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Publications (25)

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fulvic acid (FA) is known to promote electrochemical balance as a donor or a receptor possessing many biomedical functions. Nevertheless, the effect of FA on the anti-cancer activity has not been elucidated. In the current study, we first isolated FA from humus and investigated whether FA regulates immune-stimulating functions, such as production of nitric oxide (NO), in RAW 264.7 cells. Our data showed that FA slightly enhances cell viability in a dose-dependent manner and secretion of NO from RAW 264.7 cells. It upregulated the protein and mRNA expression of inducible NO synthesis (iNOS). In addition, FA enhanced the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in RAW 264.7 cells; the NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) effectively attenuated the expression of FA-stimulated iNOS, suggesting that FA stimulates NF-κB to promote iNOS and NO production. Finally, FA-stimulated culture media (FA-CM) from RAW 264.7 cells were collected and MCA-102 fibrosarcoma cells were cultured in this media. The FA-CM augmented MCA-102 fibrosarcoma cell apoptosis; however, an NO inhibitor NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (NMMA) slightly inhibited the FA-CM-mediated MCA-102 fibrosarcoma cell apoptosis, which was accompanied by low levels of NO. In the present study, we found that FA induces the generation of NO and iNOS in RAW 264.7 cells by inducing NF-κB activation; however, NO did not significantly stimulate MCA-102 fibrosarcoma cell apoptosis in the current study. In addition, FA-CM enhanced cell death in various human cancer cells such as Hep3B, LNCaP, and HL60. Taken together, FA most likely stimulates immune-modulating molecules such as NO and induces cancer cell apoptosis.
    Article · Jul 2016 · International immunopharmacology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effect of water extract of Hydrangea macrophylla in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells. Here, we investigated whether hydrangenol, a bioactive component of H. macrophylla, attenuates the expression of nitric oxide (NO) and its associated gene, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Our data showed that low dosages of hydrangenol inhibited LPS-stimulated NO release and iNOS expression without any accompanying cytotoxicity. Hydrangenol also suppressed LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) subunits, consequently inhibiting DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. Additionally, the NF-κB inhibitors, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and PS-1145, significantly attenuated LPS-induced iNOS expression, indicating that hydrangenol-induced NF-κB inhibition might be a key regulator of iNOS expression. Furthermore, our data showed that hydrangenol suppresses NO production by inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The presence of cobalt protoporphyrin, a specific HO-1 inducer, potently suppressed LPS-induced NO production. Hydrangenol also promoted nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and subsequently increased its binding activity at the specific antioxidant response element sites. Additionally, transient knockdown of Nrf2 significantly downregulated hydrangenol-induced HO-1 expression, indicating that hydrangenol-induced Nrf2 is an upstream regulator of HO-1. Taken together, these data suggest that hydrangenol attenuates NO production and iNOS expression in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by inhibiting NF-κB activation and by stimulating the Nrf2-mediated HO-1 signaling pathway. Therefore, hydrangenol is a promising therapeutic agent for treatment of LPS-mediated inflammatory diseases.
    Article · Jun 2016 · International immunopharmacology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate whether the methanol extract of Codium fragile (MECF) regulates tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Methods: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis were performed to analyze the expression of MMP-9 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) subunits, p65 and p50, and IκB in MDA-MB-231 cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used for cell viability. MMP-9 activity and invasion were measured by gelatin zymography and a matrigel invasion assay, respectively. NF-κB activity was measured by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase activity. Results: MECF had no effect on cell viability up to a concentration of 100 μg/mL in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells regardless of the presence of TNF-α. MDA-MB-231 cells that were stimulated with TNF-α showed a marked increase of invasion compared to the untreated control, whereas pretreatment with MECF downregulated the TNF-α-induced invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, zymography, western blot analysis, and RT-PCR confirmed that MECF decreased TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression and activity which is a key regulator for cancer invasion. According to an electrophoretic morbidity shift assay, pretreatment with MECF in MDA-MB-231 cells significantly decreased the TNF-α-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB, which is an important transcription factor for regulating cancer invasion-related genes such as MMP-9. Furthermore, treatment with MECF sustained the expression of p65 and p50 in response to TNF-α in the cytosolic compartment. The luciferase assay demonstrated that MECF attenuated TNF-α-induced NF-κB luciferase activity. Conclusion: MECF exhibited its anti-invasive capability by downregulating TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression, resulting from the suppression of NF-κB activity in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2016 · Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of mangiferin on the expression and activity of metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and the invasion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated human LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis showed that mangiferin significantly reversed TNF-α-induced mRNA and protein expression of MMP-9 expression. Zymography data confirmed that stimulation of cells with TNF-α significantly increased MMP-9 activity. However, mangiferin substantially reduced the TNF-α-induced activity of MMP-9. Additionally, a matrigel invasion assay showed that mangiferin significantly reduced TNF-α-induced invasion of LNCaP cells. Compared to untreated controls, TNF-α-stimulated LNCaP cells showed a significant increase in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) luciferase activity. However, mangiferin treatment markedly decreased TNF-α-induced NF-κB luciferase activity. Furthermore, mangiferin suppressed nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunits p65 and p50. Collectively, our results indicate that mangiferin is a potential anti-invasive agent that acts by suppressing NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression.
    Article · Mar 2015 · BMB reports
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microglia are important macrophages to defend against pathogens in the central nervous system (CNS); however, persistent or acute inflammation of microglia lead to CNS disorders via neuronal cell death. Therefore, we theorized that a good strategy for the treatment of CNS disorders would be to target inflammatory mediators from microglia in disease. Consequently, we investigated whether isobutyrylshikonin (IBS) attenuates the production of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Treatment with IBS inhibited the secretion of NO and PGE2 (as well as the expression of their key regulatory genes), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). IBS also suppressed LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB), by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of p50 and p65 in addition to blocking the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Pretreatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a specific NF-κB inhibitor, showed the downregulation of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 mRNA by suppressing NF-κB activity. This indirectly suggests that IBS-mediated NF-κB inhibition is the main signaling pathway involved in the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. Additionally, IBS attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt, which are upstream molecules of NF-κB, in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. The functional aspects of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway were analyzed with LY294002, which is a specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor that attenuated LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression by suppressing NF-κB activity. These data suggest that an IBS-mediated anti-inflammatory effect may be involved in suppressing the PI3K/Akt-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway.
    Article · Dec 2014 · Nutrition Research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about whether trans-isoferulic acid (TIA) regulates the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proinflammatory mediators. Therefore, we examined the effect of TIA isolated from Clematis mandshurica on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in BV2 microglial cells. We found that TIA inhibited the production of LPS-induced NO and PGE2 without accompanying cytotoxicity in BV2 microglial cells. TIA also downregulated the expression levels of specific regulatory genes such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by suppressing LPS-induced NF-κB activity via dephosphorylation of PI3K/Akt. In addition, we demonstrated that a specific NF-κB inhibitor PDTC and a selective PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002 effectively attenuated the expression of LPS-stimulated iNOS and COX-2 mRNA, while LY294002 suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activity, suggesting that TIA attenuates the expression of these proinflammatory genes by suppressing PI3K/Akt-mediated NF-κB activity. Our results showed that TIA suppressed NO and PGE2 production through the induction of nuclear factor-2-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Taken together, our data indicate that TIA suppresses the production of proinflammatory mediators such as NO and PGE2, as well as their regulatory genes, in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells, by inhibiting PI3K/Akt-dependent NF-κB activity and enhancing Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression.
    Article · Nov 2013 · International immunopharmacology
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    Chang-Hee Kang · Yung Hyun Choi · Sung-Kwon Moon · [...] · Gi-Young Kim
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal nitrosative stress-induced neuroinflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, it has been thought that nitric oxide (NO) production is a good therapeutic target. In this sense, quercetin is a good chemopreventive component, because it has free radical-scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities. However, explicit mechanisms are not clear in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cell line. Here, we found that quercetin significantly suppressed LPS-induced NO production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression. Notably, quercetin inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by inhibiting degradation of the inhibitor of kappa Bα (IκBα) in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells corresponding to the inhibitory effect of specific NF-κB inhibitors, namely proteasome inhibitor I (PSI) and MG132. Quercetin caused significant increases in the levels of heme oxgenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA and protein. Notably, treatment with an HO-1 inducer, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), significantly diminished LPS-stimulated NO production. Additionally, quercetin induced the specific DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-2-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nrf2 expression reduced the inhibitory effect of quercetin on LPS-stimulated NO production by inhibiting HO-1 expression, indicating that quercetin regulated NO production by inducing Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression. Therefore, quercetin has the potential to decrease nitrosative stress by suppressing NF-κB activation and inducing Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2013 · International immunopharmacology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schisandra chinensis has a long-standing history of medicinal use as a tonic, a sedative, an anti-tussive, and an anti-aging drug. Nevertheless, the antagonistic effects of S. chinensis against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated responses have not yet been studied. In this study, we investigated whether water extract of S. chinensis fruit (WESC) has the ability to attenuate the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. WESC inhibited the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, namely, NO, PGE2, and TNF-α. Furthermore, gene expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and TNF-α was inhibited both at mRNA and protein synthesis levels, without any cytotoxic effect. Moreover, WESC significantly suppressed LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by inhibiting degradation of IκBα. It was found that pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a specific NF-κB inhibitor, downregulates the expression of these pro-inflammatory genes to be closely regulated by NF-κB activity. Furthermore, we found that WESC retains dephosphorylation of Akt in response to LPS, and consequently suppressed the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. LY294002, a specific Akt inhibitor, attenuated LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression via suppression of NF-κB activity. Taken together, our results indicate that WESC downregulates the expression of pro-inflammatory genes involved in the synthesis of NO, PGE2, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells by suppressing Akt-dependent NF-κB activity.
    Article · Apr 2013
  • Chang-Hee Kang · Min Jeong Kim · Min Jeong Seo · [...] · Gi-Young Kim
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we found that 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,3'4'-hexamethoxyflavone (5HHMF) from Hizikia fusiforme considerably inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated NO production by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in BV2 microglia. In addition, 5HHMF blocked LPS-induced phosphorylation of IκB, resulting in suppression of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) subunits, namely p65 and p50, which are important molecules involved in the regulation of iNOS expression. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a specific NF-κB inhibitor, along with 20S proteasome inhibitor (PSI) significantly inhibited LPS-induced iNOS expression, which indirectly suggested that 5HHMF downregulated iNOS expression by suppressing NF-κB activity. Thus, we found that 5HHMF enhances heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression via nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. In addition, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), a specific HO-1 inducer, predominantly suppressed LPS-induced NO production. In contrast, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a specific HO-1 inhibitor, showed a partial suppressive effect of 5HHMF on LPS-induced NO production. Further, 5HHMF increased specific DNA-binding activity of Nrf2, and transient knockdown with Nrf2 siRNA subsequently reversed 5HHMF-induced NO inhibition, which was followed by suppression of HO-1 activity. Taken together, our findings indicate that 5HHMF suppresses NO production through modulation of iNOS, consequently suppressing NF-κB activity and induction of Nrf2-dependent HO-1 activity.
    Article · Mar 2013 · Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β-Ionone, a precursor of carotenoids, possesses a variety of biological properties such as anti-cancerous, anti-mutagenic and anti-microbial activity. Nevertheless, anti-inflammatory effects of β-ionone remain unknown. In this study, we investigated whether ION attenuates the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in BV2 microglia cells. Our data showed that β-ionone significantly inhibits secretion of NO, PGE2 and TNF-α. β-Ionone also inhibits the expression of inducible NO synthesis (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and TNF-α protein and their mRNA in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia cells. In addition, β-ionone significantly reduced DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) through suppression of nuclear translocation of p50 and p65. We showed that NF-κB inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) effectively attenuates the expression of LPS-stimulated iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-α. We also found that LPS-induced NF-κB activation is significantly regulated through inhibition of Akt phosphorylation in the presence of β-ionone. Finally, we showed that β-ionone substantially inhibits the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including ERK1/2, p38 and JNK, which are closely related to regulation of pro-inflammatory mediator secretion. Taken together, these data imply that β-ionone regulates LPS-induced NF-κB-dependent inflammatory pathways through suppression of Akt and MAPK activation.
    Article · Mar 2013 · Toxicology in Vitro
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Piceatannol has potent anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antiproliferative effects. However, little is known about the mechanism by which piceatannol inhibits invasion and metastasis. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of piceatannol on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in DU145 human prostate cancer cells. The results revealed that MMP-9 activity was significantly increased in response to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). However, treatment with piceatannol reversed TNF-α- and MMP-9-induced gelatin zymography and its gene expression. In addition, a Matrigel invasion assay determined that piceatannol reduces the TNF-α-induced invasion of DU145 cells. Nuclear factor-κ B (NF-κB) is a significant transcription factor that regulates numerous genes involved in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Therefore, whether piceatannol acts on NF-κB to regulate MMP-9 gene expression was analyzed. The results revealed that piceatannol attenuates MMP-9 gene expression via the suppression of NF-κB activity. Using a specific NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, it was confirmed that TNF-α-induced MMP-9 gene expression is primarily regulated by NF-κB activation. Piceatannol inhibited NF-κB activity by suppressing nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits. Furthermore, TNF-α-induced Akt phosphorylation was significantly downregulated in the presence of piceatannol. The Akt inhibitor LY294002 caused a significant decrease in TNF-α-induced NF-κB activity and MMP-9 gene expression. Overall, these data suggest that piceatannol inhibits TNF-α-induced invasion by suppression of MMP-9 activation via the Akt-mediated NF-κB pathway in DU145 prostate cancer cells.
    Article · Jan 2013 · Oncology letters
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is one of the most promising candidates for new cancer therapeutics. However, resistance to TRAIL in some cancers remains a current problem in recent. The protein-folding compartment of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is particularly sensitive to disturbances, which, if severe, may trigger apoptosis. Therefore, we examined whether verrucarin A (VA) sensitize TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells by induction of ER stress. We first found that VA induces a major molecule of ER stress, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP)-dependent DR5 induction and subsequently increases TRAIL-induced cleavage of caspases and PARP in TRAIL-resistant Hep3B cells. Importantly, the transient knockdown using siRNA for CHOP abrogated VA-induced DR5 expression and attenuated TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Treatment with VA also increased the levels of phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α (eIF2α), which is a common cellular response of ER stress. Furthermore, salubrinal, a specific eIF2α phosphorylation-inducing agent, increased CHOP and DR5 expression in the presence of VA. In contrast, transfection of mutant-eIF2α significantly reversed VA-induced apoptosis with downregulation of CHOP-dependent DR5 expression. Therefore, VA-induced eIF2α phosphorylation seemed to be important for CHOP and DR5 upregulation and TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In addition, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an effector molecular in sensitization of VA-induced ER stress. We concluded that VA triggers TRAIL-induced apoptosis by eIF2α/CHOP-dependent DR5 induction via ROS generation.
    Article · Sep 2012 · Toxicology in Vitro
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the anti-inflammatory effect of caffeine is unclear in microglial cells, we performed whether caffeine attenuates the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Caffeine substantially suppressed the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in BV2 microglial cells. These effects resulted from the inhibition of their regulatory genes inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) and TNF-α. In addition, caffeine significantly decreased LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by suppressing the nuclear translocation of p50 and p65 subunits. A specific NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), attenuated the LPS-induced expression of iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-α genes. In addition, we elucidated that inhibition of Akt phosphorylation plays a crucial role in caffeine-mediated NF-κB regulation in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Caffeine also attenuated the LPS-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and a specific inhibitor of ERK, PD98059, subsequently downregulated the expression of the pro-inflammatory genes iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-α. Taken together, our data indicate that caffeine suppresses the generation of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as NO, PGE(2) and TNF-α as well as their regulatory genes in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by inhibiting Akt-dependent NF-κB activation and the ERK signaling pathway.
    Article · Sep 2012 · Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
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    R.G.P.T. Jayasooriya · Chang-Hee Kang · Min-Jeong Seo · [...] · Gi-Young Kim
    Full-text Article · Jun 2012 · Food and Chemical Toxicology
  • R.G.P.T. Jayasooriya · Sang-Hyuck Kang · Chang-Hee Kang · [...] · Gi-Young Kim
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone inhibits human malignant cancer cell growth through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, the underlying relationship between apoptosis and telomerase activity in response to apigenin exposure is not well understood. In this study, we found that apigenin significantly induces direct cytotoxicity in human leukemia cells (U937, THP-1 and HL60) through activation of the caspase pathway. As we presumed, treatment with apigenin was found to increase the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas pretreatment with antioxidants, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) or glutathione (GSH), completely attenuated ROS generation. Surprisingly, these antioxidants did not promote recuperation from apigenin-induced cell death. We further showed that apigenin downregulates telomerase activity in caspase-dependent apoptosis and observed that apigenin dosing results in downregulation of telomerase activity by suppression of c-Myc-mediated telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression. In addition, treatment of apigenin-dosed cells with the two antioxidants did not restore telomerase activity. Taken together, this data suggests that ROS is not essential for suppression of apigenin-mediated apoptosis associated with the activation of caspases and regulation of telomerase activity via suppression of hTERT. We conclude that apigenin has a direct cytotoxic effect and the loss of telomerase activity in leukemia cells.
    Article · May 2012 · Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anti-apoptotic oncogene K-RAS is hypothesized to increase the antioxidant status of cells, thereby protecting them from generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, we examined whether K-RAS overcomes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated apoptosis in the human fetal prostate epithelial cell 267B1. In this study, we found that treatment of 267B1 cells with H2O2 resulted in significant reduction of cell growth, which was associated with cytochrome-c release and caspase-3 activation. However, mutated K-RAS transformation (268B1/K-RAS) rendered 267B1 cells reduction of the resistance to H2O2-induced apoptosis through suppression of ROS generation. In addition, we analyzed profiling of gene expression in K-RAS transformation and found that gamma-glutamyltransferase 2 (GGT2) most highly expressed. Transient knockdown of K-RAS resulted in a significant downregulation of GGT gene expression. We also revealed that expression of GGT2 gene is closely regulated by the ERK signal pathway in 267B1/K-RAS cells. In addition, the anti-apoptotic effect of mutated K-RAS was attenuated by treatment with GGT2 RNA interference through inhibition of ROS generation, suggesting that mutated K-RAS mediates resistance to H2O2-induced apoptosis through GGT2 activation. These results importantly provide mechanistic insights on the anti-apoptotic activity of mutated K-RAS.
    Article · Apr 2012 · Toxicology in Vitro
  • Dong-Oh Moon · Chang-Hee Kang · Sang-Hyuck Kang · [...] · Gi-Young Kim
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in various malignant cells, several cancers including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit potent resistance to TRAIL-induced cell death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-cancer potential of capsaicin in TRAIL-induced cancer cell death. As indicated by assays that measure phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial activity and activation of caspases, capsaicin potentiated TRAIL-resistant cells to lead to cell death. In addition, we found that capsaicin induces the cell surface expression of TRAIL receptor DR5, but not DR4 through the activation Sp1 on its promoter region. Furthermore, we investigated that capsaicin-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis are inhibited by calcium chelator or inhibitors for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Taken together, our data suggest that capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-mediated HCC cell apoptosis by DR5 up-regulation via calcium influx-dependent Sp1 activation.
    Article · Dec 2011 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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    Chang-Hee Kang · Sang-Hyuck Kang · Sung-Hwan Boo · [...] · Gi-Young Kim
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Hizikia fusiforme is renowned for the possession of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. In this study, the role of the ethyl alcohol extract of H. fusiforme (EAHF) in the induction of apoptosis in human leukemia U937 cells was investigated. Methods: Protein expression was investigated by Western blot analysis. Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed by an MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. Caspase activity was analyzed using a caspase-specific kit. Results: EAHF suppressed the proliferation of U937 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was closely related to the induction of apoptosis via the downregulation of IAP family members such as IAP-1, IAP-2 and XIAP, as well as Bcl-2 proteins. The results also showed that caspases play an essential role in EAHF-induced apoptosis by generating of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, ROS scavenging by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH) decreased EAHF-induced apoptosis via the suppression of caspase activity. Although EAHF induced the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), treatment with MAPK inhibitors did not affect EAHF-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: These results suggest that EAHF induces apoptosis in U937 cells via ROS-dependent caspase activation.
    Full-text Article · Dec 2011
  • Chang-Hee Kang · Yung Hyun Choi · Sung-Yong Park · Gi-Young Kim
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The methanol extract of Codium fragile (MECF) has been reported to possess bioactive properties such as antidegranulation in eosinophils, as well as anti-edema, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. However, little is known about the molecular effects of MECF on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Therefore, we investigated whether MECF affects the expression of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of MECF, the cells were pretreated with MECF for 1 hour and then cultured with LPS for 24 hours. Our results indicate that MECF significantly attenuated secretion of LPS-induced inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, LPS-induced mRNA and protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and TNF-α was decreased by pretreatment with MECF. These data indicate that MECF attenuates the expression of these inflammatory mediators at the transcriptional level. Therefore, we also investigated the effects of MECF on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity, which may be an important transcriptional factor for regulating the expression of iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α mRNA. Our results showed that MECF reduced LPS-induced NF-κB activity via the suppression of nuclear translocation of the p50 and p65 NF-κB subunits and degradation of inhibitor of κB. In conclusion, we propose that MECF treatment down-regulates the expression and secretion of LPS-induced inflammatory mediators by inhibiting NF-κB activity.
    Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of medicinal food
  • R.G.P.T. Jayasooriya · Chang-Hee Kang · Min-Jeong Seo · [...] · Gi-Young Kim
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous study showed that the exopolysaccharide (EPS) of Laetiporus sulphureus var. miniatus was well characterized and prevented cell damage in streptozotocin-induced apoptosis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we attempted in this study to determine whether EPS induces a significant inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV2 microglia cells. Our results showed that EPS significantly inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), without any significant cytotoxicity. EPS also downregulated mRNA and protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and TNF-α in LPS-induced BV2 microglia cells. Our data also revealed that EPS treatment significantly reduced translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) subunit p65 and its DNA-binding activity in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia cells. Furthermore, we confirmed by using proteasome inhibitor N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), that the inhibition of NF-κB activity influenced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in LPS-induced BV2 microglia cells. As expected, NAC suppressed the expression of iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α by blocking proteasome-mediated degradation. Taken together, our data indicate that EPS inhibits the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators by suppressing NF-κB activity.
    Article · Aug 2011 · Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association