[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose:
Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays a role in cardiac and vascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the prognostic significance of ET-1 for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular outcome, in a 20-year follow-up.
We studied 82 originally healthy individuals, referred to our Unit of Cardiovascular Prevention, to evaluate the presence of asymptomatic carotid lesions. We subdivided these individuals into two groups, according to the plasma values of ET-1 (respectively ≤ or >2.7 pg/ml). Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were investigated, and by carotid ultrasound examination, we distinguished between normal individuals and those with intima-media thickening or asymptomatic carotid plaque.
Major cardiac and cerebral events (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, revascularization procedures, fatal and nonfatal stroke) were registered in 41 individuals and significantly more in those with high vs. low ET-1 levels (95 vs. 5%; P < 0.0001). Furthermore, by logistic multivariate regression analysis, we found that among all evaluated baseline clinical and laboratory variables, hypertension [odds ratio (OR): 20.4 (3.3-127), P = 0.001], high ET-1 concentrations [OR: 1.4 (1.0-1.8), P = 0.02] and the presence of intima-media thickness or asymptomatic carotid plaque [OR: 3.7 (1.14-12.1), P = 0.02] were independent predictors of future events. Finally, integrating technical and laboratory data, high levels of ET-1 have defined a high risk of major cardiac and cerebral event and stroke at follow-up, which increased in relation to the progression of carotid atherosclerosis (P < 0.05).
ET-1 plasmatic levels significantly influence the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk profile, beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors and preclinical carotid atherosclerosis.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate if the intima-media thickening (IMT) and asymptomatic carotid plaque (ACP), as expression of carotid preclinical atherosclerosis (pre-ATS), can provide further information on the global cardiovascular risk (GCVR).
We studied 454 asymptomatic subjects, with a cluster of risk factors (RF), and evaluated the incidence of a first cardiovascular (CV) event in a five-year follow-up. The subjects at admission were subdivided in three groups of risk.
Events occurred in 38% of subjects at high risk, in 13% and 6% of subjects at intermediate and low risk (p<0.003). Among evaluated parameters, carotid pre-ATS was a predictive marker of CV events (OR 2.7, 95% IC 1.4-5.1, p<0.0024). In subjects with GCVR<20% the prevalence of events was 8% for normal carotid ultrasound findings, 13% for increased IMT and 15% for ACP.
In primary prevention, the IMT measurement can give further information for a better stratification of GCVR. The pre-ATS of carotid arteries should be considered a strong predictor of future CV events and should suggest a more aggressive treatment of RF.