[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To evaluate treatment response, survival, and the associations between KRAS mutation status and tumour expression levels of BRCA1, TYMS and SRC retrospectively in a cohort of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), treated exclusively with conjunctive platinum-based doublet chemotherapy.
KRAS mutation status was determined via amplification refractory mutation and multiple quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Tumour expression levels of BRCA1, TYMS and SRC were determined via real time quantitative PCR.
Patients with KRAS mutations (n = 3) had significantly shorter survival duration than patients with wild type KRAS (n = 42). Tumour expression levels of BRCA1 and TYMS, but not SRC, were significantly lower in patients with, than in those without, KRAS mutations. Tumour expression level of BRCA1 was positively correlated with survival duration.
KRAS mutation status and BRCA1 tumour expression are potential biomarkers for tailoring chemotherapy and predicting clinical outcome.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Journal of international medical research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that Homer1b/c plays an important pro-apoptotic role through classical mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. The present study was undertaken to determine the expression and functional significance of Homer1b/c in multiple myeloma (MM). We found that Homer1b/c was lowly expressed in MM cell apoptotic model induced by doxorubicin. The positive role of Homer1b/c in cell apoptosis was further confirmed by knocking down Homer1b/c. Further study confirmed that Homer1b/c was able to affect the CAM-DR via pro-apoptotic activity regulating the ability of cell adhesion. Collectively, these data indicate that Homer1b/c may represent a good candidate for pursuing clinical trial in MM.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Oncology Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and risk factors of multiple myeloma patients with invasive fungi disease (IFD) in China. We analyzed multiple myeloma (MM) patients receiving chemotherapy in a prospective multicenter study. Basic characteristics, the diagnosis, and treatment of IFD were recorded. A total of 395 MM patients were enrolled, who received a total of 443 chemotherapy courses. Among them, 17 IFDs were diagnosed during one chemotherapy course. Fourteen of these were possible IFD and 3 were probable IFD. Ten of the 14 patients with possible IFD had lung infection. Thirty eight (8.6 %) patients received antifungal prophylaxis, and 47.4 % of them were administered with fluconazole. Patients who had a history of IFD or underwent a combined therapy with two antibiotics for over 7 days and with a history of granulocytopenia or ductus venosus insertion were more likely to be treated with antifungal prophylaxis. All of first-line antifungal therapies were monotherapy. Eleven (84.6 %) cases were treated with azoles. The median time of initial antifungal therapy was 8 days. The general condition of two patients with probable IFD and 10 patients (90.9 %) with possible IFD improved, while 1 patient with possible IFD died. Multivariate analysis revealed that history of IFD is an independent risk factor of IFD. The present multicenter study suggests that the incidence of IFD per chemotherapy courses in MM patients is 3.8 % and most patients are labelled as having possible IFD. Fluconazole is the most common antifungal agent for prophylaxis and voriconazole for therapeutic treatment. Previous IFD is a probable independent risk factor of IFD in MM patients receiving chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
For recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (alloHSCT), we hypothesized that prophylactic therapy during neutropenia with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) decreases invasive fungal disease (IFD).
Patients and methods:
We randomly assigned 206 patients undergoing alloHSCT to receive once-daily subcutaneous GM-CSF (5 to 7 μg/kg per day), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; 5 to 7 μg/kg per day), or a combination of G-CSF and GM-CSF (2 to 3 μg/kg per day each). Treatment was started on day 5 after transplantation and was continued until the absolute neutrophil count was ≥ 1.5 × 10(9)/L for 2 consecutive days. The primary outcomes were 100-day incidence of proven and probable IFD and response rate of antifungal treatment.
For the intent-to-treat population, there was no significant difference in 100-day incidences of proven and probable IFD among the three groups. The antifungal treatment response was better in the GM-CSF group and G-CSF+GM-CSF group than in G-CSF group from day 22 to day 100 (P = .009). The 100-day cumulative mortality after transplantation was lower in the GM-CSF group than in the G-CSF group (10.3% v 24.6%, respectively; P = .037). The GM-CSF and G-CSF+GM-CSF groups had lower 100-day transplantation-related mortality than the G-CSF group (8.8%, 8.7%, and 21.7%, respectively; P = .034). After a median follow-up of 600 days, IFD-related mortality was lower in the groups that received GM-CSF or G-CSF+GM-CSF compared with G-CSF (1.47%, 1.45%, and 11.59%, respectively; P = .016). There were no significant differences in relapse, graft-versus-host disease, or hemorrhage-related mortality among the three groups of patients.
For recipients of alloHSCT, compared with G-CSF, prophylactic GM-CSF was associated with lower 100-day transplantation-related mortality, lower 100-day cumulative mortality, and lower 600-day IFD-related mortality.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the spatial and temporal programmed expression of Shh and Wnt members during key stages of definitive hematopoiesis and the possible mechanism of Shh and Wnt signaling pathways regulating the proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Spatial and temporal programmed gene expression of Shh and Wnt signaling during hematopoiesis corresponded with c-kit(+)lin(-) HPCs proliferation. C-kit(+)Lin(-) populations derived from aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) of Balb/c mice at E10.5 with increased expression of Shh and Wnt3a demonstrated a greater potential for proliferation. Additionally, supplementation with soluble Shh N-terminal peptide promoted the proliferation of c-kit(+)Lin(-) populations by activating the Wnt signaling pathway, an effect which was inhibited by blocking Shh signaling. A specific inhibitor of wnt signaling was capable of inhibiting Shh-induced proliferation in a similar manner to shh inhibitor. Our results provide valuable information on Shh and Wnt signaling involved in hematopoiesis and highlight the importance of interaction of Shh and Wnt signaling in regulating HPCs proliferation.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · DNA and cell biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The aim of the study was to explore the association between OPG, RANKL, and RANK gene variations and the bone mineral density (BMD) response to alendronate therapy in postmenopausal Chinese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia.
Materials and methods:
In the present study, 40 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OPG, RANKL, and RANK genes were genotyped in 501 postmenopausal Chinese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia who were given alendronate (70 mg weekly) orally for 1 year. The BMD at the lumbar spine 1-4 (L1-L4), femoral neck, and total hip was measured.
A total of 442 patients completed 1 year of alendronate therapy. The rs7239261 SNP of the RANK gene was significantly associated with baseline L1-L4 BMD (P=0.0004) after correction for age and BMI. Participants with the SNP A allele (C/A and A/A) had a higher BMD than those with the C/C genotype (C/A vs. C/C, P=0.001; A/A vs. C/C, P=0.025). Haplotypes AG of rs7239261-rs12969154, GG of rs3826619-rs11877530, and CACG of rs1805034-rs8083511-rs17069895-rs7231887 in the RANK gene were genetic protective factors toward a higher baseline L1-L4 BMD. No association was observed between any SNP or haplotype of the OPG, RANKL, and RANK genes and the response of BMD to alendronate therapy.
The RANK gene might contribute to genetic variability in L1-L4 BMD in postmenopausal Chinese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia. No evidence of an association between any SNP or haplotype of the OPG, RANKL, and RANK genes and the response of BMD to alendronate therapy was found in postmenopausal Chinese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complex mechanistic array underlying the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is still unclear. Although dysregulations of different signaling pathways involved in MDS have been described, the identification of specific biomarkers and therapy targets remains an important task in order to establish novel therapeutic approaches. Here, we demonstrated that the Shh signaling pathway is active in MDS and correlated it with disease progression. Additionally, the knockdown of Gli1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Gli1 silencing also induced apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest. Furthermore, Gli1 silencing enhanced the demethylating effect of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine on the p15 gene promoter and subsequently promoted its expression by inhibiting DNA methyltransferase 1(DNMT1). Our findings show that the Shh signaling pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis and disease progression of MDS, and proceeds by modulating DNA methylation. This pathway may prove to be a potential therapeutic target for enhancing the therapeutic effects of 5-azacytidine on malignant transformation of MDS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study we investigated the correlation between donor chimerism status and disease relapse following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The chimerism of Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) sorted CD3+T lymphocytes of 153 cases, CD56+CD16+NK lymphocytes of 153 cases and CD19+B lymphocytes of 31 cases with acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) was analyzed post-transplant utilizing polymerase chain reaction amplification of short tandem repeats (PCR-STR). A total of 33 patients (33/153, 21.6%) had recurrent disease. The positive predictive values of declining donor chimerism for hematologic and isolated extramedullary relapse were 58.8% and 10% (P=0.018, Chi-Square). The positive predictive values of declining donor chimerism in BMB, BMT, BMNK and PBB for hematologic relapse were 11.6%, 0%, 0% and 0% under close monitoring in patients with B-ALL. Only the donor chimerism in BMB significantly decreased in the group with hematologic relapse as compared with the group without hematologic relapse (P=0.00, Independent-samples T test) in patients with B-ALL. The median drop of donor chimerism in PBT, BMT, PBNK and BMNK were 0%, 0%, 5.9% and 2.8% one or two weeks prior to hematologic relapse in patients with non-B-ALL. The donor chimerism in PBNK significantly decreased prior to hematologic relapse in the group with hematologic relapse as compared with the group without hematologic relapse (P=0.022, Independent-samples T test).These data suggest donor chimerism of BMB can be used to predict the occurrence of hematologic relapse in patients with B-ALL. Donor chimerism decrease in PBNKwas associated with a somewhat increased risk of hematologic relapse in patients with non-B-ALL. Therefore, our results reveal a more effective path to individually predict for hematologic relapse by dynamic monitoring different cell lineages in different disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADO-II) is a heritable bone disorder characterized by osteosclerosis, predominantly involving the spine (vertebral end-plate thickening, or rugger-jersey spine), the pelvis ("bone-within-bone" structures) and the skull base. Chloride channel 7 (CLCN7) has been reported to be the causative gene. In this study, we aimed to identify the pathogenic mutation in four Chinese families with ADO-II. All 25 exons of the CLCN7 gene, including the exon-intron boundaries, were amplified and sequenced directly in four probands from the Chinese families with ADO-II. The mutation site was then identified in other family members and 250 healthy controls. In family 1, a known missense mutation c.296A>G in exon 4 of CLCN7 was identified in the proband, resulting in a tyrosine (UAU) to cysteine (UGU) substitution at p.99 (Y99C); the mutation was also identified in his affected father. In family 2, a novel missense mutation c.865G>C in exon 10 was identified in the proband, resulting in a valine (GUC) to leucine (CUC) substitution at p.289 (V289L); the mutation was also identified in her healthy mother and sister. In family 3, a novel missense mutation c.1625C>T in exon 17 of CLCN7 was identified in the proband, resulting in an alanine (GCG) to valine (GUG) substitution at p.542 (A542V); the mutation was also identified in her father. In family 4, a hot spot, R767W (c.2299C>T, CGG>TGG), in exon 24 was found in the proband which once again proved the susceptibility of the site or the similar genetic background in different races. Moreover, two novel mutations, V289L and A542V, occurred at a highly conserved position, found by a comparison of the protein sequences from eight vertebrates, and were predicted to have a pathogenic effect by PolyPhen-2 software, which showed "probably damaging" with a score of approximately 1. These mutation sites were not identified in 250 healthy controls. Our present findings suggest that the novel missense mutations V289L and A542V in the CLCN7 gene were responsible for ADO-II in the two Chinese families.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral risedronate is effective in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis when administered daily, weekly, or monthly. In this 1-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study we compared the weekly 35-mg and daily 5-mg risedronate dosing regimens in the treatment of Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia.
Postmenopausal women with primary osteoporosis or osteopenia were randomly assigned to the weekly group or daily group (n=145 for each) that received oral risedronate 35 mg once a week or 5 mg daily, respectively, for 1 year. The subjects' bone mineral densities (BMDs), bone turnover markers (P1NP and β-CTX), new vertebral fractures, and adverse events were assessed at baseline and during the treatments.
All subjects in the weekly group and 144 subjects in the daily group completed the study. The primary efficacy endpoint after 1 year, i.e. the mean percent changes in the lumbar spine BMD (95% CI) were 4.87% (3.92 to 5.81%) for the weekly group and 4.35% (3.31 to 5.39%) for the daily group. The incidences of clinical adverse events were 48.3% in the weekly group and 54.2% in the daily group.
The weekly 35-mg and daily 5-mg risedronate dosing regimens during 1 year of follow-up show similar efficacy in improving BMDs and biochemical markers of bone turnover in Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia. Moreover, the two dosing regimens exhibit similar safety and tolerability.
Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of JAK2V617F on different thrombotic risks in essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients, we identified eligible studies from several databases including Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (up to November 2014). Twenty-two studies of 2922 ET patients were included in exploring the relationship between JAK2V617F and the risk of thrombosis. Compared to JAK2V617F-negative ET patients, JAK2V617F-positive ET patients had higher odd risks (ORs) of arterial thrombosis [OR = 2.59 (1.84-3.65)] and venous thrombosis [OR = 2.10 (1.53-2.88)]. The JAK2V617F-positive group was also more prone to increased risk of microcirculatory disturbances [OR = 1.50 (0.97-2.32)]. Moreover, JAK2V617F may indicate increased risk of either arterial [OR = 1.71 (1.22-2.39)] or venous thrombosis [OR = 2.90 (1.54-5.46)] before diagnosis of ET. During follow-up, JAK2V617F might not be related to arterial thrombosis [OR = 1.90 (0.90-2.08)], but rather venous thrombosis [OR = 1.95 (1.08-3.53)]. In conclusion, JAK2V617F increased the risk of arterial and venous thrombosis in ET patients, while understanding its role in microcirculatory disturbances will require further studies.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · International journal of hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of marrow microenvironment in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) remains controversial. Therefore, we studied the influence of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) from patients with different risk types of MDS on the survival of the MDS cell lines SKM-1 and MUTZ-1. We first demonstrated that the expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), smoothened (Smo), and glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (Gli1) was increased in MDS patients
; the increase in expression was positively correlated with the presence of high-risk factors. The Shh signaling inhibitor, cyclopamine, inhibited high-risk MDS BMSC-induced survival of SKM-1 and MUTZ-1 cells, suggesting a role for Shh signaling in MDS cell survival. Furthermore, cyclopamine-mediated inhibition of Shh signaling in SKM-1 and MUTZ-1 cells resulted in decreased DNMT1 expression and cell survival; however, exogenous Shh peptide had the opposite effect, suggesting that Shh signaling could regulate the expression of DNMT1, thereby modulating cell survival in MDS. In addition, the apoptosis of SKM-1 and MUTZ-1 cell increased significantly when cultured with cyclopamine and a demethylation agent, 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine. These findings suggest that Shh signaling from BMSCs is important in the pathogenesis of MDS and could play a role in disease progression by modulating methylation.
Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Stem cell International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to compare the clinical features and outcomes in calreticulin (CALR)-mutated and JAK2V617F patients of essential thrombocythemia (ET). Compared with JAK2V617F ET patients, CALR-mutated ET was associated with a clear increase in male predominance [OR 1.71 (95 % CI 1.28–2.28), P < 0.001, I
2 = 51.6] and a significant decrease in thrombosis events [OR 0.40 (95 % CI 0.32–0.50), P < 0.001, I
2 = 0]. No difference was observed in hemorrhagic events [OR 0.86 (95 % CI 0.52–1.42), P = 0.558, I
2 = 0] or splenomegaly [OR 0.8 (95 % CI 0.55–1.14), P = 0.217 I
2 = 42.9]. CALR-mutated ET did not show better overall survival (OS) [HR 1.03 (95 % CI 0.74–1.44) P = 0.854, I
2 = 47.6] but showed better thrombosis-free survival (TFS) [HR 0.62 (0.44–0.87), P = 0.005, I
2 = 0] than JAK2V617F ET. In conclusion, CALR-mutated ET and JAK2V617F ET may represent two different subgroups of essential thrombocythaemia with respect to clinical features and outcomes.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · International Journal of Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This stud y examined the epidemiology, risk factors, management, and outcome of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in patients receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancy in China. IFI risk factors were analyzed using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. In total, 4,192 patients receiving 4,889 chemotherapy courses were enrolled [mean age 40.7 years, 58.4 % male, 16.9 % children (<18 years)]. The most common hematological diseases were acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 28.5 %), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, 26.3 %), and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 20.2 %). Severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count [ANC] <500/mm(3)) occurred after one third (1,633/4,889, 33.4 %) of chemotherapy courses. Incidence of proven/probable IFI was 2.1 % per chemotherapy course and higher in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, 4.94 %), acute hyperleukocytic leukemia (AHL, 4.76 %), AML (3.83 %), or induction chemotherapy. Risk factors included ANC <500/mm(3) [odds ratio (OR) 3.60], AML or MDS (OR 1.97), induction chemotherapy (OR 2.58), previous IFI (OR 3.08), and being male (OR 1.74). Antifungal agents, prescribed in one quarter (1,211/4,889, 24.8 %) of chemotherapy courses, included primary/secondary prophylaxis (n = 827, 16.9 %) and/or treatment (n = 655, 13.4 %; 86.9 % triazoles), which was empirical (84.3 %), pre-emptive (8.6 %), or targeted (7.1 %). Overall mortality following each chemotherapy course (1.5 %) increased in proven/probable (11.7 %) and possible IFI (8.2 %). In summary, IFI was more common in MDS, AHL, AML, or induction chemotherapy, and substantially increased mortality. Neutropenic patients receiving induction chemotherapy for AML or MDS and those with previous IFI were at particular risk. Antifungal prophylaxis showed an independent protective effect but was not commonly used, even in high-risk patients. By contrast, empiric antifungals were widely used.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Many studies have demonstrated that microRNA-21 (miR-21) acts as an oncogene in the tumourigenesis of a variety of tumours and may be involved in the chemotherapeutic drug resistance of tumour cells. In this study, we utilized the leukaemia cell line K562 as an in vitro cell model to investigate whether miR-21 is involved in X-ray irradiation resistance.
Retroviral transduction and antisense oligonucleotide transfection were used to overexpress or knock down miR-21 expression, respectively. An MTT assay was used to measure cell viability, and western blotting was performed to detect the expression of the miR-21 target gene, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue), and its downstream signalling components, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and AKT.
The overexpression of miR-21 decreased the protein expression levels of PTEN, increased the phosphorylation level of AKT, and enhanced the X-ray irradiation resistance in K562 cells. In contrast, the knockdown of miR-21 increased the PTEN protein expression, reduced the phosphorylation levels of the AKT, and increased the sensitivity of K562 cells to X-ray irradiation. The overexpression of PTEN or the knockdown of AKT also increased the sensitivity of K562 cells to X-ray irradiation.
By regulating the expression of its target gene PTEN, which subsequently affects the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway, miR-21 exerts its regulatory role on the radiation sensitivity of K562 cells. These results may help to provide the basis for microRNA-based targeted therapies to overcome radiation resistance in tumour cells.