- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple observational studies have suggested that breast cancer gene (BRCA)-associated ovarian cancers have improved survival compared with BRCA-negative ovarian cancers. However, most of those studies combined BRCA1 and BRCA2 patients or evaluated only BRCA1 patients. The objective of the current study was to examine whether BRCA1-associated and BRCA2-associated ovarian cancers were associated with different outcomes. This was a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients who had a new diagnosis of histologically confirmed stage III or IV serous ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer between January 1, 1996 and February 1, 2011 and who underwent BRCA mutation testing on 1 of 2 institutional review board-approved follow-up studies. Patients who had been tested for BRCA mutations beyond 24 months of diagnosis were excluded from analysis to minimize selection bias from including patients who were referred for genetic testing because of long survival. Data from 190 patients (143 BRCA-negative patients, 30 BRCA1-positive patients, and 17 BRCA2-positive patients) were analyzed. During the study period, 73 deaths were observed (60 BRCA-negative patients, 10 BRCA1-positive patients, 3 BRCA2-positive patients). The median follow-up for the remaining 117 survivors was 2.5 years. At 3 years, 69.4%, 90.7%, and 100% of BRCA-negative patients, BRCA1-positive patients, and BRCA2-positive patients were alive, respectively. On univariate analysis, age, BRCA2 mutations, debulking status, and type of first-line therapy (intravenous or intraperitoneal) were significant predictors of overall survival. On multivariate analysis, BRCA2 mutations (hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.65; P = .007), but not BRCA1 mutations (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-1.38; P = .31), predicted for improved overall survival compared with BRCA-negative patients. When carriers of BRCA2 mutations were directly compared with carriers of BRCA1 mutations, BRCA2 mutations appeared to confer improved overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-1.05; P = .060), although this finding did not reach significance. The current data suggests that BRCA2 mutations confer an overall survival advantage compared with either being BRCA-negative or having a BRCA1 mutation in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. This finding may have important implications for clinical trial design.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BRCA-associated and sporadic ovarian cancers have different pathologic and clinical features. Our goal was to determine if BRCA mutation status is an independent predictor of residual tumor volume following primary surgical cytoreduction. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with FIGO stage IIIC-IV high-grade serous ovarian cancer classified for the presence or absence of germline BRCA mutations. The primary outcome was tumor-debulking status categorized as complete gross resection (0mm), optimal but visible disease (1-10 mm), or suboptimal debulking (>10 mm) following primary surgical cytoreduction. Overall survival by residual tumor size and BRCA status was also assessed as a secondary endpoint. Data from 367 patients (69 BRCA mutated, 298 BRCA wild-type) were analyzed. Rate of optimal tumor debulking (0-10 mm) in BRCA wild-type and BRCA-mutated patients were 70.1% and 84.1%, respectively (P=0.02). On univariate analysis, increasing age (10-year OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07-1.65; P=0.01) and wild-type BRCA status (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.23-0.94, P=0.03) were both significantly associated with suboptimal surgical outcome. On multivariate analysis, BRCA mutation status was no longer associated with residual tumor volume (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.31-1.29; P=0.21) while age remained a borderline significant predictor (10-year OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.56; P=0.05). Both smaller residual tumor volume and mutant BRCA status were significantly associated with improved overall survival. BRCA mutation status is not associated with the rate of optimal tumor debulking at primary surgery after accounting for differences in patient age. Improved survival of BRCA carriers is unlikely the result of better surgical outcomes but instead intrinsic tumor biology.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers defined by estrogen (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) status of the tumour. We used genotype data on up to 11,421 BRCA1 and 7,080 BRCA2 carriers, of whom 4,310 had been affected with breast cancer and had information on either ER or PR status of the tumour, to assess the associations of 12 loci with breast cancer tumour characteristics. Associations were evaluated using a retrospective cohort approach. The results suggested stronger associations with ER-positive breast cancer than ER-negative for 11 loci in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Among BRCA1 carriers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2981582 (FGFR2) exhibited the biggest difference based on ER status (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) for ER-positive = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.56 vs HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.85 to 0.98 for ER-negative, P-heterogeneity = 6.5 × 10-6). In contrast, SNP rs2046210 at 6q25.1 near ESR1 was primarily associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. In BRCA2 carriers, SNPs in FGFR2, TOX3, LSP1, SLC4A7/NEK10, 5p12, 2q35, and 1p11.2 were significantly associated with ER-positive but not ER-negative disease. Similar results were observed when differentiating breast cancer cases by PR status. The associations of the 12 SNPs with risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers differ by ER-positive or ER-negative breast cancer status. The apparent differences in SNP associations between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, and non-carriers, may be explicable by differences in the prevalence of tumour subtypes. As more risk modifying variants are identified, incorporating these associations into breast cancer subtype-specific risk models may improve clinical management for mutation carriers.
Dataset: Additional file 1[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Supplementary Tables. Supplementary Table 1: List of local ethics committees that approved studies. Supplementary Table 2: Methods and thresholds used to define the final marker variables. Supplementary Table 3: Per-allele hazard ratio estimates by progesterone receptor status for BRCA1 mutation carriers. Supplementary Table 4: Per-allele hazard ratio estimates by progesterone receptor status for BRCA2 mutation carriers.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: • To investigate the relationship between BRCA mutation status and response to taxane-based chemotherapy, since BRCA mutation carriers with prostate cancer appear to have worse survival than non-carriers and docetaxel improves survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. • We determined BRCA mutation prevalence in 158 Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) men with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Clinical data were collected as part of an institutional prostate cancer research database and through additional medical record review. • Clinical records and DNA samples were linked through a unique identifier, anonymizing the samples before genetic testing for the AJ BRCA1/2 founder mutations. • Response to taxane-based therapy was defined by the prostate-specific antigen nadir within 12 weeks of therapy. • In all, 88 men received taxane-based treatment, seven of whom were BRCA carriers (three BRCA1, four BRCA2; 8%). Initial response to taxane was available for all seven BRCA carriers and for 69 non-carriers. • Overall, 71% (54/76) of patients responded to treatment, with no significant difference between carriers (57%) and non-carriers (72%) (absolute difference 15%; 95% confidence interval -23% to 53%; P= 0.4). • Among patients with an initial response, the median change in prostate-specific antigen was similar for BRCA carriers (-63%, interquartile range -71% to -57%) and non-carriers (-60%, interquartile range -78% to -35%) (P= 0.6). • At last follow-up, all seven BRCA carriers and 49 non-carriers had died from prostate cancer. One BRCA2 carrier treated with docetaxel plus platinum survived 37 months. • In this small, hypothesis-generating study approximately half of BRCA carriers had a prostate-specific antigen response to taxane-based chemotherapy, suggesting that it is an active therapy in these individuals.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with BRCA-associated ovarian cancer (OC) have a survival advantage over those with sporadic OC. To further explore this, we examined the impact of prognostic factors on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with known BRCA mutation status. We reviewed stage III-IV OC patients treated at our institution between 1 December 1996 and 30 September 2006 and also tested on protocol for BRCA mutations. Impact on DFS and OS was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and a Cox proportional hazards model. Of the 110 patients, 36 had deleterious BRCA mutations [BRCA (+)] and 74 were BRCA wild type [BRCA(-)]. Thirty-one of 36 (86%) BRCA (+) and 60 of 74 (81%) BRCA (-) patients were platinum sensitive (P = 0.60). Median OS was longer for BRCA (+) patients (not reached versus 67.8 months; P = 0.02), but DFS was similar (26.9 versus 24.0, P = 0.3). On multivariate analysis, OS correlated with primary platinum sensitivity [HR = 0.15; 95% CI (confidence interval) 0.06-0.34] and BRCA (+) mutation status (HR = 0.33; 95% CI 0.12-0.86). BRCA mutation status predicted OS independent of primary platinum sensitivity, suggesting that underlying tumor biology contributes to disease outcome and may be worthy of consideration in future clinical trial design.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variable natural history that is not accurately predicted by currently used prognostic tools. We genotyped 798 prostate cancer cases of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry treated for localized prostate cancer between June 1988 and December 2007. Blood samples were prospectively collected and de-identified before being genotyped and matched to clinical data. The survival analysis was adjusted for Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen. We investigated associations between 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and biochemical recurrence, castration-resistant metastasis, and prostate cancer-specific survival. Subsequently, we did an independent analysis using a high-resolution panel of 13 SNPs. On univariate analysis, two SNPs were associated (P<0.05) with biochemical recurrence, three SNPs were associated with clinical metastases, and one SNP was associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality. Applying a Bonferroni correction (P<0.0017), one association with biochemical recurrence (P=0.0007) was significant. Three SNPs showed associations on multivariable analysis, although not after correcting for multiple testing. The secondary analysis identified an additional association with prostate cancer-specific mortality in KLK3 (P<0.0005 by both univariate and multivariable analysis). We identified associations between prostate cancer susceptibility SNPs and clinical end points. The rs61752561 in KLK3 and rs2735839 in the KLK2-KLK3 intergenic region were strongly associated with prostate cancer-specific survival, and rs10486567 in the 7JAZF1 gene were associated with biochemical recurrence. A larger study will be required to independently validate these findings and determine the role of these SNPs in prognostic models.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased prostate cancer risk has been reported for BRCA mutation carriers, but BRCA-associated clinicopathologic features have not been clearly defined. We determined BRCA mutation prevalence in 832 Ashkenazi Jewish men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer between 1988 and 2007 and 454 Ashkenazi Jewish controls and compared clinical outcome measures among 26 BRCA mutation carriers and 806 noncarriers. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare age of diagnosis and Gleason score, and logistic regression models were used to determine associations between carrier status, prostate cancer risk, and Gleason score. Hazard ratios (HR) for clinical end points were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. BRCA2 mutations were associated with a 3-fold risk of prostate cancer [odds ratio, 3.18; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.52-6.66; P = 0.002] and presented with more poorly differentiated (Gleason score > or =7) tumors (85% versus 57%; P = 0.0002) compared with non-BRCA-associated prostate cancer. BRCA1 mutations conferred no increased risk. After 7,254 person-years of follow-up, and adjusting for clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, and treatment, BRCA2 and BRCA1 mutation carriers had a higher risk of recurrence [HR (95% CI), 2.41 (1.23-4.75) and 4.32 (1.31-13.62), respectively] and prostate cancer-specific death [HR (95% CI), 5.48 (2.03-14.79) and 5.16 (1.09-24.53), respectively] than noncarriers. BRCA2 mutation carriers had an increased risk of prostate cancer and a higher histologic grade, and BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were associated with a more aggressive clinical course. These results may have implications for tailoring clinical management of this subset of hereditary prostate cancer.