[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibiotic and antifungal agents used in supportive care regimens for bone marrow transplantation recipients contribute to a significant dose-modifying effect of otherwise lethal total body irradiation. To determine whether drugs used in supportive care and other commonly used antibiotics such as tetracycline function as radiation protectors or damage mitigators in vitro, 13 drugs were tested for radiation protection and radiation damage mitigation of 32D cl 3 hematopoietic progenitor cells in clonagenic survival curves in vitro. Antibiotic/Antifungal agents including cilastatin, amikacin, ceftazidine, vancomycin, tetracycline, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, methacycline, minocycline, meclocycline, oxytetracycline and rolitetracycline were added in 1, 10, or 100 micromolar concentrations to murine interleukin-3-dependent hematopoietic progenitor cell line 32D cl 3 cells either before or after irradiation of 0 to 8 Gy. Control irradiated 32D cl 3 cells showed radiosensitivity comparable to freshly explanted mouse marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells (D(0) 1.1+/-0.1 Gy, N 1.5+/-0.4). Positive control GS-nitroxide JP4-039 (known radiation mitigator) treated 32D cl 3 cells were radioresistant (D(0) 1.2+/-0.1, N 5.8+/-2.4 (p=0.009)). Of the 13 drugs tested, tetracycline was found to be a significant radiation mitigator (D(0) 0.9+/-0.1, N 13.9+/-0.4 (p=0.0027)). Thus, the radiation dose-modifying effect of some antibiotics, but not those currently used in the supportive care (antibiotic/antifungal regimens) for marrow transplant patients, may act as radiation damage mitigators for hematopoietic cells as well as decreasing the growth and inflammatory response to microbial pathogens.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · In vivo (Athens, Greece)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors compared the effectiveness of single-session (SS) and multisession (MS) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for the treatment of spinal metastases.
The authors conducted a retrospective review of the clinical outcomes of 348 lesions in 228 patients treated with the CyberKnife radiosurgery at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and Georgetown University Medical Center. One hundred ninety-five lesions were treated using an SS treatment regimen (mean 16.3 Gy), whereas 153 lesions were treated using an MS approach (mean 20.6 Gy in 3 fractions, 23.8 Gy in 4 fractions, and 24.5 Gy in 5 fractions). The primary end point was pain control. Secondary end points included neurological deficit improvement, toxicity, local tumor control, need for retreatment, and overall survival.
Pain control was significantly improved in the SS group (SSG) for all measured time points up to 1 year posttreatment (100% vs 88%, p = 0.003). Rates of toxicity and neurological deficit improvement were not statistically different. Local tumor control was significantly better in the MS group (MSG) up to 2 years posttreatment (96% vs 70%, p = 0.001). Similarly, the need for retreatment was significantly lower in the MSG (1% vs 13%, p < 0.001). One-year overall survival was significantly greater in the MSG than the SSG (63% vs 46%, p = 0.002).
Single-session and MS SRS regimens are both effective in the treatment of spinal metastases. While an SS approach provides greater early pain control and equivalent toxicity, an MS approach achieves greater tumor control and less need for retreatment in long-term survivors.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of lung irradiation on reduction of lung stem cells and repopulation with bone marrow-derived cells was measured.
Expression of green fluorescent protein positive cells (GFP(+)) in the lungs of thoracic irradiated FVB/NHsd mice (Harlan Sprague Dawley, Indianapolis, IN, USA) was determined. This was compared to the repopulation of bone marrow-derived cells found in the lungs from naphthalene treated male FVB/NHsd mice and gangciclovir (GCV) treated FeVBN GFP(+) male marrow chimeric HSV-TK-CCSP. The level of mRNA for lung stem cell markers clara cell (CCSP), epithelium 1 (FOXJ1) and surfactant protein C (SP-C), and sorted single cells positive for marrow origin epithelial cells (GFP(+)CD45(-)) was measured.
The expression of pulmonary stem cells as determined by PCR was reduced most by GCV, then naphthalene, and least by thoracic irradiation. Irradiation, like GCV, reduced mRNA expression of CCSP, CYP2F2, and FOXJ1, while naphthalene reduced that of CCSP and CYP2F2. Ultrastructural analysis showed GFP(+) pulmonary cells of bone marrow origin, with the highest frequency being found in GCV-treated groups.
Bone marrow progenitor cells may not participate in the repopulation of the lung following irradiation.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · In vivo (Athens, Greece)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of deletion of the nitric oxide synthase 1 gene (NOS1(-/-)) on radiosensitivity was determined. In vitro, long-term cultures of bone marrow stromal cells derived from NOS1(-/-) were more radioresistant than cells from C57BL/6NHsd (wild-type), NOS2(-/-) or NOS3(-/-) mice. Mice from each strain received 20 Gy thoracic irradiation or 9.5 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI), and NOS1(-/-) mice were more sensitive to both. To determine the etiology of radiosensitivity, studies of histopathology, lower esophageal contractility, gastrointestinal transit, blood counts, electrolytes and inflammatory markers were performed; no significant differences between irradiated NOS1(-/-) and control mice were found. Video camera surveillance revealed the cause of death in NOS1(-/-) mice to be grand mal seizures; control mice died with fatigue and listlessness associated with low blood counts after TBI. NOS1(-/-) mice were not sensitive to brain-only irradiation. MnSOD-PL therapy delivered to the esophagus of wild-type and NOS1(-/-) mice resulted in equivalent biochemical levels in both; however, in NOS1(-/-) mice, MnSOD-PL significantly increased survival after both thoracic and total-body irradiation. The mechanism of radiosensitivity of NOS1(-/-) mice and its reversal by MnSOD-PL may be related to the developmental esophageal enteric neuronal innervation abnormalities described in these mice.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Radiation Research