[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-induced indoleamine dioxygenase (IDO), which inhibits chlamydial replication by reducing the availability
of tryptophan, is up-regulated by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The mechanisms by which
this occurs include an increase in the synthesis of interferon regulatory factor-1 as well as a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent
increase in the expression of IFN-γ receptors (IFN-γR). Although Chlamydia is susceptible to IDO, it up-regulates IFN-γR expression to a greater degree than either IL-1β or TNF-α, perhaps through
interaction with Toll-like receptors (TLR). The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which Chlamydia psittaci up-regulates IFN-γR expression and evaluate this effect on IDO induction. Infection of HEK 293 cells with C. psittaci increased IFN-γR expression only in cells expressing either TLR2 or TLR4 and the adaptor protein MD-2. In addition, up-regulation
of IFN-γR expression in Chlamydia-infected HeLa cells could be blocked either by neutralizing TLRs with anti-TLR2 and/or anti-TLR4 or by inhibiting NF-κB transactivation
with a proteasome inhibitor. Although the newly expressed IFN-γR in Chlamydia-infected cells were capable of binding IFN-γ, they did not enhance IFN-γ-induced IDO activity in a manner similar to those
observed for IL-1β and TNF-α. Instead, IDO activation in Chlamydia-infected cells was no different than that induced in uninfected cells, despite the increase in IFN-γR expression. Furthermore,
the amount of IFN-γ-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1) activation in infected cells paralleled
that observed in uninfected cells, suggesting that STAT-1 activation by these newly expressed receptors was impaired.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · Infection and Immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) induces the enzyme indoleamine dioxygenase (IDO) in a variety of human cell types. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) synergistically increase IFN-induced IDO activity. Inasmuch as cytokines can upregulate cytokine receptor expression, one mechanism of cytokine synergy may be at the level of receptor expression. To test the hypothesis that this mechanism of IDO regulation is active in epithelial cells, HeLa cells were treated with IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, or IL-1beta to determine optimal cytokine concentrations and time for maximal cytokine receptor expression. Flow cytometric analysis with antibodies to receptors for IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, or IL-1beta indicated that each cytokine upregulated expression of the other cytokine receptors by 4 h, with maximal expression observed between 16 and 20 h after cytokine treatment. Furthermore, increases in IFN-gamma receptors (IFNGR) induced by IL-1beta were found to be dependent on NF-kappaB transactivation. To determine if increases in IFNGR expression alone contributes to synergistic IDO induction, cells were stimulated with IL-1beta to upregulate receptor expression, and the NF-kappaB concentration was allowed to return to basal levels. When treated with IFN-gamma, enhanced Stat1 signaling and IDO induction were still observed, indicating that increased cytokine receptor expression contributes to synergistic increases in IDO activity.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research