[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise and starvation on growth performance, postprandial metabolic response and their interaction in a sedentary fish species, either satiation-fed or starved juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) were exercised at 25 °C under three water velocities, i.e., nearly still water (control), 1 body length (bl) s− 1 and 2 bl s− 1, for eight weeks. Then, the feed intake (FI), food conversion efficiency (FCE), specific growth rate (SGR), morphological parameters, resting O2 ( O2rest) and postprandial O2 responses of the experimental fish were measured. Exercise at a low velocity (1 bl s− 1) showed no effect on any growth performance parameter, whereas exercise at a high velocity (2 bl s− 1) exhibited higher FI but similar SGR due to the extra energy expenditure from swimming and consequent decreased FCE. Starvation led to a significant body mass loss, whereas the effect intensified in both exercise groups. Exercise resulted in improved cardio-respiratory capacity, as indicated by increased gill and heart indexes, whereas it exhibited no effect on resting and postprandial metabolism in S. meridionalis. The starved fish displayed significantly larger heart, gill and digestive tract indexes compared with the feeding fish, suggesting selective maintenance of cardio-respiratory and digestive function in this fish species during starvation. However, starved fish still exhibited impaired digestive performance, as evidenced by the prolonged duration and low postprandial metabolic increase, and this effect was further exacerbated in both the 1 and 2 bl s− 1 exercise groups. These data suggest the following: (1) aerobic exercise produced no improvement in growth performance but may have led to the impairment of growth under insufficient food conditions; (2) the mass of different organs and tissues responded differently to aerobic exercise and starvation due to the different physiological roles they play; and (3) aerobic exercise had no effect on the postprandial metabolic response under a “normal feeding” situation, whereas it may have resulted in the impairment of the digestive capacity when food availability was low due to the competition of energy and oxygen under unfavorable conditions in juvenile S. meridionalis.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A honeycomb composite is useful to carry cells for application in bone, cartilage, skin, and soft tissue regenerative therapies. To fabricate a composite, and expand the application of mollusca shells as well as improve preparing methods of calcium alginate in tissue engineering research, Anodonta woodiana shell powder was mixed with sodium alginate at varying mass ratios to obtain a gel mixture. The mixture was frozen and treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to generate a shell matrix/calcium alginate composite. Calcium carbonate served as the control. The composite was transplanted subcutaneously into rats. At 7, 14, 42, and 70 days after transplantation, frozen sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, followed by DAPI, β-actin, and collagen type-I immunofluorescence staining, and observed using laser confocal microscopy. The composite featured a honeycomb structure. The control and composite samples displayed significantly different mechanical properties. The water absorption rate of the composite and control group were respectively 205–496% and 417–586%. The composite (mass ratio of 5:5) showed good biological safety over a 70-day period; the subcutaneous structure of the samples was maintained and the degradation rate was lower than that of the control samples. Freezing the gel mixture afforded control over chemical reaction rates. Given these results, the composite is a promising honeycomb scaffold for tissue engineering.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated inter-individual variation in metabolism, swimming performance and the relationship between metabolism and swimming performance under normoxic and hypoxic oxygen conditions ([O2]) in juvenile black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). We measured the standard metabolic rate (SMR), critical swimming speed (Ucrit), active metabolic rate (AMR) and aerobic scope (AS) of 40 fish (body weight, 9.7–11.0 g; body length, 8.4–8.8 cm) at 20 °C under normoxic (100% air saturation) and hypoxic (30% air saturation) conditions. Hypoxia resulted in a significant decrease in all the investigated parameters (p < 0.05). The SMR, Ucrit and AMR exhibited consistent individual differences (repeatability) (p ≤ 0.022), whereas the AS had no consistency across different water [O2] conditions (p = 0.088). The SMR was positively correlated with the Ucrit, AMR and AS (p ≤ 0.002) under normoxic conditions. The SMR was also positively correlated with the Ucrit and AMR under hypoxic conditions (p ≤ 0.003) but there was no correlation between the SMR and AS (p = 0.141). The slope of the correlation between the SMR and Ucrit was shallower under hypoxic conditions than under normoxic conditions (F1,76 = 13.844, p < 0.001), which indicated that the swimming performance decreased more profoundly under hypoxic conditions in individuals with a high SMR.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beclin 1 plays an important role in autophagy and apoptosis which are well documented in mammals. However, relevant reports are rare in fish. This study characterized Beclin 1 of the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus (rmBeclin 1), which encodes a peptide of 447 amino acids using RT-PCR and RACE. The deduced peptide showed 96.4 and 80.8 % similarity to Beclin 1 of common carp and human, respectively. Semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed that rmBeclin 1 was ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues of male and female fish in all developmental stages, even unfertilized eggs. RT-qPCR revealed that rmBeclin 1 mRNA transcripts were significantly up-regulated in gills after a 12 h treatment with waterborne CdCl2 but were decreased thereafter. However, rmBeclin 1 expression was decreased in the brain, but it was not significantly changed in other tissues. Subchronic CdCl2 exposure significantly increased rmBeclin 1 in the brain, but it distinctly decreased rmBeclin 1 in the gill and hepatopancreas. A dose-dependent effect was not observed in mature fish treated for 96 h, but a dose-dependent effect existed in immature fish treated for 10 days. Longer treatment (10 day) caused a significantly higher expression of rmBeclin 1 in the larvae groups. These data suggest that alterations in rmBeclin 1 after CdCl2 exposure are tissue-specific and time-related and that the dose-dependent effect was restricted to a certain concentration range and exposure time.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The toxic effects of CdSe/ZnS QDs on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos at different developmental stages were investigated in this study. The voluntary movement frequency, body length, hatching rate, mortality and malformation rate, SOD activities, MDA contents, mRNA expression of metallothionein (MT) and heat stress protein 70 (Hsp70) were used as indicators. The results showed that the EC50 was 316.994 nmol x L(-1) for zebrafish embryos (72 hpf) when exposed to CdSe/ZnS QDs. After the CdSe/ZnS QDs exposure, the embryos showed a significant increase in mortality and malformation rate, a decrease in hatching rate and body length, an advance in hatching time, and a changing in the spontaneous movement frequency, and many other toxic effects, such as the condensation of embryonic eggs, the formation of pericardial cysts and curvature of the spine. Moreover, it was found that the MDA contents in the embryos in CdSe/ZnS QDs groups were significantly increased, and the SOD activities were changed. In addition, the mRNA expression level of MT and Hsp70 were up-regulated. All the information suggests that exposure of CdSe/ZnS QDs can cause toxic effects on zebrafish embryos, and the effects may be related to the releasing of Cd2+, particle size and oxidative stress.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of temperature on the repeat constant acceleration swimming performance and on the metabolic recovery capacity in juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis), their constant acceleration test speed (U
CAT) and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) recovery process were measured twice with 1-h intervals at different acclimation temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C). Temperature significantly affected U
CAT, the pre-exercise metabolic rate (MO2), metabolic peak values (MO2peak), the metabolic scope (MS, MO2peak—pre-exercise MO2) and the magnitude of the EPOC (P
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many animals experience fasting because of the high temporal and spatial sporadicity of food availability. Once food is available, animals use external energy to restore their depressed functional performance. In the present study, the physiological and morphological responses to the first bout of refeeding in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) were characterized. Fish that had undergone long-term fasting (fasted for 32 days, the S32 group) exhibited a lower resting metabolic rate ([Formula: see text]O2rest decreased by 49 %), lower peak metabolic rate ([Formula: see text]O2peak decreased by 24 %), greater energy expenditure (increased by 15 %) during specific dynamic action (SDA) and longer duration SDA response (increased by 41 %) than those of a control group (S0 group, fasted for 0 days). The S32 group showed a significantly reduced peak gastric evacuation rate (0.131 g meal h(-1)) compared with the S0 group (0.315 g meal h(-1)). The S0 group also had a shorter gastric evacuation time (36 h) than either of the two fasting groups (both 64 h). The S32 group displayed a higher minimum gastric pH (3.1) than the S0 and S16 groups (2.6). Refeeding did not trigger an increase in the wet mass of the gastrointestinal tract, whereas the liver wet mass of the S0 and the two fasting groups increased significantly with refeeding. The trypsin and lipase of the S0 group showed higher mass-specific activities and organ capacities than either of the two fasting groups at certain specific time points. A similar result was found for aminopeptidase activity. Multiple loach meals equaling 6 % of the body weight of the fed fish completely restored the liver morphology within the S16 but not the S32 group. Our results suggest that the regulation of the digestive performance of the gastrointestinal tract in S. meridionalis that are finishing their first small meal after fasting is delayed compared with that of nonfasting fish and that it is similar to the characteristics (lower [Formula: see text]O2peak, greater SDA and a longer duration of the SDA response) of the refeeding SDA.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Comparative Physiology B
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The type specimens of two Hahnia species, H. maginii Brignoli, 1977 and H. thorntoni Brignoli, 1982 were examined to determine the identification of Hahniidae from South China. Hahnia thorntoni is found to be a senior synonym of H. flagellifera Zhu, Chen & Sha, 1989, while the paratype male of H. thorntoni belongs to another species, H. zhejiangensis Song & Zheng, 1982. Chinese specimens previously identified as H. maginii probably belong to H. thorntoni. The female and male specimens of H. yueluensis Yin & Wang, 1983 were mismatched and misidentified; the female holotype and paratype belong to H. thorntoni and male allotype to H. zhejiangensis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impoundment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) was first reached 175 m in 2010. To approach the influence of this impoundment on the food web energy sources of fishes in the tributaries of TRGA, an analysis was made on the food web energy sources of seven economically important fishes (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, Silurus asotus, Culter mongolicus mongolicus, Mystus macropterus, Pelteobagrus vachelli, and Pelteobagrus nitidus) in the backwater area of Xiaojiang River by using stable isotope method in combining with IsoSource Model. The results showed that before this impoundment (July 2010), microalgae were the main energy sources for the seven species. After this impoundment (December 2010), the contribution ratio of the microalgae decreased somewhat, while the relative contribution of terrestrial C4 plants had an obvious increase. Especially for crucian carp (C. auratus) and catfish (S. asotus), the contribution rate of the C4 plants reached 38-54% and 32-50%, respectively. After the impoundment, at least 30% of the energy resources of these two fishes were come from terrestrial C4 plants, suggesting that the impoundment in TGRA increased the contribution rate of exogenous terrestrial C4 plants as the energy sources of fishes.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology / Zhongguo sheng tai xue xue hui, Zhongguo ke xue yuan Shenyang ying yong sheng tai yan jiu suo zhu ban
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Continual swimming exercise usually promotes growth in fish at a moderate water velocity. We hypothesized that the improvement in growth in exercise-trained fish may be accompanied by increases in digestive enzyme activity, respiratory capacity and, hence, postprandial metabolism. Juvenile qingbo fish (Spinibarbus sinensis) were subjected to aerobic training for 8 weeks at a water velocity of control (3 cm s(-1)), 1, 2 and 4 body length (bl) s(-1) at a constant temperature of 25 °C. The feed intake (FI), food conversion rate (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR), whole-body composition, trypsin and lipase activities, maximal oxygen consumption (M˙O2max) and postprandial M˙O2 response were measured at the end of the training period. Aerobic exercise training induced a significant increase in FI compared with the control group, while the FCR of the 4 bl s(-1) group was significantly lower than for the other three groups (P<0.05). The 1 and 2 bl s(-1) groups showed a significantly higher SGR over the control group (P<0.05). The whole-body fat and protein contents were significantly altered after aerobic exercise training (P<0.05). Furthermore, aerobic exercise training elevated the activity of both trypsin and lipase in the hepatopancreas and intestinal tract of juvenile S. sinensis. The M˙O2max of the 4 bl s(-1) training group was significantly higher than for the control group. The resting M˙O2 (M˙O2rest) and peak postprandial M˙O2 (M˙O2peak) in the three training groups were significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.05). Time to M˙O2peak was significantly shorter in the 1, 2 and 4 bl s(-1) training groups compared with the control group, while exercise training showed no effect on SDA (Specific dynamic action) duration, factorial metabolic scope, energy expended on SDA and the SDA coefficient when compared to the control group. These data suggest that (1) the optimum water velocity for the growth of juvenile S. sinensis occurred at approximately 2.4 bl s(-1); (2) the improvement of growth may have been primarily due to an increase in the FI after long-term training; (3) and aerobic exercise training boosted the activity of digestive enzymes and maximum digestive metabolism, which could favor fast digestion and growth in juvenile S. sinensis.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postprandial physiological and morphological responses to feeding were examined in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis Chen) that had consumed a loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus Cantor) meal equivalent to 6 % of the body mass of the catfish. The gastric evacuation rate (GER) peaked at 4 h postfeeding, averaging 0.36 g food weight h(-1), at which time 14 % of the ingested meal had passed into the intestine. Less than 10 % of the ingested meal remained in the stomach at 24 h postfeeding. Pepsin activity peaked at 8 h postfeeding, reaching a level approximately twofold higher than the prefeeding level. Pancreatic trypsin activity peaked at 16 h postfeeding, reaching a level 4.5-fold higher than the prefeeding level. Peaks in lipase activity in both the proximal and middle intestinal segments occurred at 16 h, reaching 2.8- and 2.4-fold higher levels than the prefeeding level, respectively, while the activity in the distal intestine segment reached a level 2.9-fold higher than the prefeeding level at 24 h postfeeding. With respect to amylase activity, only the middle intestinal segment exhibited a change, first an increase and then a decrease, after feeding. Feeding also triggered an approximately 200 % increase in the metabolic rate and resulted in 44.6 kJ kg(-1) being expended on specific dynamic action, equivalent to 16.1 % of the meal's energy. In terms of organ size, the wet mass of the liver increased by 11 % at 24 h postfeeding, whereas the wet mass of the pancreas did not change. Except for a decrease in the thickness of the submucosa in the middle intestinal segment, the thickness of the intestinal fold, mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa of each intestinal segment did not change significantly with feeding. These results suggest that the continuum of physiological responses observed with respect to metabolic increases, GER, regulation of pancreatic and intestinal digestive enzyme activities and liver wet mass to feeding corresponds to the changes in the demand on the digestive system in S. meridionalis. Moreover, species maintained stable gastrointestinal tract morphology during the short interval of repeated feeding.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The size and functional capacity of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and associated organs vary in response to environmental cues. The GI tract and associated organs are also very metabolically active in animals. Hence, animals may reduce the size and function of their GI tract to conserve energy when deprived of food. The main aims of this study were to investigate how Silurus meridionalis regulates the function and structure of its GI tract and associated organs during starvation. Starvation induced a decrease in both maintenance metabolism (MO(2rest), decreased by approximately 50%) and respiratory frequency (indicated by double side gill activity and notated as f(R), decreased by 29%). Lipase, trypsin and aminopeptidase-A showed a similar reduction in mass-specific activities during starvation, but pepsin and α-amylase did not. The starvation of experimental fish resulted in a significant reduction in body weight, the wet mass of the liver and the digestive-somatic system, the hepato-somatic index and the condition factor whereas the wet masses of the GI tract, pancreas, gall bladder and the relative intestinal length did not vary significantly during starvation. The reduction in liver wet mass was the main reason for the decrease in the wet mass of digestive-somatic system in this species. Only the mucosal area of the PI was affected significantly by starvation, decreasing by 34% at the end of the experiment. S. meridionalis displayed a decreasing intestinal mucosal area towards the distal intestine, and this gradient was not affected by starvation. The morphology and structure of both the GI tract and the liver were greatly down-regulated, as indicated by decreases in liver cell size, the mucosal thickness of the stomach and intestine, the density of goblet cells and microvilli surface area (MVSA), implying that food deprivation greatly impaired the digestive and absorptive functions of the GI tract in S. meridionalis. When deprived of food, S. meridionalis can endure harsh periods of starvation and adaptively down-regulate the function and structure of the digestive tract with physiological and biochemical strategies.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of temperature on resting oxygen consumption rate (MO2rest) and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after exhaustive exercise (chasing) were measured in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) (8.40±0.30 g, n=40) to test whether temperature has a significant influence on MO2rest, maximum post-exercise oxygen consumption rate (MO2peak) and EPOC and to investigate how metabolic scope (MS: MO2peak - MO2rest) varies with acclimation temperature. The MO2rest increased from 64.7 (10°C) to 160.3 mg O2 h(-1) kg(-1) (25°C) (P<0.05) and reached a plateau between 25 and 30°C. The post-exercise MO2 in all temperature groups increased immediately to the peak values and then decreased slowly to a steady state that was higher than the pre-exercise MO2. The MO2peak did not significantly differ among the 20, 25 and 30°C groups, though these values were much higher than those of the lower temperature groups (10 and 15°C) (P<0.05). The duration of EPOC varied from 32.9 min at 10°C to 345 min at 20°C, depending on the acclimation temperatures. The MS values of the lower temperature groups (10 and 15°C) were significantly smaller than those of the higher temperature groups (20, 25 and 30°C) (P<0.05). The magnitude of EPOC varied ninefold among all of the temperature groups and was the largest for the 20°C temperature group (about 422.4 mg O2 kg(-1)). These results suggested that (1) the acclimation temperature had a significant effect on maintenance metabolism (as indicated by MO2rest) and the post-exercise metabolic recovery process (as indicated by MO2peak, duration and magnitude of EPOC), and (2) the change of the MS as a function of acclimation temperature in juvenile southern catfish might be related to their high degree of physiological flexibility, which allows them to adapt to changes in environmental conditions in their habitat in the Yangtze River and the Jialing River.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Fish Physiology and Biochemistry