[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is compelling evidence to suggest that serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) is the likely primary site for the development of many pelvic high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs). Identifying molecules that are upregulated in STIC is important not only to provide biomarkers to assist in the diagnosis of STIC but also to elucidate our understanding of the pathogenesis of HGSC. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing to compare transcriptomes between HGSC and normal fallopian tube epithelium (FTE), and we identified LAMC1 encoding laminin γ1 as one of the preferentially upregulated genes associated with HGSC. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction further validated LAMC1 upregulation in HGSC as compared with normal FTE. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 32 cases of concurrent HGSC and STIC. The latter was diagnosed on the basis of morphology, TP53 mutations, and p53 and Ki-67 immunohistochemical patterns. Laminin γ1 immunostaining intensity was found to be significantly higher in STIC and HGSC compared with adjacent FTE in all cases (P<0.001). In normal FTE, laminin γ1 immunoreactivity was predominantly localized in the basement membrane or on the apical surface of ciliated cells, whereas in STIC and HGSC cells, laminin γ1 staining was diffuse and intense throughout the cytoplasm. More importantly, strong laminin γ1 staining was detected in all 13 STICs, which lacked p53 immunoreactivity because of null mutations. These findings suggest that the overexpression of laminin γ1 immunoreactivity and alteration of its staining pattern in STICs can serve as a useful tissue biomarker, especially for those STICs that are negative for p53 and have a low Ki-67 labeling index.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · The American journal of surgical pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is mounting evidence that serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) may be the immediate precursor of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) but the criteria for its diagnosis are not well established as highlighted in a recent study showing that interobserver reproducibility, even among expert gynecologic pathologists, was moderate at best. Given the clinical significance of a diagnosis of STIC in a patient who has no other evidence of ovarian carcinoma, this is a serious issue that we felt needed to be addressed. Although it is not clear, at this time, whether such a patient should or should not be treated, the importance of an accurate and reproducible diagnosis of precursors of ovarian carcinoma cannot be underestimated. We hypothesized that an elevated Ki-67 labeling index may aid the diagnosis of STIC. Accordingly, we compared the Ki-67 index of STIC and HGSC to normal fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) in the same patients and to a control group of patients without carcinoma, matched for age. A total of 41 STICs were analyzed, of which 35 were associated with a concurrent HGSC. In FTE, immunoreactivity for Ki-67 was restricted to a few scattered cells (mean 2.0%). No statistically significant difference was found between patients with and without HGSC (P>0.05). However, both STICs and HGSC had significantly higher Ki-67 indices than normal FTE (P<0.0001). STICs uniformly had an elevated Ki-67 labeling index that ranged from 11.7% to 71.1% (average 35.6%). There was no correlation of the Ki-67 labeling index in the STICs and the associated HGSC, as the labeling index was lower in STIC in 18/35 (51.4%) whereas it was higher in 17/35 (48.6%) (P=0.86). In conclusion, the findings in this study indicate that compared with FTE, STICs have a significantly higher Ki-67 index similar to HGSC. Accordingly, the Ki-67 index can aid the diagnosis of intraepithelial tubal proliferations suspicious for STIC. Therefore, we propose that a Ki-67 index of 10% is a useful diagnostic tool to distinguish STICs from normal FTE.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) have been proposed to be the most likely precursor of ovarian, tubal and 'primary peritoneal' (pelvic) high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). As somatic mutation of TP53 is the most common molecular genetic change of ovarian HGSC, occurring in more than 95% of cases, we undertook a mutational analysis of 29 pelvic HGSCs that had concurrent STICs to demonstrate the clonal relationship of STICs and HGSCs. In addition, we correlated the mutational data with p53 immunostaining to determine the role of p53 immunoreactivity as a surrogate for TP53 mutations in histological diagnosis. Somatic TP53 mutations were detected in all 29 HGSCs analysed and the identical mutations were detected in 27 of 29 pairs of STICs and concurrent HGSCs. Missense mutations were observed in 61% of STICs and frameshift/splicing junction/nonsense mutations in 39%. Interestingly, there were two HGSCs with two distinctly different TP53 mutations each, but only one of the mutations was detected in the concurrent STICs. Missense mutations were associated with intense and diffuse (≥ 60%) p53 nuclear immunoreactivity, while most of the null mutations were associated with complete loss of p53 staining (p < 0.0001). Overall, this p53 staining pattern yielded a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 100% in detecting TP53 missense mutations. In conclusion, the above findings support the clonal relationship of STIC and pelvic HGSC and demonstrate the utility of p53 immunostaining as a surrogate for TP53 mutation in the histological diagnosis of STIC. In this regard, it is important to appreciate the significance of different staining patterns. Specifically, strong diffuse staining correlates with a missense mutation, whereas complete absence of staining correlates with null mutations.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · The Journal of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Short telomeres are one of the main genetic manifestations in human cancer, as they have been shown to play an important role in inducing chromosomal instability and in contributing to tumor progression. The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in telomere length occur in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), the putative precursor of "ovarian" high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). Twenty-two STICs from 15 patients with concurrent but discrete HGSCs were analyzed for telomere length on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections by conducting p53 immunofluorescence to assist in identifying STICs and telomere-specific FISH. Telomere length (short, long, or no change) in STICs was compared with HGSCs using normal fallopian tube epithelium and stromal cells as controls. We found that STICs had the shortest telomeres, as 18 (82%) of 22 STICs had short telomeres, whereas only 2 (9%) showed no change and 2 (9%) had long telomeres compared with the normal-looking tubal epithelium. In contrast, among 12 paired HGSCs and STICs, 6 HGSCs showed an increase in telomere length, one showed a decrease in length and 5 did not show any change when compared with their matched STICs, although, such as STICs, the majority of HGSCs had shorter telomeres than the associated normal tubal epithelial cells. These differences in telomere length between normal tubal epithelial cells and STICs, and between STICs and HGSCs were statisticaly significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, the finding of short telomeres, which have been shown to be one of the earliest molecular changes in carcinogenesis, in a vast majority of STICs provides further support to the proposal that STICs are precursors of HGSC and opens new areas of research in elucidating the early events of ovarian high-grade serous carcinogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · The American journal of surgical pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) has been proposed as a precursor for many pelvic high-grade serous carcinomas. Our previous analysis of the ovarian cancer genome identified several genes with oncogenic potential that are amplified and/or overexpressed in the majority of high-grade serous carcinomas. Determining whether these genes are upregulated in STICs is important in further elucidating the relationship of STICs to high-grade serous carcinomas and is fundamental in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of high-grade serous carcinomas. In this study, 37 morphologically defined STICs were obtained from 23 patients with stage IIIC/IV high-grade serous carcinomas. Both STICs and the high-grade serous carcinomas were analyzed for expression of Rsf-1 (HBXAP), cyclin E, fatty acid synthase (FASN) and mucin-4. In addition, they were examined for expression of established markers including p53, Ki-67 and p16. We found that diffuse nuclear p53 and p16 immunoreactivity was observed in 27 (75%) of 36 and 18 (55%) of 33 STICs, respectively, whereas an elevated Ki-67 labeling index (>or=10%) was detected in 29 (78%) of 37 STICs. Cyclin E nuclear staining was seen in 24 (77%) of 35 STICs, whereas normal tubal epithelial cells were all negative. Increased Rsf-1 and FASN immunoreactivity occurred in 63%, and 62% of STICs, respectively, compared with adjacent normal-appearing tubal epithelium. Interestingly, only one STIC showed increased mucin-4 immunoreactivity. Carcinomas, when compared with STICs, overexpressed p16, Rsf-1, cyclin E and FASN in a higher proportion of cases. In conclusion, STICs express several markers including Rsf-1, cyclin E and FASN in high-grade serous carcinomas. In contrast, mucin-4 immunoreactivity either did not change or was reduced in most STICs. These results suggest that overexpression of Rsf-1, cyclin E and FASN occurs early in tumor progression.