[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a frequent, potentially disabling complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) that reduces quality of life and is costly. Clinical manifestations include symptoms and signs such as leg pain and heaviness, edema, redness, telangiectasia, new varicose veins, hyperpigmentation, skin thickening and in severe cases, leg ulcers. The best way to prevent PTS is to prevent DVT with pharmacologic or mechanical thromboprophylaxis used in high risk patients and settings. In patients whose DVT is treated with a vitamin K antagonist, subtherapeutic INRs should be avoided. We do not suggest routine use of elastic compression stockings (ECS) after DVT to prevent PTS, but in patients with acute DVT-related leg swelling that is bothersome, a trial of ECS is reasonable. We suggest that selecting patients for catheter-directed thrombolytic techniques be done on a case-by-case basis, with a focus on patients with extensive thrombosis, recent symptoms onset, and low bleeding risk, who are seen at experienced hospital centers. For patients with established PTS, we suggest prescribing 20–30 mm Hg knee-length ECS to be worn daily. If ineffective, a stronger pressure stocking can be tried. We suggest that intermittent compression devices or pneumatic compression sleeve units be tried in patients with moderate-to-severe PTS whose symptoms are inadequately controlled with ECS alone. We suggest that a supervised exercise training program for 6 months or more is reasonable for PTS patients who can tolerate it. We suggest that management of post-thrombotic ulcers should involve a multidisciplinary approach. We briefly discuss upper extremity PTS and PTS in children.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), which refers to chronic clinical manifestations of venous insufficiency after a deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is a frequent occurrence. Because treatment options for PTS are limited, its management mainly relies on the prevention of its occurrence after DVT. Among identified predictors of PTS, extensive proximal location of DVT directly modifies the treatment of DVT because of the possibility of performance of complementary endovascular techniques. The association between poor international normalized ratio control and subsequent PTS should encourage physicians to perform frequent and regular international normalized ratio monitoring of patients receiving vitamin K antagonists. Other identified PTS risk factors are ipsilateral DVT recurrence, older age, pre-existing primary venous insufficiency, obesity, and residual venous obstruction, but these are less amenable to therapy. Because of their potential therapeutic implications, identification of biomarkers that are predictive of PTS such as markers of inflammation is crucial and such research is ongoing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In cases of suspected deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), different compression ultrasound (CUS) protocols are used, and the usefulness of systematically screening the asymptomatic contralateral leg is a matter of controversy. In a recent article, Le Gal et al., reported that unilateral whole-leg CUS detected the large majority of DVT and that the number of contralateral CUS examinations needed (NCCN) to diagnose one case of DVT after a negative unilateral examination of the ipsilateral side was high. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose of review:
Postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) is the most frequent complication of deep vein thrombosis. Its pathophysiology is incompletely understood and therapeutic options are limited. This review aims to present and discuss recently published studies that have improved our knowledge related to PTS.
From a prognostic point of view, some polymorphisms of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 influence the degree of thrombus resolution after deep vein thrombosis and the subsequent rate of PTS, and could help in predicting the risk of PTS. From a therapeutic point of view, the results of a large multicenter placebo-controlled trial suggest an absence of effectiveness of elastic compression stockings to prevent PTS. In addition, although the Cavent trial of catheter-directed thrombolysis to treat ilio-femoral deep vein thrombosis showed significant reduction in the incidence of PTS that was cost-effective, secondary analyses did not show dramatic improvements in quality of life associated with use of catheter-directed thrombolysis.
Choice of anticoagulant to treat deep vein thrombosis may represent a new cornerstone of PTS therapeutic management. Studies are needed to assess the impact of new oral anticoagulants and the benefit of extended courses of low molecular weight heparins on the risk of PTS.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Current Opinion in Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Opinion statement:
Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) refers to chronic manifestations of venous insufficiency following a deep-vein thrombosis (DVT). It is a frequent, chronic, burdensome and costly disease for which therapeutic options are limited. Above all, the optimal management of PTS consists of preventing its occurrence: first, by preventing DVT, and second, by preventing development of PTS after a DVT. Prevention of DVT is challenging, particularly in the case of nonsurgical hospital inpatients, where physician's adherence to recommended thromboprophylaxis is often low. In our opinion, this adherence should be improved by generalizing the use of multi-component approaches, including that of automatic reminders. For prevention of PTS after an acute DVT, our recommendations are as follows. After a proximal (popliteal and above) DVT we recommend early ambulation with daily use of 30-40 mmHg graduated elastic compression stockings (ECS) for two years, in addition to careful monitoring of anticoagulant therapy. Below-knee ECS are preferred to thigh-length ECS, as they have similar efficacy in preventing PTS and are better tolerated. To improve compliance with ECS, patient education is important, and use of lighter strengths of compression in patients not tolerating traditional strengths should be considered. Catheter-directed thrombolysis of acute DVT was recently shown to be effective in preventing PTS, but we believe that confirmatory studies are needed before recommending its general use. The cornerstone of management of established PTS relies on patient education and use of compression therapy. We encourage ambulation, use of ECS to manage symptoms, and participation in an exercise training program, which has the potential to improve patients' quality of life (QOL) and PTS scores. In the absence of symptom relief, ECS that provide a higher strength (40-50 mmHg) should be tried. In case of moderate to severe PTS, intermittent compressive devices can be used to improve PTS symptoms. Surgery and endovascular procedures, including balloon angioplasty, stent placement, endovenectomy or valve reconstruction should be considered only in specialized centers, and only for patients with severe PTS for whom previous conservative treatment has failed. These techniques are still under evaluation and the level of evidence supporting their use is low.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A current debate concerning suspected superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) focuses on the need of performing a compression ultrasound (CUS) exploration for confirming the diagnosis of SVT. This study was conducted to determine the clinical relevance and optimal CUS exploration in patients with symptomatic SVT.
We analyzed the characteristics of SVT and concomitant deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients included in the Prospective Observational Superficial Thrombophlebitis (POST) multicenter, observational prospective study. All patients underwent complete bilateral lower limb CUS, exploring both the superficial and deep venous systems.
A total of 844 patients with clinical symptoms of SVT were recruited, of which 99 isolated SVTs (21.4%) had saphenofemoral/popliteal junction involvement, and 198 (23.5%) had a concomitant DVT, with 41.8% of them proximal DVTs. In 83 patients (41.9%), DVT and SVT were not contiguous. Five of 639 patients (1%) had an isolated contralateral DVT (ie, not bilateral). Age ≥75 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-3.4), inpatient status (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 3.4-8.7), a personal history of DVT or pulmonary embolism (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8), and SVT on nonvaricose veins (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.1-5.0) were significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of concomitant DVT. Half of the patients exhibited none of these risk factors, and the prevalence of concomitant DVT dropped to 11%.
In patients with symptomatic SVT, a CUS exploration screening the whole venous system of the affected limb is useful because it provides information that has important consequences for the management of these patients.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of thrombosis in the purely obstetric form of antiphospholipid syndrome is uncertain. We performed a 10-year observational study of 1592 nonthrombotic women who had experienced 3 consecutive spontaneous abortions before the 10th week of gestation or 1 fetal death at or beyond the 10th week of gestation. We compared the frequencies of thrombotic events among women positive for antiphospholipid Abs (n = 517), women carrying the F5 6025 or F2 rs1799963 polymorphism (n = 279), and women with negative thrombophilia screening results (n = 796). The annual rates of deep vein thrombosis (1.46%; range, 1.15%-1.82%), pulmonary embolism (0.43%; range, 0.26%-0.66%), superficial vein thrombosis (0.44%; range, 0.28%-0.68%), and cerebrovascular events (0.32%; range, 0.18%-0.53%) were significantly higher in aPLAbs women than in the other groups despite low-dose aspirin primary prophylaxis. Women carrying 1 of the 2 polymorphisms did not experience more thrombotic events than women who screened negative for thrombophilia. Lupus anticoagulant was a risk factor for unprovoked proximal and distal deep and superficial vein thrombosis and women in the upper quartile of lupus anticoagulant activity had the highest risk. Despite data suggesting that aPLAbs may induce pregnancy loss through nonthrombotic mechanisms, women with purely obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome are at risk for thrombotic complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isolated distal deep-vein thrombosis (iDDVT) is a distal deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) without proximal DVT or pulmonary embolism. Although its clinical significance is uncertain, its prevalence is increasing with the use of whole leg compression ultrasonography. Epidemiological data giving reported rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE) are scarce, and there is potential conflict regarding the need to treat with anticoagulant drugs. Therefore, iDDVT management varies widely from one country/physician to another.
Data are available from two large multicenter observational studies of iDDVT and proximal DVT without pulmonary embolism (iPDVT), comparing risk factor profiles and early prognosis, and also from clinical trials on iDDVT.
iDDVT and iPDVT differ in terms of risk factor profile, iPDVT being more associated with chronic risk factors and iDDVT with transient ones. In the short term, case fatality rates associated with iDDVT suggest that it is a clinically relevant entity and should at least be diagnosed. From a therapeutic point of view, differences in population profile and outcomes between iPDVT and iDDVT, and results from recent clinical trials in favor of a modest VTE potential of iDDVT indicate that specific randomized double-blind trials are necessary to determine an appropriate and accepted mode of care for iDDVT.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Current opinion in pulmonary medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Half of all lower limb deep vein thromboses (DVT) are distal DVT that are equally distributed between muscular calf vein thromboses (MCVT) and deep calf vein thromboses (DCVT). Despite their high prevalence, MCVT and DCVT have never been compared so far, which prevents possible modulation of distal DVT management according to the kind of distal DVT (MCVT or DCVT).
Using data from the French, multicenter, prospective observational OPTimisation de l'Interrogatoire dans l'évaluation du risque throMbo-Embolique Veineux (OPTIMEV) study, we compared the clinical presentation and risk factors of 268 symptomatic isolated DCVT and 457 symptomatic isolated MCVT and the 3-month outcomes of the 222 DCVT and 390 MCVT that were followed-up.
During the entire follow-up, 86.5% of DCVT patients and 76.7% of MCVT patients were treated with anticoagulant drugs (P = .003). MCVT was significantly more associated with localized pain than DCVT (30.4% vs 22.4%, P = .02) and less associated with swelling (47.9% vs 62.7%, P < .001). MCVT and DCVT patients exhibited the same risk factors profile, except that recent surgery was slightly more associated with DCVT (odds ratio, 1.70%; confidence interval, 1.06-2.75), and had equivalent comorbidities as evaluated by the Charlson index. At 3 months, no statistically significant difference was noted between MCVT and DCVT in death (3.8% vs 4.1%), venous thromboembolism recurrence (1.5% vs 1.4%), and major bleeding (0% vs 0.5%).
Isolated symptomatic MCVT and DCVT exhibit different clinical symptoms at presentation but affect the same patient population. Under anticoagulant treatment and in the short-term, isolated distal DVT constitutes a homogeneous entity. Therapeutic trials are needed to determine a consensual mode of care of MCVT and DCVT.
Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Superficial venous thrombosis (SVT) prognosis is debated and its management is highly variable. It was the objective of this study to assess predictive risk factors for concurrent deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) at presentation and for three-month adverse outcome. Using data from the prospective multicentre OPTIMEV study, we analysed SVT predictive factors associated with concurrent DVT and three-month adverse outcome. Out of 788 SVT included, 227 (28.8%) exhibited a concurrent DVT at presentation. Age >75years (odds ratio [OR]=2.9 [1.5-5.9]), active cancer (OR=2.6 [1.3-5.2]), inpatient status (OR=2.3 [1.2-4.4]) and SVT on non-varicose veins (OR=1.8 [1.1-2.7]) were significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of concurrent DVT. 39.4% of SVT on non-varicose veins presented a concurrent DVT. However, varicose vein status did not influence the three-month prognosis as rates of death, symptomatic venous thromboembolic (VTE) recurrence and major bleeding were equivalent in both non-varicose and varicose SVTs (1.4% vs. 1.1%; 3.4% vs. 2.8%; 0.7% vs. 0.3%). Only male gender (OR=3.5 [1.1-11.3]) and inpatient status (OR=4.5 [1.3-15.3]) were independent predictive factors for symptomatic VTE recurrence but the number of events was low (n=15, 3.0%). Three-month numbers of deaths (n=6, 1.2%) and of major bleedings (n=2, 0.4%) were even lower, precluding any relevant interpretation. In conclusion, SVT on non-varicose veins and some classical risk factors for DVT were predictive factors for concurrent DVT at presentation. As SVT remains mostly a clinical diagnosis, these data may help selecting patients deserving an ultrasound examination or needing anticoagulation while waiting for diagnostic tests. Larger studies are needed to evaluate predictive factors for adverse outcome.
No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a lack of consensus on the value of detecting and treating symptomatic isolated distal deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower limbs. In our study, we compared the risk factors and outcomes in patients with isolated symptomatic distal DVT with those with proximal symptomatic DVT. We analysed the data of patients with objectively confirmed symptomatic isolated DVT enrolled in the national (France), multicenter, prospective OPTIMEV study. This sub-study outcomes were recurrent venous thromboembolism, major bleeding and death at three months. Among the 6141 patients with suspicion of isolated DVT included between November 2004 and January 2006, DVT was confirmed in 1643 patients (26.8%). Isolated distal DVT was more frequent than proximal DVT (56.8% vs. 43.2%, respectively; p = 0.01). Isolated distal DVT was significantly more often associated with transient risk factors (recent surgery, recent plaster immobilisation, recent travel), whereas proximal DVT was significantly more associated with more chronic states (active cancer, congestive heart failure or respiratory insufficiency, age >75 years). Most patients (96.8%) with isolated distal DVT received anticoagulant therapies. There was no difference in the percentage of recurrent venous thromboembolism and major bleeding in patients with proximal DVT and isolated distal DVT. However, the mortality rate was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in patients with proximal DVT (8.0%) than in those with isolated distal DVT (4.4%). Symptomatic isolated distal DVT differs from symptomatic proximal DVT both in terms of risk factors and clinical outcome. Whether these differences should influence the clinical management of these two events remains to be determined.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Thrombosis and Haemostasis