[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Twin birth is associated with a higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes than singleton birth. It is unclear whether planned cesarean section results in a lower risk of adverse outcomes than planned vaginal delivery in twin pregnancy. Methods We randomly assigned women between 32 weeks 0 days and 38 weeks 6 days of gestation with twin pregnancy and with the first twin in the cephalic presentation to planned cesarean section or planned vaginal delivery with cesarean only if indicated. Elective delivery was planned between 37 weeks 5 days and 38 weeks 6 days of gestation. The primary outcome was a composite of fetal or neonatal death or serious neonatal morbidity, with the fetus or infant as the unit of analysis for the statistical comparison. Results A total of 1398 women (2795 fetuses) were randomly assigned to planned cesarean delivery and 1406 women (2812 fetuses) to planned vaginal delivery. The rate of cesarean delivery was 90.7% in the planned-cesarean-delivery group and 43.8% in the planned-vaginal-delivery group. Women in the planned-cesarean-delivery group delivered earlier than did those in the planned-vaginal-delivery group (mean number of days from randomization to delivery, 12.4 vs. 13.3; P=0.04). There was no significant difference in the composite primary outcome between the planned-cesarean-delivery group and the planned-vaginal-delivery group (2.2% and 1.9%, respectively; odds ratio with planned cesarean delivery, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.77 to 1.74; P=0.49). Conclusions In twin pregnancy between 32 weeks 0 days and 38 weeks 6 days of gestation, with the first twin in the cephalic presentation, planned cesarean delivery did not significantly decrease or increase the risk of fetal or neonatal death or serious neonatal morbidity, as compared with planned vaginal delivery. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00187369 ; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN74420086 .).
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gestational hypertension (GH) is a newly recognized risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events later in life. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is an established risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. Recent research has suggested that women with GH may have an increased rate of SDB during pregnancy, but it is not known if this higher rate of SDB persists into the postpartum state.
To assess whether women with GH continue to have an increased rate of SDB compared to healthy pregnant women, after the physiologic changes of pregnancy resolve.
We previously studied women with GH and uncomplicated pregnancies with sleep questionnaires and level 1 polysomnography. Participants were invited to participate in repeat testing 1-2 years postpartum. Respiratory disturbance index (RDI) differences were assessed.
Eighteen subjects (11 GH and 7 healthy) had complete follow-up data available for comparison with antepartum data. This group was representative of the initial antepartum cohort. Women with GH experienced a decrease in mean RDI from antepartum to postpartum (12.0 ± 12.3 vs 2.9 ± 2.9; P = 0.02). Healthy women did not experience the same change (2.8 ± 5.3 vs 2.1 ± 3.2; P = 0.81). Postpartum comparisons showed the mean RDI of women with GH had decreased to be similar to that of healthy women (P = 0.75).
SDB in women with gestational hypertension improved in the postpartum state to levels indistinguishable from our healthy subjects. This suggests that the physiologic effects of pregnancy may have had a pathologic role in the development of antepartum SDB in women with GH. CITATION: Reid J; Glew RA; Skomro R; Fenton M; Cotton D; Olatunbosun F; Gjevre J; Guilleminault C. Sleep disordered breathing and gestational hypertension: postpartum follow-up study. SLEEP 2013;36(5):717-721.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that women with gestational hypertension (GH) have a high rate of sleep disordered breathing (SDB), and treatment for even marginal SDB may improve blood pressure control in women with GH. We assessed whether the application SDB treatment could improve blood pressure in women with GH.
This was a single-center randomized study. Subjects underwent an unattended home-based diagnostic sleep study. The study was then repeated with subjects wearing one of two randomly assigned treatments: auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure (auto-CPAP) or mandibular advancement device (MAD) + nasal strip. First morning blood pressure and blood for standard GH measures plus inflammatory markers were taken after each study. Subjects completed a series of questionnaires addressing sleep quality and tolerance of assigned therapy.
Twenty-four women completed the protocol-13 in the MAD group and 11 in auto-CPAP. The overall rate of SDB was 38%. Auto-CPAP was more effective at treating SDB than MAD + nasal strip, although the women randomized to MAD + nasal strip reported the greater comfort with therapy. First morning blood pressure was not consistently improved with either therapy. When subjects were stratified according to those whose blood pressure increased or decreased with therapy, an association was suggested between blood pressure improvement and reduced levels of tumour necrosis factor-α.
We demonstrated that 38% of women with GH had concurrent SDB. We did not find an improvement in blood pressure or inflammatory markers with a single night of either the auto-CPAP or MAD + nasal strip interventions. However important lessons from this study may guide future investigations in this area. CITATION: Reid J; Taylor-Gjevre R; Gjevre J; Skomro R; Fenton M; Olatunbosun F; Gordon JR; Cotton D. Can gestational hypertension be modified by treating nocturnal airflow limitation? J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(4):311-317.
No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gestational hypertension is a common complication of pregnancy. Recent evidence suggests that women with gestational hypertension have a high rate of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Using laboratory-based polysomnography, we evaluated for the frequency of SDB in women with gestational hypertension compared to healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies.
In this single-center cross-sectional study, women with the diagnosis of gestational hypertension were screened in the Fetal Assessment Unit and Antepartum ward. Healthy subjects were recruited by local advertising. Subjects completed a series of questionnaires addressing sleep quality and daytime sleepiness, followed by full night polysomnography. The primary outcome was frequency of SDB (defined as a respiratory disturbance index ≥ 5) in the gestational hypertension and healthy groups.
A total of 34 women with gestational hypertension and singleton pregnancies and 26 healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies consented to participate in the study. The mean ages and gestational ages, but not the body mass indices, of the 2 groups were similar. The frequencies of SDB in the more obese gestational hypertension group and the healthy group were 53% and 12%, respectively (P < 0.001).
Women with gestational hypertension may have a significantly higher frequency of SDB than do healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies of similar gestational age. The relative causal contributions, if any, of SDB and obesity remain to be determined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to investigate whether prenatal vitamin C and E supplementation reduces the incidence of gestational hypertension (GH) and its adverse conditions among high- and low-risk women.
In a multicenter randomized controlled trial, women were stratified by the risk status and assigned to daily treatment (1 g vitamin C and 400 IU vitamin E) or placebo. The primary outcome was GH and its adverse conditions.
Of the 2647 women randomized, 2363 were included in the analysis. There was no difference in the risk of GH and its adverse conditions between groups (relative risk, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.26). However, vitamins C and E increased the risk of fetal loss or perinatal death (nonprespecified) as well as preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.
Vitamin C and E supplementation did not reduce the rate of preeclampsia or GH, but increased the risk of fetal loss or perinatal death and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · American journal of obstetrics and gynecology