[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Swine origin influenza was first recognized in the border area of Mexico and United States in April 2009 and during a short span of two month become the first pandemic. It is a subtype of influenza A i.e. H1N1 strain, which has undergone triple reassortment and contain genes from the avian, swine and human. Influenza virus is a member of the genus orthomyxovirus, family orthomyxoviridae. Influenza virus expresses two envelope glycoproteins: Hemagglutinin (H) and Neuraminidase (NA). Hemagglutinin is known to mediate of virus to the target cells via sialic acid residue in glycoconjugates.which plays a key role in viral infection. Neuraminidase is a critical protein of influenza virus.it helps the virus to spread around the body. Antiviral neuraminidase inhibitor attacks the influenza virus and prevents it from spread inside the body such as Oseltamivir and Zanamivir. Admantanes are resistant due to S31N mutation toward to inhibit the flu. The rise in oseltamivir-resistant influenza A (H1N1) viruses appears to be due to the spontaneous emergence and transmission of viruses with the H274Y mutation rather than selection as a result of increased oseltamivir use. There are two different brands of vaccines pandemrix and celvapan are now available. Herbal drugs such as tulsi, eldberry, ginger, garlic, lemon balm etc. can also be used in cure of infection. A number of sensitive and specific RT-PCR and real time PCR methods for detecting S-OIV and differentiating from seasonal H1N1. The incubation period range from 1 to 7 days and most likely from 1 to 4 days. Certain people are at high risk such as young children, people with various disorders such as CVS, neurological and liver disorder, asthma, immune suppression. Resident of nursing home or other chronic care facility.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Pharmacologyonline
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study is designed to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract from the leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSEE) in hyperlipidemic rats. In the present work, HSEE was evaluated at three doses (i.e. 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, orally) in cholesterol-induced (2 g/kg, orally) hyperlipidemic Wistar rats. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, orally) was used as the standard drug. Administration of HSEE (200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) together with continuous cholesterol feeding for four weeks showed significant reduction in serum cholesterol level by 18.5% and 22%, respectively (p < 0.05); serum triglyceride level by 15.6% and 20.6%, respectively (p < 0.05); serum LDL level by 24% and 30%, respectively (p < 0.05), and serum VLDL level by 15.5% and 20.5%, respectively (p < 0.05), as compared to cholesterol group. However, no significant change in HDL level was observed. HSEE 300 mg/kg was more effective than HSEE 200 mg/kg dose but less effective than the standard drug, atorvastatin. HSEE 100 mg/kg did not show any significant reduction in lipid levels. These results indicate that HSEE exhibit the hypolipidemic effect and among all HSEE groups investigated, HSEE 300 mg/kg has the best hypolipidemic effect.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Acta poloniae pharmaceutica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the advances in medicine and the emergence of new antifungal agents, fungal infections remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Azoles are widely used as antifungal agents. Azoles interfere with the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol by inhibiting a fungal cytochrome P450enzyme, lanosterol 14-demethylase. Resistance to azoles, particularly fluconazole, is emerging to Candida albicans, after long-term suppressive therapy. Thus, there is an urgent need for newer potent antifungals to combat resistance developed against widely used azoles. In present work, we report synthesis of novel triazole derivatives of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin using various substituted aromatic aldehydes and evaluated for their in vitro fungicidal activity against Candida albicans at various con-centrations to obtain minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Letters in Drug Design & Discovery