[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of acute hypercapnic acidosis and buffered hypercapnia on lung inflammation and apoptosis in experimental acute lung injury (ALI). Twenty-four hours after paraquat injection, 28 Wistar rats were randomized into four groups (n = 7/group): (1) normocapnia (NC, PaCO2 = 35-45 mmHg), ventilated with 0.03%CO2 + 21%O2 + balanced N2; (2) hypercapnic acidosis (HC, PaCO2 = 60-70 mmHg), ventilated with 5%CO2 + 21%O2 + balanced N2; and (3) buffered hypercapnic acidosis (BHC), ventilated with 5%CO2 + 21%O2 + balanced N2 and treated with sodium bicarbonate (8.4%). The remaining seven animals were not mechanically ventilated (NV). The mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 (p = 0.003), IL-1β (p < 0.001), and type III procollagen (PCIII) (p = 0.001) in lung tissue was more reduced in the HC group in comparison with NC, with no significant differences between HC and BHC. Lung and kidney cell apoptosis was reduced in HC and BHC in comparison with NC and NV. In conclusion, in this experimental ALI model, hypercapnia, regardless of acidosis, reduced lung inflammation and lung and kidney cell apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In acute lung injury, recruitment maneuvers have been used to open collapsed lungs and set positive end-expiratory pressure, but their effectiveness may depend on the degree of lung injury. This study uses a single experimental model with different degrees of lung injury and tests the hypothesis that recruitment maneuvers may have beneficial or deleterious effects depending on the severity of acute lung injury. We speculated that recruitment maneuvers may worsen lung mechanical stress in the presence of alveolar edema.
Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study.
University research laboratory.
Thirty-six Wistar rats randomly divided into three groups (n = 12 per group).
In the control group, saline was intraperitoneally injected, whereas moderate and severe acute lung injury animals received paraquat intraperitoneally (20 mg/kg [moderate acute lung injury] and 25 mg/kg [severe acute lung injury]). After 24 hrs, animals were further randomized into subgroups (n = 6/each) to be recruited (recruitment maneuvers: 40 cm H₂O continuous positive airway pressure for 40 secs) or not, followed by 1 hr of protective mechanical ventilation (tidal volume, 6 mL/kg; positive end-expiratory pressure, 5 cm H₂O).
Only severe acute lung injury caused alveolar edema. The amounts of alveolar collapse were similar in the acute lung injury groups. Static lung elastance, viscoelastic pressure, hyperinflation, lung, liver, and kidney cell apoptosis, and type 3 procollagen and interleukin-6 mRNA expressions in lung tissue were more elevated in severe acute lung injury than in moderate acute lung injury. After recruitment maneuvers, static lung elastance, viscoelastic pressure, and alveolar collapse were lower in moderate acute lung injury than in severe acute lung injury. Recruitment maneuvers reduced interleukin-6 expression with a minor detachment of the alveolar capillary membrane in moderate acute lung injury. In severe acute lung injury, recruitment maneuvers were associated with hyperinflation, increased apoptosis of lung and kidney, expression of type 3 procollagen, and worsened alveolar capillary injury.
In the presence of alveolar edema, regional mechanical heterogeneities, and hyperinflation, recruitment maneuvers promoted a modest but consistent increase in inflammatory and fibrogenic response, which may have worsened lung function and potentiated alveolar and renal epithelial injury.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Critical care medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of the study was to compare the effects of different assisted ventilation modes with pressure controlled ventilation (PCV) on lung histology, arterial blood gases, inflammatory and fibrogenic mediators in experimental acute lung injury (ALI).
Paraquat-induced ALI rats were studied. At 24 h, animals were anaesthetised and further randomized as follows (n = 6/group): (1) pressure controlled ventilation mode (PCV) with tidal volume (V (T)) = 6 ml/kg and inspiratory to expiratory ratio (I:E) = 1:2; (2) three assisted ventilation modes: (a) assist-pressure controlled ventilation (APCV1:2) with I:E = 1:2, (b) APCV1:1 with I:E = 1:1; and (c) biphasic positive airway pressure and pressure support ventilation (BiVent + PSV), and (3) spontaneous breathing without PEEP in air. PCV, APCV1:1, and APCV1:2 were set with P (insp) = 10 cmH(2)O and PEEP = 5 cmH(2)O. BiVent + PSV was set with two levels of CPAP [inspiratory pressure (P (High) = 10 cmH(2)O) and positive end-expiratory pressure (P (Low) = 5 cmH(2)O)] and inspiratory/expiratory times: T (High) = 0.3 s and T (Low) = 0.3 s. PSV was set as follows: 2 cmH(2)O above P (High) and 7 cmH(2)O above P (Low). All rats were mechanically ventilated in air and PEEP = 5 cmH(2)O for 1 h.
Assisted ventilation modes led to better functional improvement and less lung injury compared to PCV. APCV1:1 and BiVent + PSV presented similar oxygenation levels, which were higher than in APCV1:2. Bivent + PSV led to less alveolar epithelium injury and lower expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and type III procollagen.
In this experimental ALI model, assisted ventilation modes presented greater beneficial effects on respiratory function and a reduction in lung injury compared to PCV. Among assisted ventilation modes, Bi-Vent + PSV demonstrated better functional results with less lung damage and expression of inflammatory mediators.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Intensive Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo é caracterizada por uma reação inflamatória difusa do parênquima pulmonar induzida por um insulto direto ao epitélio alveolar (síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo pulmonar) ou indireto por meio do endotélio vascular (síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo extrapulmonar). A principal estratégia terapêutica da síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo é o suporte ventilatório. Entretanto, a ventilação mecânica pode agravar a lesão pulmonar. Nesse contexto, uma estratégia ventilatória protetora com baixo volume corrente foi proposta. Tal estratégia reduziu a taxa de mortalidade dos pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo, porém acarretou acidose hipercápnica. O presente artigo apresenta uma revisão da literatura acerca dos efeitos da acidose hipercápnica na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Para tal, realizou-se uma revisão sistemática da literatura científica conforme critérios já estabelecidos para análise documental incluindo artigos experimentais e clínicos sobre o tema, usando-se como bases de dados MedLine, LILACS, SciElo, PubMed, Cochrane. A acidose hipercápnica é defendida por alguns autores como moduladora do processo inflamatório da síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Entretanto, estudos clínicos e experimentais acerca dos efeitos da acidose hipercápnica têm demonstrado resultados controversos. Logo, é fundamental a realização de mais pesquisas para elucidar o papel da acidose hipercápnica na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although fibroblasts are key cells in the lung repair/fibrosis process, their characteristics are poorly studied in acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The aims of our study were to: 1) determine the biological behaviour of alveolar fibroblasts during ALI; and 2) to evaluate the clinical relevance of positive alveolar fibroblast culture from patients with ALI/ARDS. Cells were cultured from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) obtained from 68 critically ill, ventilated patients: ALI n = 17; ARDS n = 31; and ventilated controls n = 20. Patients were followed for 28 days and clinical data was recorded. We studied proliferation, migration and collagen-1 synthesis capacities of fibroblasts. Cells expressing fibroblast markers were cultured from BAL obtained in six (35%) ALI patients and six (19%) ARDS patients, but never from ventilated controls. Alveolar fibroblasts exhibited a persistent activated phenotype with enhanced migratory and collagen-1 production capacities, with hyporesponsiveness to prostaglandin E(2) compared to normal lung fibroblasts (p< or =0.04). Positive fibroblast culture was associated with both an increased collagen-1 concentration and monocyte/macrophage percentage in BAL fluid (p< or =0.01), and with a reduced duration of mechanical ventilation (p<0.001). We conclude that activated alveolar fibroblasts can be cultured either in ALI or ARDS and that their presence might reflect the initiation of the organising phase of ALI.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · European Respiratory Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of low and high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), without recruitment maneuvers, during lung protective ventilation in an experimental model of acute lung injury (ALI).
Prospective, randomized, and controlled experimental study.
University research laboratory.
Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (C) [saline (0.1 mL), intraperitoneally] and ALI [paraquat (15 mg/kg), intraperitoneally] groups.
After 24 hours, each group was further randomized into four groups (six rats each) at different PEEP levels = 1.5, 3, 4.5, or 6 cm H2O and ventilated with a constant tidal volume (6 mL/kg) and open thorax. Lung mechanics [static elastance (Est, L) and viscoelastic pressure (DeltaP2, L)] and arterial blood gases were measured before (Pre) and at the end of 1-hour mechanical ventilation (Post). Pulmonary histology (light and electron microscopy) and type III procollagen (PCIII) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were measured after 1 hour of mechanical ventilation. In ALI group, low and high PEEP levels induced a greater percentage of increase in Est, L (44% and 50%) and DeltaP2, L (56% and 36%) in Post values related to Pre. Low PEEP yielded alveolar collapse whereas high PEEP caused overdistension and atelectasis, with both levels worsening oxygenation and increasing PCIII mRNA expression.
In the present nonrecruited ALI model, protective mechanical ventilation with lower and higher PEEP levels than required for better oxygenation increased Est, L and DeltaP2, L, the amount of atelectasis, and PCIII mRNA expression. PEEP selection titrated for a minimum elastance and maximum oxygenation may prevent lung injury while deviation from these settings may be harmful.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Critical care medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction :
La migration des fibroblastes pulmonaires humains (FPH) est une étape essentielle du processus de réparation alvéolaire dans les agressions pulmonaires aiguës (Acute Lung Injury, ALI, et Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, ARDS). L’objectif de cette étude était de caractériser les médiateurs présents dans le lavage broncho- alvéolaire (LBA) et impliqués dans la migration des FPH dans les ALI/ARDS.
La migration de FPH (ATCC CCL-210) a été étudiée dans un modèle de chambre de Boyden modifiée (Transwell® 8,0 μm) en absence et en présence de surnageant de LBA prélevés chez des patients de réanimation, sous ventilation mécanique (VM), suspects de pneumopathie infectieuse. Les Résultats, exprimés en médiane [min-max], étaient comparés par tests non paramétriques.
La migration des FPH était stimulée en présence de LBA dans le groupe ARDS (108 % [5-337]) et inhibée dans les autres groupes (témoins ventilés 9 % [3-44] ; ALI 27 % [4-105]), chez les patients prélevés avant le 8e jour de VM (figure).
La migration induite par les LBA ayant un effet stimulant était réduite de 53 % [39-79] (n = 5 ; p = 0,03) en présence d’un inhibiteur spécifique des récepteurs au PDGF (AG1296). À l’opposé, les LBA inhibiteurs réduisaient de 48 % [0-97] (n = 8 ; p = 0,01) la migration induite par du rh-PDGF. Cet effet inhibiteur disparaissait après dilution des LBA d’un facteur 4 (51 % [7-128] vs 128 % [45-237] de l’effet stimulant de rh-PDGF) (n = 5 ; p = 0,03), suggérant la présence d’un inhibiteur de PDGF dans les LBA.
La migration des FPH, au cours des ALI/ARDS, semble modulée par une balance entre activateur et inhibiteur de la voie du PDGF dans les LBA. Cette balance est en faveur d’une activation de la migration des FPH au cours des lésions alvéolaires les plus sévères.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A ventilação mecânica é considerada elemento básico de suporte de vida nas unidades de terapia intensiva e, indubitavelmente, essencial para os pacientes com lesão pulmonar aguda (LPA) e síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo (SDRA). Estudos experimentais demonstraram que a ventilação mecânica (VM) com altos volumes e/ou altas pressões pode exacerbar ou iniciar uma lesão pulmonar, denominada lesão pulmonar associada à VM (LPAV) ou lesão pulmonar induzida pelo ventilador (LPIV), respectivamente, com aspecto histológico similar ao da LPA/SDRA. CONTEÚDO: Realizou-se uma pesquisa sistemática dos artigos incluídos na MedLine e SciElo dos últimos 20 anos, que abordavam uma visão crítica dos principais mecanismos determinantes da LPIV. Dentre os principais mecanismos da LPAV/LPIV pode-se citar: volutrauma causado por hiperdistensão e expansão desigual das unidades alveolares em função de altas pressões transpulmonares ou volumes; aletectrauma resultante da abertura e fechamento cíclicos das vias aéreas distais e o biotrauma determinado pelo processo inflamatório conseqüente às estratégias ventilatórias lesivas adotadas. CONCLUSÕES: Os mecanismos responsáveis pelo volutrauma, atelectrauma e biotrauma devem ser bem entendidos para que se possa evitar a lesão associada à ventilação mecânica.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2007 · Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objectives:
Mechanical ventilation is considered a basic element of life support in the intensive care unit and is essential for patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Experimental studies have demonstrated that mechanical ventilation with high volumes and/or high pressures can exacerbate (VALI) or induce lung injury (VILI) with histological aspect similar to ALI/ARDS.
This systematic review included the literature on MedLine and SciElo database published in the last 20 years. In this review, we will highlight the most recent data on the mechanisms of VILI. The main mechanisms of VILI are: volutrauma caused by overinflation and uneven expansion of the lungs due to high ventilation pressures or volumes; aletectrauma induced by shear forces generated during cyclic closure and reopening of terminal airways; and biotrauma where the injury resulted from the release inflammatory mediators due to physical stresses associated with mechanical ventilation.
It is fundamental to understand the mechanisms related to volutrauma, atelectrauma, and biotrauma to avoid ventilator-associated lung injury.
Preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva