncture is yet to be rigorously investigated. The objective of this review is to identify adverse events (AEs) associated with acupuncture treatment during pregnancy.
We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) and five Korean databases up to February 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were screened for additional reports. Studies were included regardless of their design if they reported original data and involved acupuncture needling and/or moxibustion treatment for any conditions in pregnant women. Studies of acupuncture for delivery, abortion, assisted reproduction or postpartum conditions were excluded. AE data were extracted and assessed in terms of severity and causality, and incidence was determined.
Of 105 included studies, detailed AEs were reported only in 25 studies represented by 27 articles (25.7%). AEs evaluated as certain, probable or possible in the causality assessment were all mild/moderate in severity, with needling pain being the most frequent. Severe AEs or deaths were few and all considered unlikely to have been caused by acupuncture. Total AE incidence was 1.9%, and the incidence of AEs evaluated as certainly, probably or possibly causally related to acupuncture was 1.3%.
Acupuncture during pregnancy appears to be associated with few AEs when correctly applied.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Acupuncture in Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmodium vivax reemerged in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 1993, and is likely to continue to affect public health. The purpose of this study was to measure levels of anti-P. vivax antibodies using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in border areas of ROK, to determine the seroprevalence of malaria (2003-2005) and to plan effective control strategies. Blood samples of the inhabitants in Gimpo-si, Paju-si, and Yeoncheon-gun (Gyeonggi-do), and Cheorwon-gun (Gangwon-do) were collected and kept in Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). Out of a total of 1,774 serum samples tested, the overall seropositivity was 0.94% (n=17). The seropositivity was the highest in Paju-si (1.9%, 7/372), followed by Gimpo-si (1.4%, 6/425), Yeoncheon-gun (0.67%, 3/451), and Cheorwon-gun (0.19%, 1/526). The annual parasite incidence (API) in these areas gradually decreased from 2003 to 2005 (1.69, 1.09, and 0.80 in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively). The highest API was found in Yeoncheon-gun, followed by Cheorwon-gun, Paju-si, and Gimpo-si. The API ranking in these areas did not change over the 3 years. The seropositivity of Gimpo-si showed a strong linear relationship with the API of 2005 (r=0.9983, P=0.036). Seropositivity data obtained using IFAT may be useful for understanding malaria prevalence of relevant years, predicting future transmission of malaria, and for establishing and evaluating malaria control programs in affected areas.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · The Korean Journal of Parasitology