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ABSTRACT: Androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations are the most frequent cause of 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) and are associated with a variety of phenotypes, ranging from phenotypic women [complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS)] to milder degrees of undervirilization (partial form or PAIS) or men with only infertility (mild form or MAIS). The aim of the study was to characterize the contribution of the AR gene to the molecular cause of 46,XY DSD in a series of Spanish patients. We studied a series of 133 index patients with 46,XY DSD in whom gonads were differentiated as testes, with phenotypes including varying degrees of undervirilization, and in whom the AR gene was the first candidate for a molecular analysis. The AR gene was sequenced (exons 1 to 8 with intronic flanking regions) in all patients and in family members of 61% of AR-mutated gene patients. AR gene mutations were found in 59 individuals (44.4% of index patients), of whom 46 (78%) were CAIS and 13 (22%) PAIS. Fifty-seven different mutations were found: 21.0% located in exon 1, 15.8% in exons 2 and 3, 57.9% in exons 4-8, and 5.3% intronic. Twenty-three mutations (40.4%) had been previously described and 34 (59.6%) were novel. AR gene mutation is the most frequent cause of 46,XY DSD, with a clearly higher frequency in the complete phenotype. Mutations spread along the whole coding sequence, including exon 1. This series shows that 60% of mutations detected during the period 2002-2009 were novel.
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ABSTRACT: Neonatal diabetes is a rare disease characterized by hyperglycaemia within the first 3 months of life and requiring insulin treatment; it can either be transient (TNDM) or permanent (PNDM). Alterations at band 6q24 and heterozygous activating mutations in KCNJ11, the gene encoding the pore-forming subunit of the KATP channel, can cause neonatal diabetes. Aims We screened the 6q24 region, KCNJ11, GCK, FOXP3 and IPF1 genes for mutations in families with PNDM or TNDM to establish a phenotype-genotype correlation. Twenty-two patients with neonatal diabetes were recruited. Inclusion criteria were insulin-treated diabetes diagnosed within the first 3 months and insulin treatment for at least 15 days. Clinical data were recorded in a questionnaire. We identified 17 genetic alterations in our patients: six alterations at the 6q24 band associated with TNDM and nine mutations in KCNJ11, five of which were novel. The analysis for a phenotype-genotype correlation showed that patients with 6q24 alterations had a lower birth weight and were diagnosed earlier than patients with KCNJ11 mutations. At follow-up of the TNDM patients with genetic alterations, 43% developed diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance in later life (one with 6q24 duplication and two with N48D and E227K mutations at KCNJ11 gene). Furthermore, half the first-degree relatives who carried a genetic alteration but who had not suffered from neonatal diabetes were diagnosed with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance before the age of 30 years. KCNJ11 mutations are common in both TNDM and PNDM and are associated with a higher birth weight compared with patients with 6q24 abnormalities. Patients with TNDM should be screened for abnormalities in glucose metabolism in adult life.
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