- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Male breast cancer (MBC) is uncommon. As a result, there is limited availability of studies and reviews and even fewer reports from Asia. This is the largest population-based study to compare Chinese MBC patients with female patients during a 10-year period in Hong Kong, Southern China. A retrospective review of medical records of 132 male and 8,118 female breast cancer patients between year 1997 and 2006 in Hong Kong was performed. Each MBC patient was matched with three female breast cancer patients for further analysis. Different characteristics, overall, breast-cancer specific, and disease-free survivals (DFS) were compared. Mean age at diagnosis of male and female patients was 64.5 and 52.7 years respectively. Male patients showed lower histological grade, overall stage, smaller tumor size, and more positive sensitivity in hormone receptors. They were more likely to die of causes other than breast cancer. Matched analysis found that the 5-year overall survival (OS), breast-cancer-specific mortality, and DFS for male and female patients were 78.7, 90.5, 90.5, and 77.9, 86.4, and 81.4 % respectively. Male patients had poorer OS at early overall stage but better breast-cancer-specific mortality rates at any age (p < 0.01). Male patients had a significant risk of dying due to any cause in the presence of distant relapse and had less risk of dying when tumor was ER-positive and HER2-positive. Chinese male breast cancer patients tend to have poorer OS but better breast-cancer-specific survival compared with their female counterparts.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethnic variation in tumor characteristics and clinical presentation of breast cancer is increasingly being emphasized. We studied the tumor characteristics and factors which may influence the presentation and prognosis of triple negative breast cancers (TNC) in a cohort of Chinese women. A prospective cohort of 1800 Chinese women with breast cancer was recruited in a tertiary referral unit in Hong Kong between 1995 and 2006 and was followed up with a median duration of 7.2 years. Of the total, 216 (12.0%) had TNC and 1584 (88.0%) had non-TNC. Their clinicopathological variables, epidemiological variables and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Patients with TNC had similar age of presentation as those with non-TNC, while presenting at earlier stages (82.4% were stage 1-2, compared to 78.4% in non-TNC, p=0.035). They were likely to be associated with grade 3 cancer (Hazard Ratio(HR)=5.8, p<0.001). TNC showed higher chance of visceral relapse (HR=2.69, p<0.001), liver metastasis (HR=1.7, p=0.003) and brain metastasis (HR=1.8, p=0.003). Compared with non-TNC group, TNC had similar 10-year disease-free survival (82% vs 84%, p=0.148), overall survival (78% vs 79%, p=0.238) and breast cancer-specific mortality (18% vs 16%, p=0.095). However, TNC showed poorer 10-year stage 3 and 4 specific survival (stage 3: 53% vs. 67%, p=0.010; stage 4: 0% vs. 40%, p=0.035). Chinese women with triple negative breast cancer do not have less aggressive biological behavior compared to the West and presentation at a later stage results in worse prognosis compared with those with non triple negative breast cancer.
Conference Paper: Breast-Conserving Surgery in BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BRCA1/2 mutation prediction models (BRCAPRO, Myriad II, Couch, Shattuck-Eidens, BOADICEA) are well established in western cohorts to estimate the probability of BRCA1/2 mutations. Results are conflicting in Asian populations. Most studies did not account for gender-specific prediction. We evaluated the performance of these models in a Chinese cohort, including males, before BRCA1/2 mutation testing. The five risk models were used to calculate the probability of BRCA mutations in probands with breast and ovarian cancers; 267 were non-BRCA mutation carriers (247 females and 20 males) and 43 were BRCA mutation carriers (38 females and 5 males). Mean BRCA prediction scores for all models were statistically better for carriers than noncarriers for females but not for males. BRCAPRO overestimated the numbers of female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers at thresholds ≥20% but underestimated if <20%. BRCAPRO and BOADICEA underestimated the number of male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers whilst Myriad II underestimated the number of both male and female carriers. In females, BRCAPRO showed similar discrimination, as measured by the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) for BRCA1/2 combined mutation prediction to BOADICEA, but performed better than BOADICEA in BRCA1 mutation prediction (AUC 93% vs. 87%). BOADICEA had the best discrimination for BRCA1/2 combined mutation prediction (AUC 87%) in males. The variation in model performance underscores the need for research on larger Asian cohorts as prediction models, and the possible need for customizing these models for different ethnic groups and genders.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer registries have been set up worldwide to provide information for cancer health planning. There are known variations in breast cancer incidence and mortality worldwide. However, breast cancer incidence, pathological characteristics, and survival data is still under-reported in Asian countries. This is the first comprehensive population-based breast cancer study performed using population database of the Hong Kong Cancer Registry. A retrospective review of medical records of 8,961 subjects who were diagnosed with breast cancer between January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2001 and followed up to December 31, 2007. Descriptive statistics were employed to analyze the epidemiological and clinical data. Estimates of overall, disease-free, and cancer-specific survival at 5 years were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and stage-specific relative survival rates were calculated. A total of 7,630 breast cancer patients' medical records and dataset were available during this period, and 7,449 subjects were eligible for the final analysis. Median follow-up was 84 months. A total of 47.4% were diagnosed with breast cancer at age 49 years and younger; 22.2%, 46.9%, 10.8%, and 4.1% presented at stages I, II, III, and IV, respectively. A total of 53.5% had ER-positive cancer, and 20.3% had HER2-positive cancers; 13.4% had triple-negative cancers. The relative, cancer-specific, and disease-free survival rates at 5 years were 84%, 85.2%, and 81.2%, respectively. We performed the first comprehensive population-based breast cancer epidemiology study in Southern China using the Hong Kong Cancer Registry database. This provides a baseline study cohort for comparative studies with other Asian countries and Chinese who have migrated to the West.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the BRCA genes confer greater risk of developing breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer. Families carrying the mutation can have intensive surveillance and take preventative measures. This is the first report on the uptake of such interventions in Chinese mutation carriers residing in Asia. Breast and ovarian cancer index patients and family members referred for genetic counselling and testing who are found to carry the BRCA mutations were included in this multicenter study. A total of 31 patients with breast and/or ovarian cancer were found to carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Forty-one tested family members also carried the mutations. Of the females, 85.7% of the index patients opted for breast surveillance and 23.8% for prophylactic mastectomy. Of the family members, 82.4% chose breast surveillance and 17.7% had prophylactic mastectomy. The majority of index patients and family members preferred ovarian surveillance (84 and 82.4%). Amongst the index patients, 32% decided for prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy; 17.6% of the family members who did not have history of ovarian cancer decided to have prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. All male index patients agreed to breast and prostate surveillance, including breast clinical examination and PSA monitoring. For those male family members found to be BRCA mutation carriers, 56.3% agreed to have breast surveillance and 66.7% agreed to have prostate surveillance. No index patient or family member agreed to any form of chemoprevention. Chinese BRCA mutation carriers have a higher uptake of cancer surveillance than prophylactic surgery and have a lack of interest in the use of chemoprevention drugs.