J. Cain

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States

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Publications (4)9.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The MErcury, Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission will send the first spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury. A miniaturized set of seven instruments, along with the spacecraft telecommunications system, provide the means of achieving the scientific objectives that motivate the mission. The payload includes a combined wide- and narrow-angle imaging system; γ-ray, neutron, and X-ray spectrometers for remote geochemical sensing; a vector magnetometer; a laser altimeter; a combined ultraviolet-visible and visible-infrared spectrometer to detect atmospheric species and map mineralogical absorption features; and an energetic particle and plasma spectrometer to characterize ionized species in the magnetosphere.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2001 · Planetary and Space Science
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    ABSTRACT: The Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) and the Solar Wind Ions Mass Spectrometer (SWIMS) on ACE are instruments optimized for measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of solar and interstellar matter. SWICS determines uniquely the chemical and ionic-charge composition of the solar wind, the thermal and mean speeds of all major solar wind ions from H through Fe at all solar wind speeds above 300 km s−1 (protons) and 170 km s−1 (Fe+16), and resolves H and He isotopes of both solar and interstellar sources. SWICS will measure the distribution functions of both the interstellar cloud and dust cloud pickup ions up to energies of 100 keV e−1. SWIMS will measure the chemical, isotopic and charge state composition of the solar wind for every element between He and Ni. Each of the two instruments uses electrostatic analysis followed by a time-of-flight and, as required, an energy measurement. The observations made with SWICS and SWIMS will make valuable contributions to the ISTP objectives by providing information regarding the composition and energy distribution of matter entering the magnetosphere. In addition, SWICS and SWIMS results will have an impact on many areas of solar and heliospheric physics, in particular providing important and unique information on: (i) conditions and processes in the region of the corona where the solar wind is accelerated; (ii) the location of the source regions of the solar wind in the corona; (iii) coronal heating processes; (iv) the extent and causes of variations in the composition of the solar atmosphere; (v) plasma processes in the solar wind; (vi) the acceleration of particles in the solar wind; (vii) the physics of the pickup process of interstellar He in the solar wind; and (viii) the spatial distribution and characteristics of sources of neutral matter in the inner heliosphere.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 1998 · Space Science Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: The ISEE-1 and ISEE-C instruments have been designed to measure the elemental abundances, charge state composition, energy spectra, and angular distributions of energetic ions in the energy range 2 keV/charge to 80 MeV/nucleon and of electrons between 75 and 1300 keV. By covering the energy range between solar wind and low-energy cosmic rays the instrument will fill a gap in the knowledge especially of the nuclear and ionic composition of solar, interplanetary, and magnetospheric accelerated and trapped particles. The instrument consists of three different sensor systems: ULECA is an electrostatic deflection analyzer system with rectangular solid-state detectors as energy determining devices, its energy range is ~3 to 560 keV/charge; the ULEWAT is a double dE/dX versus E thin-window flow-through proportional counter/solid-state detector telescope covering the energy range from 0.2 to 80 MeV/nucleon (Fe); the ULEZEQ sensor consists of a combination of an electrostatic deflection analyzer and a thin-window dE/dX versus E system with a thin-window proportional counter and a positionsensitive solid-state detector. The energy range is 0.4 MeV/nucleon to 6 MeV/nucleon. While the ULECA and the ULEWAT sensors are designed mainly for interplanetary and outer magnetospheric studies, the ULEZEQ sensor will also obtain composition data in the trapped radiation zone. 65 rates and pulse-height data can be obtained with sectoring in up to 16 sectors.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1978 · Geoscience Electronics, IEEE Transactions on
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    ABSTRACT: An experiment to measure the charge composition and energy spectra of ultra low energy charged particles in interplanetary space has been developed and launched on the IMP 8 (Explorer 50) satellite on 26 October 1973. The instrument consists of two separate sensors sharing common electronics. One of these sensors, developed by Max Planck Institut, uses a thin window gas proportional counter to measure the rate of energy loss and a totally depleted silicon surface barrier detector to measure total energy of incoming particles. The energy range for two dimensional analysis extends from 300 KeV to 2.5 MeV for protons and 60 KeV/nucleon to % 25 MeV/nucleon for iron with excellent resolution of individual chemical elements. The other sensor, developed at the University of Maryland, cobines electrostatic deflection with total energy measurements in silicon surface barrier detectors to give the ionic charge and kinetic energy of the particle. The overall energy range of the electrostatic analyzer is from ~125 KeV to ~1.25 MeV for singly charged ions and from 37 KeV/charge to 1.25 MeV/charge for particles with charge ¿4.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1974 · IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science