[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper illustrates how to design an appropriate input program to handle a complex file layout using data collected from pharmacy and health insurance information about individuals. Various INFILE and INPUT options are illustrated in the process, and some related functions are considered. The input file is the output of a COBOL program pulling data from a DB2 database which is then brought to the PC via FTP. Each record contains 6 types of information, called segments, for a person. The segments and the fields within are divided by unprintable hexadecimal codes, which SAS represents with notations like the hexadecimal numbers 1E (Segment separator) and 1C (Field separator) respectively. A further complication is the use of 1D which is the group separator to separate repeating segments. There are also groups of repeating fields within a segment. Since the fields do not have a fixed length and they may be missing on some records, there is no fixed record layout for the file. Although the program was written for the PC, the technique is applicable for any system. All the tools discussed are in BASE SAS ® . The typical attendee or reader will have some experience in SAS, but not a lot of experience dealing with the input of external data.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A specific irreversible inhibitor of both cathepsins B and L, Fmoc-Tyr-Ala-CHN(2) (FYAD) induced apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells but not other tumor cells. Cysteine protease inhibitors that were not efficient inhibitors of both proteases did not cause death of any cell line tested. Apoptosis was preceded by accumulation of large electron dense vesicles and multivesicular bodies in the cytoplasm. Exposure of cells to the cathepsin D inhibitor, pepstatin, failed to rescue cells from FYAD-induced death. These results indicate that inhibition of cathepsins B and L may provide a unique mechanism for selectively inducing death of neuroblastoma with limited toxicity to normal cells and tissues.