[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine tumors of the extrahepatic bile ducts (EBNETs) are very rare. The aim of the present review is to elucidate the characteristics of EBNETs, their treatment and prognosis. An exhaustive systematic review of the literature was performed from 1959 up-to-date. One hundred articles, describing 150 cases were collected. Each article was carefully analyzed and a database was created. The most common symptoms were jaundice (60.3 %) and pruritus (19.2 %). Cholelithiasis co-existed in 15 cases (19.2 %). Hormone- and vasoactive peptide- related symptoms were present in only 7 cases (9 %). The most frequent sites were found to be the common hepatic duct and the proximal common bile duct (19.2 %). Surgical management was considered the main treatment for EBNETs, while excision of extrahepatic biliary tree (62.82 %) with portal vein lymphadenectomy (43.6 %) was the most popular procedure. EBNETs are extremely rare. Their rarity makes their characterization particularly difficult. Up to date the final diagnosis is made after surgery by pathology and immunohistochemistry findings. The present analysis of the existing published cases elucidates many aspects of these tumours, giving complete clinicopathological documentation.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Pathology & Oncology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The sodium bicarbonate infusion test evaluates the function of the parathyroid glands. The present study aims to evaluate the range of parathyroid response in healthy individuals and the potential influence of various factors.
Fifty healthy volunteers were subjected to the test. Levels of vitamin D, calcium, albumin, and PTH were measured before infusion. PTH was measured at 3, 5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes after infusion.
A curve describing the response of parathyroids to the test was drawn. Twenty percent of the subjects had blunted PTH response. No significant difference was observed between normal and blunted responders concerning age, BMI, baseline PTH, or calcium levels. Nonetheless, there was a significant difference in vitamin D levels (P = 0.024).
The test is easy to perform and may be used for everyday screening. It has to be clarified whether our observations are, at least partly, produced due to the presence of individuals with a constitutively blunted response or if low levels of vitamin D decrease the ability of the parathyroids to respond. Whichever the case, PTH response of normal individuals to sodium bicarbonate infusion test is more varied than previously thought and vitamin D levels influence it.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Solitary true pancreatic cysts (STPCs), or epithelial cysts, are benign lesions that are extremely rare in adult patients. Advances in radiographic techniques have improved the ability to identify pancreatic cystic lesions. We report a case of a large and symptomatic STPC in a 47-year-old female patient who was treated successfully with spleen-preserving laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy. We also review the clinical and pathologic features of all reported STPCs within the past 25 years.
To compose the review, we did a search of the international literature for STPCs that had occurred in adults. Fourteen related articles were found describing cases of STPCs. Clinical and pathologic information was collected for all of the reported pancreatic cysts, and a database was formed. STPCs are detected more frequently in women than in men. The mean age of occurrence is 43.2 years, and the mean cyst size is 5.6 cm. Fifty percent of true cysts are located in the head of the pancreas. Size and site are responsible for the symptoms caused, although 22.8% were asymptomatic. Diagnosis was made postoperatively in all cases by histopathologic studies. No case of malignancy was reported in any STPC.
STPCs are rare and benign lesions commonly discovered incidentally during abdominal imaging. Surgical treatment is considered the appropriate therapy for large and symptomatic STPCs. The definitive diagnosis is established by histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons / Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Laparostomy with vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) plays an important role in improving survival in the presence of abdominal infection. We conducted a study of the qualitative changes in the bacterial flora of the peritoneal cavity in patients with severe abdominal infection treated with laparostomy and a VAC device.
Thirty-nine patients with severe abdominal infection treated with abdominal opening and VAC were registered in a clinical study. When an incidence of 53.8% of hospital-acquired peritoneal infection (HAPI) was found in the study patient population, it was decided to divide the patients in two groups according to whether or not they developed a HAPI. The patients' outcomes were then analyzed.
The durations of abdominal opening (p=0.04), length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) (p=0.01), and of hospitalization (p=0.04) were significantly greater in patients with HAPI than in those without it, whereas mortality did not differ on the basis of these three variables.
Superinfection is common in laparostomy done with a VAC device for managing severe abdominal infection. The data in the present study show that VAC does not alter the quality of the bacterial burden in primary abdominal contamination, nor does it seem to prevent a high incidence of HAPI. However, VAC is as effective in reducing mortality among patients with HAPI as among those without it.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Surgical Infections
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aims:
This 3-institution study assessed the short-term clinical outcome and safety profile of the NiTi Biodynamix ColonRingTM compression anastomosis in elective colorectal resection.
A prospective, open-label, non-randomized trial was conducted at 3 separate institutions between October 2008 to October 2009 in patients undergoing elective colorectal resection with the Biodynamix ColonRingTM compression anastomosis ring, assessing technical factors in its operative use, immediate and short-term clinical outcome parameters (length of hospital stay, time to first passage of flatus and stool and to oral intake) and peri-operative complications including anastomotic failure or stenosis and wound infection.
Forty patients (22 females, mean age 65.9 years; range 36-83 years were included in the analysis with 14 cases being performed laparoscopically. The median duration of surgery was 120 minutes (range 60-456 minutes) with a mean anastomotic time of 14.8 minutes (range 1.75-50 minutes). The mean height of anastomosis from the anal verge was 18.2cm. The median time to passage of first flatus and first stool was 2.4 and 3.5 days, respectively with a mean hospital stay of 7.3 days. There was one postoperative death (unrelated to an anastomotic complication) with 2 anastomotic leaks (5%), 2 wound infections (5%) and no cases of early anastomotic stricture.
The compression anastomosis ColonRingTM handles easily with an acceptable clinical outcome following both laparoscopic and open use. The incidence of anastomotic and wound complications is comparable to conventional stapled technology.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Hepato-gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Cytomegalovirus infection of the gastrointestinal tract is common and is more often seen in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Although small bowel infection is less common than infection of other parts of the gastrointestinal system, it may lead to perforation, an acute complication, with dreadful results.
This article reports a case of Cytomegalovirus ileitis with multiple small bowel perforations in a young man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The patient developed abdominal pain with diarrhea and fever, and eventually acute abdomen with pneumoperitoneum. The patient had poor prognosis and deceased despite the prompt surgical intervention and the antiviral therapy he received. At pathology a remarkable finding was the presence of viral inclusions in smooth muscle fibers. The destruction of muscle cells was the main cause of perforation.
Morbidity and mortality associated with perforation from CMV enteritis in AIDS patients are high and the life expectancy is short. Cytomegalovirus disease is multifocal; therefore, excision of one portion of the gastrointestinal tract may be followed by a complication elsewhere. Our case elucidate that muscle cell destruction by the virus is a significant cause leading to perforation.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · BMC Research Notes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ideal method of temporary abdominal closure (TAC) should allow rapid closure, easy maintenance, and wound repair with minimal tissue damage. The aim of this retrospective study is to compare open abdomen outcomes between patients managed with vacuum-assisted closure (VAC), and patients managed with other methods of TAC, when septic abdomen is present. Two groups of patients with septic open abdomen: 27 treated with VAC versus 31 treated with other techniques of TAC. We studied open abdomen duration, number of dressing changes, re-exploration rate, successful abdominal closure rate, overall mortality, and development of enteroatmospheric fistulas. The VAC device demonstrated its superiority concerning open abdomen duration (P < 0.001), number of dressing changes (P < 0.001), re-exploration rate (P < 0.002), successful abdominal closure rate (P < 0.0001), and development of enteroatmospheric fistulas (P < 0.00001). Compared with other methods of TAC, our experience with the VAC device demonstrated its advantages concerning clinical feasibility. The high rates of direct fascia closure with an acceptable rate of ventral hernias are further benefits of this technique.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · The American surgeon
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Echinococcal disease can develop anywhere in the human body. The liver represents its most frequent location. Hepatic hydatid cysts may rupture into the biliary tract, thorax, peritoneum, viscera, digestive tract or skin. We report a rare case with rupture of the right hepatic duct into a hydatid cyst in a woman with known hydatid disease and choledocholithiasis. The increased intra-luminal pressure in the biliary tree caused the rupture into the adjacent hydatid cyst. The creation of the fistula between the right hepatic duct and the hydatid cyst decompressed the biliary tree, decreased the bilirubin levels and offered a temporary resolution of the obstructive jaundice. Rupture of a hydatid cyst into the biliary tree usually leads to biliary colic, cholangitis and jaundice. However, in case of obstructive jaundice due to choledocholithiasis, it is possible that the cyst may rupture by other way around while offering the patient a temporary relief from his symptoms.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Korean medical science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laryngeal complications occur in thyroidectomies as a result of several factors, but especially because of nerve damage. We compared intraoperative stimulation neuromonitoring (IONM) with intraoperative continuous electromyographic neuromonitoring (IEM) to evaluate their ability to identify postoperative laryngeal complications.
This prospective clinical trial included 174 patients (348 nerves) who had both IONM and IEM. We recorded age, sex, pathology, vocal fold motility, and complications.
IONM identified 334 nerves, whereas IEM identified 348. Five patients had transient laryngeal complications, 2 bilateral, and 3 unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paresis. In addition, in 2 patients IEM showed placement of the tracheal tube balloon on the vocal folds, which led to correction. Sensitivity and specificity were 96.48% and 100% for IONM and 100% and 100% for IEM, respectively. IONM had a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 36.84%. The positive and negative predictive values of IEM were 100%.
Both techniques identify recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries; however, IEM seems to have an advantage concerning the nonsurgical laryngeal complications and may play a role in preventing morbidity.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · American journal of surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three types of cervical thymic anomalies have been described: ectopia, thymic cyst, and thymoma. Thymic cysts are very rare causes of benign neck masses in adults and are usually not diagnosed before surgery. Their prevalence is less than 1% of all cervical masses, and they are usually noted in childhood. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning cervical thymic cysts (CTCs) in adults.
We identified 36 adult patients with a CTC. Our analysis included age, gender, cyst size, location, type, symptoms, time from cyst appearance, treatment, pathology, and follow-up. The male/female ratio was 4/5, the mean age was 36 years. Most of the cysts were asymptomatic masses diagnosed by pathology. In only one case did the differential diagnosis include a thymic cyst. Surgery should be considered the treatment of choice, but the size and location of the lesion and its relationship to nearby vital structures should be defined as clearly as possible preoperatively. Excision can be made via a transverse cervical incision. It may be a demanding procedure because of the close anatomical relationship of the CTCs with the carotid sheath and major nerves of the neck (recurrent laryngeal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, hypoglossic nerve, and phrenic nerve), particularly if there is adherence of the CTC with those structures.
CTCs are uncommon lesions causing neck swelling and are often misdiagnosed preoperatively. Surgical excision and histological examination of the specimen usually makes the diagnosis. The existence of normal thymus gland in the mediastinum should be confirmed intraoperatively, but this is not critical in adult patients. A CTC should be included in the differential diagnosis of cervical cystic masses.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drainage of ascitic fluid is a common practice in order to relief the respiratory discomfort of patients.
To determine the relation between the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and extracted volume of the ascitic fluid, in order to calculate abdominal compliance (Cabd).
A study was designed at AHEPA University Hospital and analysed with prospectively collected data.
Fifteen patients with tension ascites that had transcutaneous drainage with a wide catheter. The ascitic fluid removed was measured, while the IAP and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for dyspnea were recorded before and 15 min after the puncture. Cabd was calculated.
The data were analysed with descriptive statistics, paired Student's t-test and Pearson coefficiency.
The predrainage IAP was 18.26 mmHg (SD 1.67 mmHg), while the postdrainage was 14.46 mmHg (SD 1.34 mmHg) (P<0.001). The mean volume of ascitic fluid removed was 1624 mL (SD 861 mL). Cabd after drainage was 414.01 mL/mmHg (SD 139.15 mL/mmHg). A linear correlation was found between ascitic fluid removal and IAP variations. The dyspnea VAS score was 7.5 (SD=0.8) before the drainage and 4.3 (SD=1.0) after the drainage (P<0.001).
The drainage of ascitic fluid reduces IAP, facilitating in this way respiration. Moreover, IAP variation seems to be in linear relation with the volume of ascitic fluid removed. This linear relation between IAP and volume may probably predict the Cabd quite accurately and vice versa. However, larger studies are necessary to safely draw predicting ΔIAP - ΔV (Cabd) diagrams, and determine the optimal ascitic fluid removal to achieve best comforting of the patient and slower fluid reformation.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of Emergencies Trauma and Shock
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) are increasingly recognized as potential complications in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. ACS and IAH affect all body systems, most notably the cardiac, respiratory, renal, and neurologic systems. ACS/IAH affects blood flow to various organs and plays a significant role in the prognosis of the patients. Recognition of ACS/IAH, its risk factors and clinical signs can reduce the morbidity and mortality associated. Moreover, knowledge of the pathophysiology may help rationalize the therapeutic approach. We start this article with a brief historic review on ACS/IAH. Then, we present the definitions concerning parameters necessary in understanding ACS/IAH. Finally, pathophysiology aspects of both phenomena are presented, prior to exploring the various facets of ACS/IAH management.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of Emergencies Trauma and Shock
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Spleen is a multifunctional organ with immunologic, haemopoietic and lymphoid activity. Objectives: To study epidemiologically patients' undergone splenectomy, to identify splenectomy indications and analyze the results. Methods: The study group comprised 167 patients, who underwent splenectomy from 1991 to 2009. Splenectomy indications were categorized in 7 groups: (i) splenic trauma, (ii) haematological diseases, (iii) malignancies, (iv) congestive and vascular diseases, (v) splenic cysts, (vi) iatrogenic rupture, (vii) inflammatory diseases. Results: The patients' average age is 60, 43 ± 6,74 and presents bimodal distribution with peaks the 15-29 and 60-74 subgroups. The injury of the organ, which is the most frequent etiology for splenectomy, represents the 58% of the splenectomy indications (32% traumatic and 26% iatrogenic). After 2005, splenectomies proceeded due to traumatic injury have been reduced, while iatrogenic rupture remained on high levels. Conclusions: The identification of splenic activity, the clarification of its important role and the modified splenectomy indications especially for haematological diseases has led to the reduction of (both emergency and scheduled) splenectomies. Home.
No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Surgical Chronicles
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meckel's diverculum considered most prvalent congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract affecting 1.4% of the genera] pop̈ulations-Most patients, ibiih Meckel' diverticulum are asyrnptomatic and usually It is found accidentally during laparotomy or laparoscopy. The incident of complications is higher in children younger than 10 year old. Adult patients rarely developed Meckel's divertculum complication which are often misdiognosed. The aim of the study is to present the results of nine adult́-cases with Meckel diverticulum complications.We analyzed the preoperative patient's characteristics, operative results arid Meckel's diverticulum features and we compare' them with the corresponding of the international literature preoprative diverticulumddiagnosis of Meckel's diverticulum was made in two patients (22.2%), whereas in 5.patients (55.5%) existed ectopic tissue. In conclusion, preoperative diagnosis of Meckel's diverticulum is difficult to made and often misdiagnosed.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Surgical Chronicles
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple techniques have been introduced to obtain fascial closure for the open abdomen to minimize morbidity and cost of care. We hypothesized that a modification of the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) technique that provides constant fascial tension and prevents abdominis rectis retraction would facilitate primary fascial closure and reduce morbidity.
In all, 53 patients with severe abdominal sepsis were allocated randomly into 2 groups, and 30 patients were analyzed. In the VAC group, we included patients managed only with the VAC device, whereas the retentions sutured sequential fascial closure (RSSFC) group included patients to whom RSSFC was performed.
The abdomen was left open for 12 days (P = .0001) with 4.4 ± 1.35 changes per patient for the VAC group (P = .001) and 8 days with 2.87 ± 0.74 dressing changes per patient for the RSSFC group, respectively. Abdominal closure was possible in only 6 patients in the VAC group, whereas for the RSSFC group, abdominal closure was achieved in 14 patients (P = .005). Planned hernia was exclusively decided in patients in the VAC group (P = .001). The hospital stay was 17.53 ± 4.59 days for the VAC group and 11.93 ± 2.05 days for the RSSFC group (P = .0001). The median initial intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was 12 mm Hg for the VAC group and 16 mm Hg for the RSSFC group (P < .0001).
We demonstrated the superiority of RSSFC compared with the single use of the VAC device. In our opinion, sequential fascial closure can immediately begin when abdominal sepsis is controlled.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with impaired immunity are at higher risk of perianal diseases. Concerning complex anal fistulas impaired healing and complication rates are also higher. Definitive treatment of a fistula aims controlling the purulent discharge and prevents its recurrence. It depends mainly on the trajectory of the fistula and the underlying disease. We present a case of a HIV-positive patient with a complex extrasphincteric anal fistula who was treated successfully with fibrin glue application. We further, discuss tips and tricks when applying fibrin glue as plugging material in complex anal fistulas.
A sixty-one-year-old HIV-positive male referred to us for warts and extrasphincteric fistula. Because of the patients' immunological status, we opted against surgery and recommended fibrin glue plugging. The patient was discharged the same day. A follow-up examination was performed 5 days after the initial fibrin glue application showing that the fistula canal was obstructed. Three months and a year post-intervention the fistula tract remains closed.
The best treatment for a disease gives at least the same result with the other treatments with minimised risk for the life of the patient and minimal application effort. Conservative closure of fistula with fibrin plugging is simple, safe and with less morbidity than surgery. Our patient was successfully treated without endangering his life despite his precarious medical state. Not everybody believes in the effectiveness of fibrin glue application, however we consider this solution in cases of complex fistulas at least as primary procedure in special populations such as the immunosupressed.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · BMC Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: KESISOGLOU I., PLIAKOS I., SAPALIDIS K., DELIGIANNIDIS N. & PAPAVRAMIDIS S. (2009) European Journal of Cancer Care Emergency treatment of complicated colorectal cancer in the elderly. Should the surgical procedure be influenced by the factor ‘age’?
The complication rate in patients affected by colorectal cancer (CRC) is high and the prognosis especially in the elderly patients is poor. The aim of this retrospective study is to compare the complicated CRC outcome between elderly patients and a group of patients younger than 70 years old, treated at the same time period. Between 1997 and 2007, 24 patients older than 70 years old with CRC (Group A), in an emergency situation, were operated on by the same team of surgeons. During the same time period, 20 patients, aged less than 70 years (Group B), with similar clinical and surgical findings, were operated on. All patients had undergone emergency procedures for occlusion, perforation and haemorrhage. We compared both groups in terms of preoperative health status, morbidity and mortality rates. According to ASA classification, Group A was considered of greater intraoperative danger (P= 0.01). Despite the fact that there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups, patients aged >70 years presented higher morbidity and mortality rates. This fact is probably due to their overall health status. The surgical approach of patients with complicated CRC should not be influenced by the patient's age.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · European Journal of Cancer Care
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydatid cysts of the liver are known to occasionally rupture into the bile ducts and cause cholangitis. The histological features of this complication have not been adequately described in the literature. Herein is reported a case of severe eosinophilic cholangitis of the left hepatic lobe, occurring in a 24-year-old man with a large (16 cm) hydatid cyst, which obstructed and eroded the left hepatic duct. The patient presented with upper abdominal discomfort and low-grade fever of 3 weeks' duration. Sections of the left lobectomy specimen showed marked inflammatory infiltrates in the portal tracts, predominantly composed of eosinophils, extensively involving bile ducts of all sizes. Occasional small bile ducts were replaced by epithelioid cell granulomas surrounding eosinophilic microabscesses. The inflammatory infiltrates extended into the lobules, resulting in marked hepatocyte loss. This case demonstrates that echinococcosis may cause severe eosinophilic cholangitis with extensive parenchymal destruction, apparently resulting from a hypersensitivity reaction to parasitic antigens.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Pathology International