Publications (8)44.19 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SHP2 is an allosteric phosphatase essential for growth factor-mediated Ras activation. Germ-line mutations in SHP2 cause clinically similar LEOPARD and Noonan syndromes, two of several autosomal-dominant conditions characterized by gain-of-function mutations in the Ras pathway. Interestingly, Noonan syndrome SHP2 mutants are constitutively active, whereas LEOPARD syndrome SHP2 mutants exhibit reduced phosphatase activity. How do catalytically impaired LEOPARD syndrome mutants engender gain-of-function phenotypes? Our study reveals that LEOPARD syndrome mutations weaken the intramolecular interaction between the N-SH2 and phosphatase domains, leading to a change in SHP2 molecular switching mechanism. Consequently, LEOPARD syndrome SHP2 mutants bind upstream activators preferentially and are hypersensitive to growth factor stimulation. They also stay longer with scaffolding adapters, thus prolonging substrate turnover, which compensates for the reduced phosphatase activity. The study provides a solid framework for understanding how individual SHP2 mutations cause diseases.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) protein tyrosine phosphatase B (mPTPB) is a virulence factor secreted by the pathogen and mediates mycobacterial survival in macrophages by targeting host cell immune responses. Consequently, mPTPB represents an exciting new target to combat TB infection. We describe a medicinal chemistry-oriented approach that transforms a benzofuran salicylic acid scaffold into a highly potent (IC50 = 38 nM) and selective mPTPB inhibitor (>50 fold against a large panel of PTPs). Importantly, the inhibitor is capable of reversing the altered host immune responses induced by the bacterial phosphatase and restoring the macrophage's full capacity to secrete IL-6 and undergo apoptosis in response to IFN-γ stimulation, validating the concept that chemical inhibition of mPTPB may be therapeutically useful for novel TB treatment. The study further demonstrates that bicyclic salicylic acid pharmacophores can be used to deliver PTP inhibitors with high potency, selectivity, and cellular efficacy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) constitute a large family of signaling enzymes that control the cellular levels of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. A detailed understanding of PTP functions in normal physiology and in pathogenic conditions has been hampered by the absence of PTP-specific, cell-permeable small-molecule agents. We present a stepwise focused library approach that transforms a weak and general non-hydrolyzable pTyr mimetic (F(2)Pmp, phosphonodifluoromethyl phenylalanine) into a highly potent and selective inhibitor of PTP-MEG2, an antagonist of hepatic insulin signaling. The crystal structures of the PTP-MEG2-inhibitor complexes provide direct evidence that potent and selective PTP inhibitors can be obtained by introducing molecular diversity into the F(2)Pmp scaffold to engage both the active site and unique nearby peripheral binding pockets. Importantly, the PTP-MEG2 inhibitor possesses highly efficacious cellular activity and is capable of augmenting insulin signaling and improving insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese mice. The results indicate that F(2)Pmp can be converted into highly potent and selective PTP inhibitory agents with excellent in vivo efficacy. Given the general nature of the approach, this strategy should be applicable to other members of the PTP superfamily.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A missense single-nucleotide polymorphism in the gene encoding the lymphoid-specific tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp) has been identified as a causal factor in a wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, the autoimmune-predisposing variant of Lyp appears to represent a gain-of-function mutation, implicating Lyp as an attractive target for the development of effective strategies for the treatment of many autoimmune disorders. Unfortunately, the precise biological functions of Lyp in signaling cascades and cellular physiology are poorly understood. Identification and characterization of Lyp substrates will help define the chain of molecular events coupling Lyp dysfunction to diseases. In the current study, we identified consensus sequence motifs for Lyp substrate recognition using an "inverse alanine scanning" combinatorial library approach. The intrinsic sequence specificity data led to the discovery and characterization of SKAP-HOM, a cytosolic adaptor protein required for proper activation of the immune system, as a bona fide Lyp substrate. To determine the molecular basis for Lyp substrate recognition, we solved crystal structures of Lyp in complex with the consensus peptide as well as the phosphopeptide derived from SKAP-HOM. Together with the biochemical data, the structures define the molecular determinants for Lyp substrate specificity and provide a solid foundation upon which novel therapeutics targeting Lyp can be developed for multiple autoimmune diseases.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SHP2, encoded by PTPN11, is a non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) containing two tandem Src homology-2 (SH2) domains. It is expressed ubiquitously and plays critical roles in growth factor mediated processes, primarily by promoting the activation of the RAS/ERK signaling pathway. Genetic and biochemical studies have identified SHP2 as the first bona fide oncoprotein in the PTP superfamily, and a promising target for anti-cancer and anti-leukemia therapy. Here, we report a structure-based approach to identify SHP2 inhibitors with a novel scaffold. Through sequential virtual screenings and in vitro inhibition assays, a reversible competitive SHP2 inhibitor (C21) was identified. C21 is structurally distinct from all known SHP2 inhibitors. Combining molecular dynamics simulation and binding free energy calculation, a most likely binding mode of C21 with SHP2 is proposed, and further validated by site-directed mutagenesis and structure-activity relationship studies. This binding mode is consistent with the observed potency and specificity of C21, and reveals the molecular determinants for further optimization based on the new scaffold.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SHP2 phosphatase is a positive transducer of growth factor and cytokine signaling. SHP2 is also a bona fide oncogene; gain-of-function SHP2 mutations leading to increased phosphatase activity cause Noonan syndrome, as well as multiple forms of leukemia and solid tumors. We report that tautomycetin (TTN), an immunosuppressor in organ transplantation, and its engineered analog TTN D-1 are potent SHP2 inhibitors. TTN and TTN D-1 block T cell receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation and ERK activation and gain-of-function mutant SHP2-induced hematopoietic progenitor hyperproliferation and monocytic differentiation. Crystal structure of the SHP2⋅TTN D-1 complex reveals that TTN D-1 occupies the SHP2 active site in a manner similar to that of a peptide substrate. Collectively, the data support the notion that SHP2 is a cellular target for TTN and provide a potential mechanism for the immunosuppressive activity of TTN. Moreover, the structure furnishes molecular insights upon which therapeutics targeting SHP2 can be developed on the basis of the TTN scaffold.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB), which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a major worldwide threat to public health. Mycobacterium protein tyrosine phosphatase B (mPTPB) is a virulent phosphatase secreted by Mtb, which is essential for the survival and persistence of the bacterium in the host. Consequently, small-molecule inhibitors of mPTPB are expected to serve as anti-TB agents with a novel mode of action. Herein, we report the discovery of highly potent and selective mPTPB inhibitors using a novel, double Click chemistry strategy. The most potent mPTPB inhibitor from this approach possesses a K(i) value of 160 nM and a >25-fold selectivity for mPTPB over 19 other protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTBs). Molecular docking study of the enzyme-inhibitor complex provides a rationale for the high potency and selectivity of the lead compound and reveals an unusual binding mode, which may guide further optimization effort.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Src homology-2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) plays a pivotal role in growth factor and cytokine signaling. Gain-of-function SHP2 mutations are associated with Noonan syndrome, various kinds of leukemias, and solid tumors. Thus, there is considerable interest in SHP2 as a potential target for anticancer and antileukemia therapy. We report a salicylic acid based combinatorial library approach aimed at binding both active site and unique nearby subpockets for enhanced affinity and selectivity. Screening of the library led to the identification of a SHP2 inhibitor II-B08 (compound 9) with highly efficacious cellular activity. Compound 9 blocks growth factor stimulated ERK1/2 activation and hematopoietic progenitor proliferation, providing supporting evidence that chemical inhibition of SHP2 may be therapeutically useful for anticancer and antileukemia treatment. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the structure of SHP2 in complex with 9 reveals molecular determinants that can be exploited for the acquisition of more potent and selective SHP2 inhibitors.
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Madison, Wisconsin, United States
- Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences