[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depression is a serious condition that is associated with great psychic suffering and major impairments on the patient’s general health, quality of life, and social and occupational activities. In some cases, it may lead to suicide. Regardless of the innumerous research works that have already addressed depression in wide and specific facets, there is still a lot to grasp in order to effectively help preventing and treating depression. This work presents data from a randomized clinical trial that sought to evaluate the effectiveness of two brief psychotherapeutic for Depression: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Supportive-Expressive Dynamic Psychotherapy (SEDP). This was a convenience sample composed of 46 individuals that were evaluated using a structured diagnostic interview and then randomly allocated to the SEDP group. We examined baseline and post-intervention serum levels of the Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α) in addition to the severity of depressive symptoms according to the Outcome Questionnaire - 45.2 (OQ-45.2) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results show that serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels, as well as the scores from the OQ-45.2 and the BDI significantly decreased after 16 sessions of SEDP (p<0.001), except for the Interpersonal Relationship domain from the OQ-45. Despite the reduction of serum cytokines levels and OQ-45 and BDI scores, they were only significantly correlated regarding the social role domain from the OQ-45. Nonetheless, our data suggests an effective role of brief psychodynamic psychotherapy in the reduction of depressive symptoms and serum inflammatory levels that are associated with depression.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Psychiatric Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the differences in personality traits between individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) during a depressive episode, when it can be hard to differentiate them. Data on personality traits (NEO-FFI), mental disorders (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus) and socioeconomic variables were collected from 245 respondents who were in a depressive episode. Individuals with MDD (183) and BD (62) diagnosis were compared concerning personality traits, clinical aspects and socioeconomic variables through bivariate analyses (chi-square and ANOVA) and multivariate analysis (logistic regression). There were no differences in the prevalence of the disorders between socioeconomic and clinical variables. As for the personality traits, only the difference in Agreeableness was statistically significant. Considering the control of suicide risk, gender and anxiety comorbidity in the multivariate analysis, the only variable that remained associated was Agreeableness, with an increase in MDD cases. The brief version of the NEO inventories (NEO-FFI) does not allow for the analysis of personality facets. During a depressive episode, high levels of Agreeableness can indicate that MDD is a more likely diagnosis than BD. Retrieved from http://www.psy-journal.com/article/S0165-1781(15)30869-6/abstract
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
It has been shown that maternal mental health is associated with poorer skills development in the offspring. However, the evidence evaluating the association between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and cognitive or language development, is scarce.
To evaluate the association between maternal SAD and performance in cognitive and language tests in 30-month old children.
This was a cohort study involving young women evaluated since pregnancy.
We evaluated 520 mother-child dyads who received prenatal medical assistance through the National Public Health System in a southern Brazilian city, from October 2009 to March 2011.
We used the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus (MINI Plus) to assess SAD among young mothers. Cognitive and language performance in their offspring was analyzed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - 3rd Edition.
We found an association between maternal SAD and performance in cognitive and language tests. Children of mothers with SAD had in average 4.5 less points in the Bayley scale, when compared to those with mothers without SAD: in the cognitive (β=-4.53 [95% CI -7.8; -1.1] p=0.008) and language subscales (β=-4.54 [95% CI -9.0; -0.5] p=0.047).
Our findings suggest that children with mothers suffering from SAD have poorer cognitive abilities and language skills.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Early human development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Cocaine abuse is capable of activating the innate immune system in the CNS resulting in deregulation of homeostasis between pro and antiinflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to investigate serum levels of pro and antiinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-10 respectively, in cocaine users from a young population-based sample.
This is a case-control study nested in a cross-sectional population-based survey, with individuals of 18 and 35 years old. Two groups were selected: 24 healthy controls and 12 subjects who reported cocaine use. Serum IL-6 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA using a commercial kit.
There was a statistically significant increase in IL-6 (p=0.037) and decrease in IL-10 (p=0.007) serum levels, between cocaine users and the control group. There was also an increase in the ratio IL-6/IL-10 (p=0.013) among cocaine users individuals, when compared to the control group.
Our results suggest that cocaine users showed an activation of the immune system when compared a control group, demonstrating a disruption in the balance of pro and antiinflammatory cytokines. Thus, peripheral cytokines may represent a putative biomarkers for cocaine users, contributing to the development of diagnosis and effective treatments.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Drug and alcohol dependence
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective was to evaluate the effect of psychoeducation on biological rhythm and in the reduction of depressive, anxious, and manic symptoms at 12 months' follow-up. This was a randomized clinical trial with young adults aged 18 to 29 years, diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Biological rhythm was assessed with the Biological Rhythm Interview Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN). Participants were randomized for combined intervention (psychoeducation plus medication) or treatment-as-usual (medication alone). The sample consisted of 61 patients (29 TAU; 32 combined intervention). Although it failed to separate by a marginal difference, the combined intervention seems to be more effective than TAU in relation to improvement of depressive symptoms at post-intervention (p = 0.074) and regulation of sleep/social domain at 6 months' follow-up (p = 0.057). Improvement of depressive symptoms as well as regulation of sleep and social activities are known to prevent episode onset and thus improve long-term outcomes.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of nervous and mental disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study evaluated the quality of life and its associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS at a regional reference center for the treatment of HIV/AIDS in southern Brazil. WHOQOL-HIV Bref, ASSIST 2.0, HAD Scale, and a questionnaire were used to assess 625 participants on quality of life, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, depression and anxiety. Multivariate analysis was performed through linear regression. The lowest results for quality of life were associated with being female, age (< 47 years), low education levels, low socioeconomic class, unemployment, not having a stable relationship, signs of anxiety and depression, abuse or addiction of psychoactive substances, lack of perceived social support, never taking antiretroviral medication, lipodystrophy, comorbidities, HIV related hospitalizations and a CD4+ cell count less than 350. Psychosocial factors should be included in the physical and clinical evaluation given their strong association with quality of life domains.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Este estudo transversal avaliou a qualidade de vida e seus fatores associados em
pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS em um centro de referência regional para o tratamento
desta enfermidade no Sul do Brasil. WHOQOL-HIV Bref, a ASSIST 2.0, HAD Escala e um
questionário foram utilizados para avaliar 625 participantes sobre a qualidade de
vida, características clínicas e sociodemográficas, uso de drogas, depressão e
ansiedade. A análise multivariada foi realizada por regressão linear. Pior qualidade
de vida foi associada com sexo feminino, idade (< 47 anos), baixa escolaridade,
baixa classe socioeconômica, desemprego, não ter um relacionamento estável, um
indicativo de ansiedade e depressão, abuso ou dependência de substâncias psicoativas,
falta de apoio social percebido, nunca tomar a medicação antirretroviral,
lipodistrofia, comorbidades, internações relacionadas ao HIV e contagem de células
CD4+ < 350. Fatores psicossociais devem ser incluídos na avaliação física e
clínica, dada a sua forte associação com os domínios de qualidade de vida.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: objectives: To verify the prevalence of current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in young adults, the occurrence of comorbidities and its association with quality of life. Methods: This is a cross-sectional population-based study. The targeted population consisted on indivi duals aged 18 to 24 years old, who lived in the urban area of Pelotas-RS, Brazil. Cluster sampling was applied. PTSD and its comorbidities were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 5.0), whereas quality of life was evaluated with the eight domains of the Medical Outcomes Survey Short-form General Health Survey (SF-36). results: A total of 1,762 young adults were selected. The prevalence of PTSD was 2.1% and current episode of depression was the most prevalent comorbidity (71.9%). The individuals with PTSD had lower scores in all domains of quality of life. conclusion: These findings indicate that PTSD is associated with other psychopathologies, especially depression, and it has a substantial impact over quality of life in a sample of young adults.
Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Jornal brasileiro de psiquiatria
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This research aims to evaluate factors associated with the presence of comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders in young adults aged 18 to 24 years, from Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study with a probabilistic sample by conglomerates. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to assess mood and anxiety disorders. The prevalence of mental disorders in the sample (n = 1,561) was of 26.8% of which 9.7% had comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders. The prevalence of comorbidities on mood and anxiety disorders is almost three times higher among women than men (p < 0.001). Lower education levels, socioeconomic status (p < 0.001) and a history of divorced parents (p < 0.050) was associated with comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders. The main conclusion is that social factors are highly associated with comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders. Prevention strategies on mental health should focus particularly on women in vulnerable social conditions.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Cadernos de Saúde Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are scarce follow-up studies evaluating the role of psychoeducation in the treatment of bipolar disorder, especially in a young sample, with a recent diagnosis and that probably received a few previous interventions. This was a randomized clinical trial with young adults aged 18-29 years, who had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder through the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID). The evaluation of quality of life was carried out using the Medical Outcomes Survey 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (MOS SF-36). All participants were randomized into two groups: combined intervention (psychoeducation plus medication) and treatment-as-usual (medication). The sample consisted of 61 patients divided in two groups (29 usual treatment; 32 combined intervention). The quality of life domains did not reveal statistically significant differences when comparing baseline, post-intervention and 6-month follow-up evaluations, which indicates that there is no difference between combined intervention and usual intervention regarding quality of life improvement. Both groups presented improvements in quality of life domains, except General Health and Bodily Pain, at post-intervention. Moreover, this improvement persisted at 6-month follow-up, except for the Role Physical Health domain, which remained reduced. Combined Psychoeducation plus pharmacological intervention is so effective in improving quality of life perception as it is pharmacological only intervention.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Psychiatry Research