[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Although the usefulness of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) for detecting basal ganglia germinoma has been reported, the technique is not widely used. We recently encountered an unusual case of primary cerebellar germinoma, presenting with progressive ataxia and cranial nerve palsy, characterized by gradually enlarging low-intensity lesions visible with both T2*-weighted imaging (T2*WI), which were the key to the diagnosis. Case presentation A 30-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of slowly progressive dizziness and mild ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a small, low-intensity spot in the left cerebellar peduncle on the T2*WI and SWI without enhancement. Cerebral angiography revealed no vascular abnormality. The serum α-fetoprotein value was normal. A steroid-pulse was administered as a therapeutic and diagnostic trial, but the symptoms improved little. The patient was discharged from the hospital but soon developed brainstem dysfunction, characterized by dyspnea or hiccups, and he was readmitted. T2*WI imaging revealed expanded and extended spotty lesions in the cerebellum and brainstem, which had not enhanced with contrast agent previously. Targeted stereotactic biopsy of the newly enhanced cerebellar lesion was performed; histopathological examination of the tissue revealed pure germinoma. Serum and cerebral spinal fluid values of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin were not significantly elevated. Chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide was initiated. The enhanced lesion disappeared promptly, but the patient continued to require assisted automatic ventilation because of paralysis of respiratory muscles. Conclusions We conclude that enlarging low-intensity lesions on T2*WI and SWI may be a reliable clue to the diagnosis of germinomas, irrespective of their location, even without enhancement. Biopsy of the tumor at an early stage is the only way to make the diagnosis conclusively and enable prompt start of treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Suprasellar and third ventricular region cavernous malformations originating from the floor of the third ventricle are extremely rare. We report a case of third ventricular cavernous malformation arising from the ventricle floor in a 24-year-old woman who presented with short-term memory loss and disorientation. Computed tomography revealed a suprasellar mass with calcification in the posterior chiasmatic region. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass with heterogeneous intensity and without hydrocephalus. The mass was slightly enhanced subsequent to gadolinium infusion. Using a basal interhemispheric translamina terminalis approach and a neuroendoscope, we confirmed that the tumor was located at the floor of the third ventricle and removed it. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous malformation. The postoperative course was uneventful, but the patient's short-term memory loss persisted. Despite its rarity, cavernous malformation should be suspected when a tumor is detected in the vicinity of the third ventricle floor. It is treatable through surgical resection.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been reported to be associated with poor prognosis in various tumors; however, the importance of TAMs in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) has not been clarified. In 47 patients with PCNSL who were treated with high-dose methotrexate (MTX) and radiotherapy, the relationships between the infiltration levels of TAMs and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. Univariate analysis of the Cox proportional hazards model using continuous scales revealed that increased CD68 positive (+) TAMs was significantly associated with inferior progression free survival (PFS) (p=0.04), and trends were observed for the increased CD163+ TAMs and having shorter PFS (p=0.05). However, increased TAMs were not associated with overall survival. Because TAMs are known to produce various cytokines, we examined the relationships between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines and TAMs. CSF interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble IL-2 receptor were not correlated with the infiltration rate of TAMs; however, CSF IL-10 level was correlated with infiltration levels of CD68 and CD163+ TAMs. We also confirmed the expression of IL-10 in CD68+ and CD163+ TAMs by double immunostaining analysis. Our results indicate that a high level of IL-10 in CSF may be positively associated with the infiltration level of TAMs in PCNSLs.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer cells adapt their signaling in response to nutrient availability. To uncover the mechanisms regulating this process and its functional consequences, we interrogated cell lines, mouse tumor models, and clinical samples of glioblastoma (GBM), the highly lethal brain cancer. We discovered that glucose or acetate is required for epidermal growth factor receptor vIII (EGFRvIII), the most common growth factor receptor mutation in GBM, to activate mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) and promote tumor growth. Glucose or acetate promoted growth factor receptor signaling through acetyl-CoA-dependent acetylation of Rictor, a core component of the mTORC2 signaling complex. Remarkably, in the presence of elevated glucose levels, Rictor acetylation is maintained to form an autoactivation loop of mTORC2 even when the upstream components of the growth factor receptor signaling pathway are no longer active, thus rendering GBMs resistant to EGFR-, PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-, or AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog)-targeted therapies. These results demonstrate that elevated nutrient levels can drive resistance to targeted cancer treatments and nominate mTORC2 as a central node for integrating growth factor signaling with nutrient availability in GBM.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) manifest aggressive clinical behavior and have poor prognosis. Although constitutive activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway has been documented, knowledge about the genetic alterations leading to the impairment of the NF-κB pathway in PCNSLs is still limited. This study was aimed to unravel the underlying genetic profiles of PCNSL.
We conducted the systematic sequencing of 21 genes relevant to the NF-κB signaling network for 71 PCNSLs as well as the pyrosequencing of CD79B and MYD88 mutation hotspots in a further 35 PCNSLs and 46 glioblastomas (GBMs) for validation.
The results showed that 68 out of 71 PCNSLs had mutations in the NF-κB gene network, most commonly affecting CD79B (83%), MYD88 (76%), TBL1XR1 (23%), PRDM1 (20%) and CREBBP1 (20%). These mutations, particularly CD79B and MYD88, frequently coincided within each tumor in various combinations, simultaneously affecting diverse pathways within the network. No GBMs had hotspot mutation of CD79B Y196 and MYD88 L265.
The prevalence of CD79B and MYD88 mutations in PCNSLs was considerably higher than reported in systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. This observation could reflect the paucity of antigen stimuli from the immune system in the central nervous system (CNS) and the necessity to substitute them by the constitutive activation of CD79B and MYD88 that would initiate the signaling cascades. These hotspot mutations may serve as a genetic hallmark for PCNSL serving as a genetic marker for diagnose and potential targets for molecular therapy.
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No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) are activated by various cytokines and oncogenes; however, the activity and pathogenesis of STAT3 in diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the central nervous system have not been thoroughly elucidated. We investigated the phosphorylation levels of STAT3 in 40 specimens of primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PCNS DLBCL) and analyzed the association between phsopho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) expression and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of interleukin-10 (IL-10) or IL-6. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed that most of the specimens in PCNS DLBCL expressed pSTST3 protein, and a strong phosphorylation levels of STAT3 was statistically associated with high CSF IL-10 levels, but not with CSF IL-6 levels. Next, we demonstrated that recombinant IL-10 and CSF containing IL-10 induced the phosphorylation of STAT3 in PCNS DLBCL cells. Furthermore, molecular subtype classified by Hans' algorithm was correlated with pSTAT3 expression levels and CSF IL-10 levels. These results suggest that the STAT3 activity is correlated with CSF IL-10 level, which is a useful marker for STAT3 activity in PCNS DLBCLs.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation-induced vasculopathy is a complication of radiation therapy. Most reports regarding post-irradiation ischemic stroke with intracranial tumors are restricted to pediatric cases. Here we report two adult cases of delayed brain infarction due to anterior and middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion seemingly caused by focal radiation therapy for malignant glioma. Although radiation-induced ischemic stroke in adults is relatively uncommon, it is possible that the morbidity rate of radiation-induced stroke in malignant glioma patients will increase with prolonged survival due to advances in therapy. Therefore, regular evaluation of intracranial vasculature following radiation therapy is necessary.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is hyperactivated in many types of cancer, rendering it a compelling drug target; however, the impact of mTOR inhibition on metabolic reprogramming in cancer is incompletely understood. Here, by integrating metabolic and functional studies in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines, preclinical models, and clinical samples, we demonstrate that the compensatory upregulation of glutamine metabolism promotes resistance to mTOR kinase inhibitors. Metabolomic studies in GBM cells revealed that glutaminase (GLS) and glutamate levels are elevated following mTOR kinase inhibitor treatment. Moreover, these mTOR inhibitor-dependent metabolic alterations were confirmed in a GBM xenograft model. Expression of GLS following mTOR inhibitor treatment promoted GBM survival in an α-ketoglutarate-dependent (αKG-dependent) manner. Combined genetic and/or pharmacological inhibition of mTOR kinase and GLS resulted in massive synergistic tumor cell death and growth inhibition in tumor-bearing mice. These results highlight a critical role for compensatory glutamine metabolism in promoting mTOR inhibitor resistance and suggest that rational combination therapy has the potential to suppress resistance.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Journal of clinical investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
We compared the diagnostic yield and morbidity by frame-based computed tomography-guided stereotactic biopsy (CTSTB) with Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) unit and by neuronavigation-guided frameless stereotactic biopsy (NSTB) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
The subjects’ age range was 15-83 years. CTSTB with BRW unit was performed for 59 tumors (58 cases, 1988-2007). NSTB was performed for 38 tumors (35 cases, 2007-2013) with the needle sheath attached to the head holder. By NSTB, target locations of sampling points and trajectories were confirmed by using MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging-based fiber tractography was used to achieve safe trajectories. STB by using BRW did not visualize the trajectory virtually; however, the planning images for NSTB were able to show the trajectory virtually before the procedure.
Histological diagnoses were established for 93 tumors at the first biopsy. The diagnostic yield was 94.9% by CTSTB and 97.4% by NSTB (P = 0.944). The morbidity rate was 5.1% by CTSTB and 0% by NSTB (P = 0.417). The absolute risk reduction was 23.1% by NSTB when the targets were basal ganglia (putamen, globus pallidus) or thalamus. In the cases of glioma for which the targets were basal ganglia (putamen, globus pallidus) or thalamus, the absolute risk reduction by NSTB was 30%.
There was no significant difference between CTSTB and NSTB concerning the diagnostic yield and morbidity. However, when the target is the basal ganglia (putamen, globus pallidus) or thalamus and glioma is suspected, NSTB by using MRI with virtual trajectory is preferable to CTSTB concerning morbidity.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Surgical Neurology International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we describe an extremely rare case of angiosarcoma arising in schwannoma of the cerebellopontine angle and later associating with meningioma in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 2. A 33-year-old disabled Japanese man with right drop foot after surgery for an unspecified tumor demonstrated multiple tumors, suspected to be schwannoma, in the bilateral cerebellopontine angles, the cervical and lumbar spinal cord, and on the right nuchal skin. Also present were several tumors in the medulla and thoracic spinal cord suspected to be ependymoma or astrocytoma. The patient was diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 2 according to the diagnostic criteria by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The bilateral tumors in the cerebellopontine angle were resected to reduce symptoms and brain stem compression. Histopathological analysis revealed angiosarcoma arising in schwannoma of the bilateral tumors, and angiosarcoma was proportionally larger in the right tumor than in the left. At age 36, the patient underwent a second resection of the regrown tumor in the left cerebellopontine angle, and histopathology demonstrated mixed angiosarcoma and meningioma. That angiosarcoma arises in schwannoma is a pathogenesis within the realm of conjecture, especially that the phenomenon of mixed meningioma and angiosarcoma has not been reported to date.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Brain Tumor Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
MRI group analysis is a powerful tool for elucidating pathological conditions in the brain that are challenging to reveal from single subject analysis. This research aimed to elucidate special distribution characteristics of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) within the brain with respect to molecular marker expression patterns.
MR images from 100 treatment-naive PCNSL patients were collected and registered onto averaged standard anatomical MRI (MNI152). Gadolinium-enhanced lesions were extracted, and a lesion frequency map was created. Lymphoma subtypes were classified as germinal center B (GCB) or non-GCB by immunohistochemistry in 90 patients.
A PCNSL frequency map showed that these tumors tended to occur around the lateral, third and fourth ventricles. Moreover, GCB (27 cases) and non-GCB (63 cases) PCNSL frequency maps showed GCB lymphomas located at the upper tegmentum and cerebellum around the fourth ventricle, while non-GCB lymphomas tended to occupy the anterior fornix. These differences were significant and confirmed by the existence of voxels with P values <.05 (random permutation analysis with voxel-wise Fisher' exact test). This is the very first report to address phenotypical and spatial distributional differences between GCB and non-GCB PCNSL using an MR group analytical method.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) is a core hallmark of cancer, but the molecular mechanisms underlying it remain unclear. Here, we identify an unexpected central role for mTORC2 in cancer metabolic reprogramming where it controls glycolytic metabolism by ultimately regulating the cellular level of c-Myc. We show that mTORC2 promotes inactivating phosphorylation of class IIa histone deacetylases, which leads to the acetylation of FoxO1 and FoxO3, and this in turn releases c-Myc from a suppressive miR-34c-dependent network. These central features of activated mTORC2 signaling, acetylated FoxO, and c-Myc levels are highly intercorrelated in clinical samples and with shorter survival of GBM patients. These results identify a specific, Akt-independent role for mTORC2 in regulating glycolytic metabolism in cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: mTOR pathway hyperactivation occurs in nearly 90% of glioblastomas, but the allosteric mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has failed in the clinic. Here we examine the efficacy of the newly discovered ATP-competitive mTOR kinase inhibitors CC214-1 and CC214-2 in glioblastoma, identifying molecular determinants of response and mechanisms of resistance, and develop a pharmacological strategy to overcome it.
We performed in vitro and in vivo studies in glioblastoma cell lines and an intracranial model to: determine the potential efficacy of the recently reported mTOR kinase inhibitors CC214-1 (in vitro use) and CC214-2 (in vivo use) at inhibiting rapamycin resistant signaling and blocking GBM growth and a novel single cell technology, DNA Encoded Antibody Libraries, was used to identify mechanisms of resistance.
Here we demonstrate that CC214-1 and CC214-2 suppress rapamycin-resistant mTORC1 signaling; block mTORC2 signaling and significantly inhibit the growth of glioblastomas in vitro and in vivo. EGFRvIII expression and PTEN loss enhance sensitivity to CC214 compounds, consistent with enhanced efficacy in strongly mTOR-activated tumors. Importantly, CC214 compounds potently induce autophagy, preventing tumor cell death. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy greatly sensitizes GBM cells and orthotopic xenografts to CC214-1 and CC214-2 induced cell death.
These results identify CC214-1 and CC214-2 as potentially efficacious mTOR kinase inhibitors in GBM and suggest a strategy for identifying patients most likely to benefit from mTOR inhibition. This study also demonstrates a central role for autophagy in preventing mTOR-kinase inhibitor-mediated tumor cell death, and suggests a pharmacological strategy for overcoming it.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alternative splicing contributes to diverse aspects of cancer pathogenesis including altered cellular metabolism, but the specificity of the process or its consequences are not well understood. We characterized genome-wide alternative splicing induced by the activating EGFRvIII mutation in glioblastoma (GBM). EGFRvIII upregulates the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 splicing factor, promoting glycolytic gene expression and conferring significantly shorter survival in patients. HnRNPA1 promotes splicing of a transcript encoding the Myc-interacting partner Max, generating Delta Max, an enhancer of Myc-dependent transformation. Delta Max, but not full-length Max, rescues Myc-dependent glycolytic gene expression upon induced EGFRvIII loss, and correlates with hnRNPA1 expression and downstream Myc-dependent gene transcription in patients. Finally, Delta Max is shown to promote glioma cell proliferation in vitro and augment EGFRvIII expressing GBM growth in vivo. These results demonstrate an important role for alternative splicing in GBM and identify Delta Max as a mediator of Myc-dependent tumor cell metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) represents a major challenge for personalized cancer therapy. Multiple genetic mechanisms of acquired TKI resistance have been identified in several types of human cancer. However, the possibility that cancer cells may also evade treatment by co-opting physiologically regulated receptors has not been addressed. Here, we show the first example of this alternate mechanism in brain tumors by showing that EGF receptor (EGFR)-mutant glioblastomas (GBMs) evade EGFR TKIs by transcriptionally de-repressing platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ). Mechanistic studies show that EGFRvIII signaling actively suppresses PDGFRβ transcription in an mTORC1- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent manner. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of oncogenic EGFR renders GBMs dependent on the consequently de-repressed PDGFRβ signaling for growth and survival. Importantly, combined inhibition of EGFR and PDGFRβ signaling potently suppresses tumor growth in vivo. These data identify a novel, nongenetic TKI resistance mechanism in brain tumors and provide compelling rationale for combination therapy.
These results provide the fi rst clinical and biologic evidence for receptor tyrosinekinase (RTK) "switching" as a mechanism of resistance to EGFR inhibitors in GBM and provide a molecular explanation of how tumors can become "addicted" to a non amplified, nonmutated, physiologically regulated RTK to evade targeted treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolomics has recently undergone rapid development; however, metabolomic analysis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is not a common practice. We analyzed the metabolite profiles of preoperative CSF samples from 32 patients with histologically confirmed glioma using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). We assessed how alterations in the metabolite levels were related to the World Health Organization (WHO) tumor grades, tumor location, gadolinium enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status. Sixty-one metabolites were identified in the CSF from glioma patients using targeted, quantitative and non-targeted, semi-quantitative analysis. The citric and isocitric acid levels were significantly higher in the glioblastoma (GBM) samples than in the grades I–II and grade III glioma samples. In addition, the lactic and 2-aminopimelic acid levels were relatively higher in the GBM samples than in the grades I–II glioma samples. The CSF levels of the citric, isocitric, and lactic acids were significantly higher in grade I–III gliomas with mutant IDH than in those with wild-type IDH. The tumor location and enhancement obtained using MRI did not significantly affect the metabolite profiles. Higher CSF levels of lactic acid were statistically associated with a poorer prognosis in grades III–IV malignant gliomas. Our study suggests that the metabolomic analysis of CSF from glioma patients may be useful for predicting the glioma grade, metabolic state, and prognosis of gliomas.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11060-013-1090-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Preoperative knowledge of the position of the facial nerve relative to a vestibular schwannoma would be very helpful to decide for an adapted therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of predicting the course of the facial nerve in vestibular schwannoma patients using 3 T high-resolution magnetic resonance cisternography in a large consecutive series.
The study was prospectively conducted in 82 patients operated for vestibular schwannoma. All patients underwent preoperative gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced, balanced fast-field echo (bFFE) imaging. The course of the facial nerve was estimated preoperatively and the results were verified with the intraoperative findings.
The facial nerve could be identified by preoperative MRI in 38 cases (46.3 %). In 28 cases (34.1 % of total patients, 73.7 % of identified patients), the course of the MRI-identified facial nerve was completely congruent with the intraoperative findings. In the patient group with MRI-identified facial nerves, tumor size was smaller and the number of solid type was larger. There were 23 cases where the tumor was solid and smaller than 20 mm. Nineteen (82.6 %) of those cases could estimate the facial nerve preoperatively and 16 cases (69.6 %) have complete congruency.
Gd-enhanced bFFE at 3 T is capable of demonstrating the location of the facial nerve in vestibular schwannoma patients prior to surgery. Slices that were perpendicular to the internal auditory canal were useful besides axial images. In small, solid-type tumors, facial nerve was more easily identified than other types of tumors.