Publications (2)4.75 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: No large scale epidemiological studies have previously quantified the occurrence of carpal, metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal (MCP/MTP) joint injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses. To develop an objective classification system for carpal and MCP/MTP joint injuries and estimate the incidence of these injuries in young Thoroughbreds in flat race training. In a prospective cohort study, data on daily exercise and veterinary-diagnosed carpal and MCP/MTP joint injuries were collected from Thoroughbreds monitored since starting training as yearlings, for up to 2 years. Cases were classified in one of 4 categories: 1) localised to a carpal or MCP/MTP joint based on clinical examination and/or diagnostic analgesia; no diagnostic imaging performed; 2) localised to a carpal or MCP/MTP joint based on clinical examination and/or diagnostic analgesia; radiographs taken but no abnormalities detected; 3) evidence of abnormality of subchondral bone and/or articular margin(s) on diagnostic imaging and 4) evidence of discontinuity of the articular surface on diagnostic imaging. Incidence rates and rate ratios were estimated using Poisson regression, adjusting for trainer-level clustering. A total of 647 horses from 13 trainers throughout England contributed 7785 months at risk of joint injury. One-hundred-and-eighty-four cases of carpal (n = 82) or MCP/MTP (n = 102) joint injury were reported in 165 horses and classified in Category 1 (n = 21), Category 2 (n = 21), Category 3 (n = 72) or Category 4 (n = 70). The overall joint injury rate was 1.8 per 100 horse months (95% CI = 1.2, 2.8); rates did not differ significantly between 2- and 3-year-olds but females sustained Category 1 injuries at triple the rate of males (P = 0.03). Joint injury rates differed significantly between trainers (P<0.001) and there was trainer variation in anatomical site and severity of injury. Carpal and MCP/MTP joint injuries are an important cause of morbidity in Thoroughbred racehorses. Identification of modifiable risk factors for these injuries may reduce their incidence.
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ABSTRACT: Biomarkers have shown some in vivo promise for the detection of musculoskeletal injuries, but further study to assess biomarker levels in clinical orthopaedic disease is required. To assess 7 serum biomarkers for the detection of musculoskeletal injuries. Two- and 3-year-old racehorses were entered into the study (n = 238). Exit criteria were lack of training for >30 days, or completion of 10 study months. Data from horses with solitary musculoskeletal injuries and completion of >2 months were analysed. Musculoskeletal injury was considered intra-articular fragmentation (IAF), tendon or ligamentous injury (TL), stress fractures (SF) and dorsal metacarpal disease (DMD). Monthly lameness examination and serum collection were performed. Serum was analysed for glycosaminoglycan (GAG), type I and II collagen degradation (C1, 2C), type II collagen synthesis (CPII), type II collagen degradation (Col CEQ), aggrecan synthesis (CS846), osteocalcin (OC) as a marker of bone formation and (C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen) CTX as a marker of bone degradation. Of the 238 horses 59 injured and 71 uninjured control horses met the analysis criteria. Based on injury no significant differences in the proportions were observed for age, gender or lesion type, although a higher proportion of injuries occurred at the beginning of the study. Of injured horses, 16 (27%) sustained an IAF, 17 (29%) a TL injury, 7 (12%) SF and 19 (32%) were diagnosed with DMD. There were significant changes seen in biomarkers based on the injury incurred when longitudinal samples were assessed. Furthermore, based on the serum biomarkers collected prior to injury, horses could be correctly classified as injured or uninjured 73.8% of the time. A unique biomarker pattern occurred before each injury and this was beneficial in classifying horses as injured or uninjured. Biomarkers have the potential to be used as a screening aid prior to musculoskeletal injury.
Colorado State UniversityFort Collins, Colorado, United States