[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) pathway in cultured cells.
Human chondrocytes, periodontal ligament (PDL) cells, and SCC-9 cells (squamous cell carcinoma from the tongue) were cultured and subjected to cytotoxicity assays. To evaluate the effects of AgNPs on the TLR-2 pathway, TLR-2 small interfering (si) RNA or TLR-2 antibodies were applied to the chondrocytes, followed by the application of AgNPs.
AgNPs induced dose-dependent effects on the examined cell types in terms of both cytotoxicity and TLR-2 expression levels. AgNP-mediated apoptosis was reduced after treatment with TLR-2 siRNA in both PDL cells and chondrocytes. Furthermore, functional blocking of TLR-2 with anti-TLR2 antibodies inhibited AgNP-mediated cytotoxicity. AgNPs increased c-Jun phosphorylation, an effect that was reversed after treatment with TLR-2 siRNA.
The results indicate that AgNP-mediated apoptosis most likely occurs via the TLR-2 pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study involves a comparison between the bone regeneration of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA), as derived from eggshells either with or without silk fibroin scaffolds, and the unfilled control in the rabbit calvarial bony defect model.
Sixteen 4-month-old New Zealand white rabbits, with a mean weight of 2.8 kg (range, 2.5-3.0 kg), were used in this experiment. After the formation of bilateral parietal bony defects (diameter, 8.0 mm), either an nHA or an nHA+silk fibroin combination (nHA+silk) was grafted. The control was unfilled defect. The bone regeneration was evaluated by micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometric analyses at 4 and 8 weeks.
All measured variables of the μCT analysis were significantly higher in the grafted groups (nHA and nHA+silk) than in the unfilled control groups at both 4 and 8 weeks after operation (P < .05). On histomorphometric analysis, there was no significant difference between the groups at 4 weeks after operation. However, the nHA group exerted significantly higher bone regeneration (40.16% ± 8.27%) compared with the unfilled control group (25.66% ± 10.98%) or the nHA+silk group (16.62% ± 3.05%) (P < .05).
The nHA from eggshells exerted better bone formation than the unfilled control group on both μCT and histomorphometric analyses. Considering the rapid healing in bony defect and easy availability, the nHA from the eggshells could prove to be a good new bone substitute.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study was performed to find out the effects of the Er:YAG laser (Key Laser) & Er,Cr:YSGG laser (Water Laser) on inflammatory tissues. Materials and Methods: It was performed on about 20 g, 6 weeks male ICR mouses. They were grouped into the control (negative), the inflammation induced 'control'(positive), Er,Cr:YSGG laser exposured group after inducing inflammation, Er:YAG lasere exposured group after inducing inflammation each 15 mouses. The mouses were applicated 0.5% DNFB 1 cc on ear skin twice a day for 4 days until symptom expression. After laser exposure, ear tissues were extracted and defined gene expression by RT-PCR. Then, tissue staining, lymphocytes observation, electromicroscophic laboratory were carried out. Results: Interleukin- was expressed much less in the A-laser exposed group. Interleukin- & Tumor Necrosis Factor- were expressed 7 times lesser in the A-laser exposed group. The number of Lymphocytes related to inflammation was decreased rapidly in the A-laser exposed group in vivo. he number of cavity recovered normal was a little bigger in the A-laser exposed group after 5 days Conclusion: The expression of IL- & TNF-, hitologic change, observation with electron microscope shows that Erbium laser exposure causes lesser inflammation with A-laser rather than B-laser.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many healthy foods are derived from wheat germ. The molecular composition of these products, however, greatly differs as shown by normal-phase HPLC-mass spectrometry analysis; thus, experimental data obtained by one of them is not necessarily true for the other. Avemar is a nontoxic wheat germ extract registered as a special nutriment for cancer patients in Hungary. It shows potent anticancer activity on cell lines by deeply interfering with glucose metabolism and affecting expressions of several kinases. In in vivo experimental models, Avemar is also effective by enhancing the activity of the immune system such as stimulating NK cell activity (by reducing MHC I molecule expression), enhancing TNF secretion of the macrophages, increasing ICAM 1 molecule expression on the vascular endothelial cells. All of these lead to apoptosis of tumor cells. The wide range of biological activity of Avemar probably cannot be explained by only one active ingredient. Since there are numerous experimental data and the clinical benefit repeatedly confirmed Avemar can be one of the most potent and best researched food supplements available for cancer patients.
Preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Nutrition and Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Orthodontic tooth movement results from the combinational process of both bone resorption and formation in the compressive and tension sides, respectively. However, the genes responsible for new bone formation in tension sides have not been determined. In this study, we used DNA microarray and real-time RT-PCR to identify genes in human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells that undergo significant changes in expression in response to static tensional forces (2 or 12 hours). The genes found were alkaline phospatase (ALP), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and several collagen genes. Furthermore, an ELISA evaluating the expression of VEGF, type IV collagen and MMP-2 found levels significantly increased after 24 and 72 hours (P 0.05). ALP activity was also increased after 24 hours (P 0.05). Collectively, we found the genes up-regulated in our study by the static tensional force are related to osteogenic processes such as matrix synthesis and angiogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of estrogen on the synthesis of cytokines of the temporomandibular joint cells.
Mandibular condyles of 10 mice were resected. Twenty of these condylar cartilages were removed and placed in organ culture for 24 hours with media containing different concentrations of 17beta-estradiol. The chondroblasts from the mandibular condyles of 3 mice were cultured with different concentrations of 17beta-estradiol the same as above. Cytokine concentrations were measured by ELISA.
The expression and concentration of IL-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-8 were increased with increasing concentration of 17beta-estradiol. The expression and concentration of IL-4 and IL-10 were not different from the control and experimental group.
These findings suggest that estrogen has the potential to cause temporomandibular joint disease with induction of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-8.
No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we compared the gene expression profiles of non-syndromic hyperplastic dental follicle (HDF) fibroblasts and normal dental follicle (NDF) fibroblasts using cDNA microarrays, quantitative PCR, and immunohistochemical staining. Microarray analysis showed that several collagens genes were upregulated in the HDFos, including collagen types I, IV, VIII, and XI and TIMP-1, -3, and -4 (fold ratio > 2.0). In contrast, the expression of MMP-1, -3, -10, and -16 together with IL-8 was more than two fold downregulated. The differential expression of the genes encoding alkaline phosphatase, MMP-1, -3, -8, and IL-8 was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, while that of 24 HDFs and 18 NDFs was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. However, HDFs showed stronger expression of MMP-3 than NDFs (P < 0.001). Collectively, these results indicate that defective regulation of MMPs mediating connective tissue remodeling may be responsible for abnormal tooth eruption.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compressive force is an important mechanical stimulus on the periodontal ligament (PDL) and is closely related to therapeutic tooth movement. In this study, early or late response genes related to the compressive stress in PDL cells were evaluated. Particularly, the expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was studied.
The primary cultured cells from PDL were grown in a three-dimensional collagen gel, and received a continuous static compressive force (1.76 g/cm(2)). The expressed genes were screened by cDNA microarray assays for 2 or 12 hours after the initiation of the mechanical force application. The genes of interest that showed significant changes in expression in the cDNA microarray assay were analyzed further by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA), and ALP assays.
ALP, IL-6, and IL-8 were selected among the genes that significantly changed expression (/M/ >0.7) and subsequently were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. The secreted protein concentrations for IL-6, IL-8, and ALP activity were measured at 72 hours after application of continuous static compressive force. The protein level of IL-6 was significantly increased at 72 hours (P <0.001), but there was no significant change in IL-8 (P >0.05). ALP activity was decreased approximately 41.5% compared to the control (P = 0.015).
Considering that IL-6 is a potent osteoclast activator and the compressive side of PDL during orthodontic tooth movement shows the resorption of calcified tissue, the changed expression of IL-6 and ALP in response to the static compressive force in PDL cells may contribute to the orthodontic tooth movement or alveolar bone remodeling.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Journal of Periodontology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of cystic lesion in a 37-year-old woman. The patient had an oval-shaped lesion adjacent to the temporomandibular joint. Thick fibrotic tissue and muscle were observed microscopically, but the epithelium lining was not observed. The lesion was diagnosed as a ganglion cyst. The patient's general medical history was non-contributory. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrophotometry (MS) revealed some proteins from the fluid in the lesion, such as a filaggrin precursor, dystroglycan, a polyprotein of the hepatitis C virus, and proteins originating from bacteria. The follow-up examinations revealed no recurrence. The probable pathogenesis of the lesion is discussed.
No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is a gel type high functional toothpaste containing vitamin C, E, propolis extract and the rest of herb with a nanoemulsion state. Vitamin C, E is known as the material with an eminent anti-oxidation effect. Propolis is known as the material with an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effect. We have been succeeding in making nanoemulsion of vitamin C, E and propolis through the high pres-sure homogenizer using stable oil and lecithin and the gel type high functional tooth paste were made from nanoemulsion of vitamin C, E and propolis. We observed the process of wound protecting effect and cure effect for a wound of soft tissue, gingival tissue and mucous membrane showing ulcer and inflammation in oral cavity after applying a gel type high functional toothpaste to patient. As a result, the wound were healed very fast and any side effects were not shown. We confirmed that a gel type high functional toothpaste with nanoemulsion of vitamin C, E and propolis extract has good effect not only for wound healing but also for treatment of ulcer-like lesion in oral cavity. So we report our cases with review of literatures.