[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Of the two cultivated species of allopolyploid cotton, Gossypium barbadense produces extra-long fibers for the production of superior textiles. We sequenced its genome (AD) 2 and performed a comparative analysis. We identified three bursts of retrotransposons from 20 million years ago (Mya) and a genome-wide uneven pseudogenization peak at 11-20 Mya, which likely contributed to genomic divergences. Among the 2,483 genes preferentially expressed in fiber, a cell elongation regulator, PRE1, is strikingly At biased and fiber specific, echoing the A-genome origin of spinnable fiber. The expansion of the PRE members implies a genetic factor that underlies fiber elongation. Mature cotton fiber consists of nearly pure cellulose. G. barbadense and G. hirsutum contain 29 and 30 cellulose synthase (CesA) genes, respectively; whereas most of these genes (>25) are expressed in fiber, genes for secondary cell wall biosynthesis exhibited a delayed and higher degree of up-regulation in G. barbadense compared with G. hirsutum, conferring an extended elongation stage and highly active secondary wall deposition during extra-long fiber development. The rapid diversification of sesquiterpene synthase genes in the gossypol pathway exemplifies the chemical diversity of lineage-specific secondary metabolites. The G. barbadense genome advances our understanding of allopolyploidy, which will help improve cotton fiber quality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Air pollution has been classified as Group 1 carcinogenic to humans, but the underlying tumorigenesis remains unclear. In Xuanwei City of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China attributed to severe air pollution generated by combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis of air pollution. Here we analyzed the somatic mutations of 164 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) from Xuanwei and control regions (CR) where smoky coal was not used. Whole genome sequencing revealed a mean of 289 somatic exonic mutations per tumor and the frequent C:G → A:T nucleotide substitutions in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Exome sequencing of 2010 genes showed that Xuanwei and CR NSCLCs had a mean of 68 and 22 mutated genes per tumor, respectively (p < 0.0001). We found 167 genes (including TP53, RYR2, KRAS, CACNA1E) which had significantly higher mutation frequencies in Xuanwei than CR patients, and mutations in most genes in Xuanwei NSCLCs differed from those in CR cases. The mutation rates of 70 genes (e.g., RYR2, MYH3, GPR144, CACNA1E) were associated with patients' lifetime benzo(a)pyrene exposure. This study uncovers the mutation spectrum of air pollution-related lung cancers, and provides evidence for pollution exposure-genomic mutation relationship at a large scale.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To find and clone new antigen genes from the lambda-ZAP cDNA expression library of adult Clonorchis sinensis, and determine the immunological characteristics of the recombinant proteins.
The cDNA expression library of adult C. sinensis was screened by pooled sera of clonorchiasis patients. The sequences of the positive phage clones were compared with the sequences in EST database, and the full-length sequence of the gene (Cs22 gene) was obtained by RT-PCR. cDNA fragments containing 2 and 3 times tandem repeat sequences were generated by jumping PCR. The sequence encoding the mature peptide or the tandem repeat sequence was respectively cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET28a (+), and then transformed into E. coli Rosetta DE3 cells for expression. The recombinant proteins (rCs22-2r, rCs22-3r, rCs22M-2r, and rCs22M-3r) were purified by His-bind-resin (Ni-NTA) affinity chromatography. The immunogenicity of rCs22-2r and rCs22-3r was identified by ELISA. To evaluate the immunological diagnostic value of rCs22-2r and rCs22-3r, serum samples from 35 clonorchiasis patients, 31 healthy individuals, 15 schistosomiasis patients, 15 paragonimiasis westermani patients and 13 cysticercosis patients were examined by ELISA. To locate antigenic determinants, the pooled sera of clonorchiasis patients and healthy persons were analyzed for specific antibodies by ELISA with recombinant protein rCs22M-2r and rCs22M-3r containing the tandem repeat sequences.
The full-length sequence of Cs22 antigen gene of C. sinensis was obtained. It contained 13 times tandem repeat sequences of EQQDGDEEGMGGDGGRGKEKGKVEGEDGAGEQKEQA. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the protein (Cs22) belonged to GPI-anchored proteins family. The recombinant proteins rCs22-2r and rCs22-3r showed a certain level of immunogenicity. The positive rate by ELISA coated with the purified PrCs22-2r and PrCs22-3r for sera of clonorchiasis patients both were 45.7% (16/35), and 3.2% (1/31) for those of healthy persons. There was no cross reaction with sera of schistosomiasis and cysticercosis patients. The cross reaction with sera of paragonimiasis westermani patients was 1/15. The recombinant proteins rCs22M-2r and rCs22M-3r which only contained tandem repeats were specifically recognized by pooled sera of clonorchiasis patients.
The Cs22 antigen gene of Clonorchis sinensis is obtained, and the recombinant proteins have certain diagnostic value. The antigenic determinant is located in tandem repeat sequences.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Zhongguo ji sheng chong xue yu ji sheng chong bing za zhi = Chinese journal of parasitology & parasitic diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acidithiobacillus caldus is one of the dominant sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in bioleaching reactors. It plays the essential role in maintaining the high acidity and oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds during bioleaching process. In this report, the complete genome sequence of A. caldus SM-1 is presented. The genome is composed of one chromosome (2,932,225 bp) and four plasmids (pLAtc1, pLAtc2, pLAtc3, pLAtcm) and it is rich in repetitive sequences (accounting for 11% of the total genome), which are often associated with transposable genetic elements. In particular, twelve copies of ISAtfe and thirty-seven copies of ISAtc1 have been identified, suggesting that they are active transposons in the genome. A. caldus SM-1 encodes all enzymes for the central metabolism and the assimilation of carbon compounds, among which 29 proteins/enzymes were identifiable with proteomic tools. The SM-1 fixes CO(2)via the classical Calvin-Bassham-Benson (CBB) cycle, and can operate complete Embden-Meyerhof pathway (EMP), pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and gluconeogenesis. It has an incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). Four putative transporters involved in carbohydrate uptake were identified. Taken together, the results suggested that SM-1 was able to assimilate carbohydrates and this was subsequently confirmed experimentally because addition of 1% glucose or sucrose in basic salt medium significantly increased the growth of SM-1. It was concluded that the complete genome of SM-1 provided fundamental data for further investigation of its physiology and genetics, in addition to the carbon metabolism revealed in this study.
No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Genetics and Genomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactic acid bacteria that exist in the urinogenital system play an important role in maintaining the health of the host. Here,
we report the finished and annotated genome of a Lactococcus strain that was isolated from the vaginas of healthy women and shows probiotic properties, including nisin A production and
adhesion to vaginal epithelial cells.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bifidobacteria, known as probiotic bacteria, are high-G+C Gram-positive bacteria which naturally inhabit the human gastrointestinal
tract and vagina. Recently, we completely sequenced Bifidobacterium longum JDM301, which is a widely used Chinese commercial strain with several probiotic properties.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Journal of bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium (LAB) species commonly used as a probiotic. We have sequenced the genome of Lactobacillus plantarum JDM1, which is a Chinese commercial LAB with several probiotic functions, using a GS 20 system. We recommend that each commercial
probiotic strain should undergo complete genome sequencing to ensure safety and stability.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Journal of bacteriology