[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pommeau is a traditional beverage of France which is elaborated by mixing Calvados and clarified apple must. In this study, this beverage was physicochemically characterized for the first time by different analytical methods. Pommeau contains a mean content of ethanol around 16.3 % (v/v) while pH values are observed between 3.9 and 4.3. Total and volatile acidities are rather low if they are compared to other beverages, and this is correlated with relatively low quantities of malic acid (around 1.5 g/L) and high concentrations of reducing sugars (79–109 g/L). Alkali and alkaline earth metals (K, Na, Ca and Mg) are dominant in concentration as compared to the other metals. Pommeau is a sweet beverage which reflects that producers are selecting higher proportions of sweet apples and lower proportions of acidic apples. The concentration of metals may be correlated to the turbidities of Pommeau samples up to some extent. The statistical analyses have shown the association of metals with more turbid sample.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · European Food Research and Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) was used for the determination of volatile composition of 29 French ciders samples from two regions: Normandy and Brittany. Extractions using a C18 sorbent were followed by GC-MS analyses for the identification of major volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and GC-FID analyses for the quantification of 19 selected major compounds. The method was found to be rapid and linear up to 300 mg/L for quite all compounds with an average relative standard deviation of 8.5% for tests of repeatability at low concentrations. The limit of detection (LOD) is below 0.1 mg/L except for three VOCs which exhibited much higher concentrations in samples. No significant difference in concentrations of higher alcohols were observed in the cider samples from two regions, however their concentrations were higher in hard ciders than sweet ciders. Acetates were found to be more present in sweet ciders from Normandy than those from Brittany reflecting important differences in the yeasts acting during the fermentation.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Analytical methods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among all the pharmaceutical drugs that contaminate the environment, antibiotics occupy an important place due to their high consumption rates in both veterinary and human medicine. The present study examined the ability of Pseudomonas putida to grow on the antibiotic wastewater, currently expanding in Tunisia, containing amoxicillin and cefadroxil. P. putida was very efficient to grow quickly in pharmaceutical wastewater (PW) and in reducing the total dissolved solids to 80.1 %. Cytotoxicity of PW, before and after biodegradation with P. putida mt-2, was evaluated in vitro, using the MTT assay, against four human tumor cell lines such as A549 (lung cell carcinoma), HCT15 (colon cell carcinoma), MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma), and U373 (glioma cell carcinoma). The PW reduced all human cell lines viability in a dose-dependent manner. This activity was very remarkable against U373 cell line. For this reason, we have tested the genotoxicity of PW using comet assay for quantification of DNA fragmentation. In fact, PW has statistically significant (p < 0.001) influence on DNA. Indeed, the percentage of genotoxicity was 66.87 and 87.5 %, after 24 and 48 h of treatment, respectively. However, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity decreased strongly when tested the PW obtained after incubation with P. putida mt-2. Our results indicate that P. putida is a promising and improved alternative to treating industrial-scale effluent compared to current chemical treatment procedures used by the industrials.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two types of exposures were performed to assess the effects of zinc released from sacrificial anode degradation: a chronic exposure, in which oysters were exposed to 0.53±0.04 mg Zn L(-1) for 10 weeks, and an acute exposure, where oysters were exposed to 10.2±1.2 mg Zn L(-1) for 1 week. At the end of the acute exposure experiment, 81.8% mortality was recorded. In contrast, no mortality was detected after 10 weeks exposure. Moreover, all of the immune system biomarkers studied, except the number of circulating haemocytes, were stimulated by a moderate level of zinc and inhibited by a high level. Our exposure conditions did not induce SOD or MXR mRNA expression in gills and digestive gland. However, an increase of MT mRNA is observed in these tissues. The results indicate that oysters are sensitive to acute zinc toxicity but are only moderately affected by a mild zinc concentration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Textile industry is one of the most common and essential sectors in Tunisia. However, the treatment of textile effluents becomes a university because of their toxic impacts on waters, soils, flora, and fauna.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 to decolorize a textile wastewater and to compare the biologic decolorization process to the chemical one currently used by the textile industry.
P. putida exhibited a high decolorizing capacity of the studied effluent, compared to the coagulation-flocculation method with decolorization percentage of 86% and 34.5%, respectively. Genotoxicity of the studied effluent, before and after decolorization by P. putida mt-2, was evaluated in vitro, using the SOS chromotest, and in vivo, in mouse bone marrow, by assessing the percentage of cells bearing different chromosome aberrations compared to not treated mice. In addition, textile effluent statistically significant influenced acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities and lipid peroxidation (p < 0.01) when compared to not-treated mice. Coagulation-flocculation treatment process used by industry was revealed to be ineffective. Indeed toxicities persisted after treatment and the effluent did not show any statistically significant decrease in toxicities compared to non-treated effluent. Our results indicate that P. putida is a promising and improved alternative to treating industrial scale effluent compared to current chemical decolorization procedures used by the Tunisian textile industry.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, attention has been drawn toward the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment. In recent years, many reports have been made on the occurrence of the large, differentiated group of pharmaceuticals in wastewater (PW), surface water, ground water, and in soil. The pharmaceutical sector is currently expanding in Tunisia, with more than 34 industries. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 to treat PW. P. putida was very efficient in reducing chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), and turbidity of solution (85.5, 89.1, and 81.5%, respectively). Genotoxicity of effluent, before and after biodegradation, was evaluated in vivo in mouse bone marrow by assessing the percentage of cells bearing different chromosome aberrations. Results indicated that PW showed a significant ability to induce DNA damage. In addition, PW induced a remarkable lipid peroxidation (LPO) effect, however, activities of both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were unchanged when treated with PW, compared to nontreated PW. This toxicity was imputed to the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater. However, chromosome aberration, as well as LPO of PW, were significantly reduced after bioremediation. Thus, the use of this strain for testing on the industrial scale seems possible and advantageous.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Drug and Chemical Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sacrificial anodes made of zinc are currently used in marine environments to mitigate marine corrosion as part of CP systems of immerged metallic structures. The aim of this work was to study zinc bioconcentration in the oyster Crassostrea gigas by performing two in vivo tests during different time periods and at different zinc concentrations. The first test was conducted during a period of 10 weeks at a concentration of 0.53 ± 0.04 mg Zn L(-1) to simulate long-term exposure, and a second test was conducted during a 168-hour period at a concentration of 10.2 ± 1.2 mg Zn L(-1) to reproduce short-term exposure. In these experiments, the zinc source was an electrochemical device that included a sacrificial anode to mimic the in situ conditions. During the first 14 days of the long-term experiment, digestive glands of C oysters exhibited bioaccumulation of zinc that varied according to the oysters' reproductive cycle. Both a bioconcentration factor (BCF) of ≤ 13,397 and a zinc accumulation percentage of +297% of zinc occurred in this organ after 10 weeks. The results obtained from the short-term test showed a lower BCF of 405 but a faster bioaccumulation of zinc (starting from the first day) in the same organ. No mortality was observed in long-term assay, but 81.8% of the oysters died at the end of the short-term assay. These results demonstrate the great capacity of C. gigas to accumulate zinc released from the anode, especially when low concentrations are released, as in the case of anode dissolution used as CP. This study confirmed the necessity to monitor this zinc-contamination source in marine environments in relation to the usual oyster consumption by humans (especially in France). No implication for human health of this zinc-contamination source was demonstrated until now, and this was not the purpose of this study; however, zinc remains one of the most abundant nutritionally essential elements in the human body that may affect the human immune system at high-level uptake.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the early 1960s, the application of aluminum alloy sacrificial anodes to mitigate marine corrosion has been well known. The aim of this work was to study aluminum bioconcentration in Mytilus edulis by an in vitro test performed in two tanks: the first containing non-contaminated water (NCW) and the second containing aluminum-contaminated water (CW) (530 μg L(-1)) released by sacrificial anode. The mussels were collected and examined over a period of 8 weeks. A comparison between the aluminum concentrations in the digestive glands of mussels from the CW and NCW tanks shows that the highest value (1700 mg/kg d.w.) was found in the CW mussels collected after 13 days. In NCW, the mean aluminum concentration in digestive glands during the test was 281 mg/kg d.w. The rapid concentration decrease in digestive glands is probably due to the inhibition of filtering activity due to valve closure at the high concentration as well as the induction of the detoxification response.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Marine Pollution Bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to examine the performance of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 in treating olive mill wastewater (OMW) effluent after dilution with sterilized water (33%, v/v) to reduce its bactericide effect. P. putida significantly reduced the color and phenolic compounds in OMW by 75% and 66%, respectively. Dissolved chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand removals reached 85.3% and 92.5%, respectively. Genotoxicity of OMW, before and after biodegradation with P. putida mt-2, was evaluated in vitro, using SOS chromotest, and in vivo, in mouse bone marrow, by assessing the percentage of cells bearing different chromosome aberrations. Results indicated that OMW showed a significant ability to induce DNA damage, evaluated by SOS and chromosome aberration assay systems. This toxicity was imputed to the presence of phenolic compounds of OMW. However, the toxicity of OMW was significantly reduced after 48h of aerobic incubation with P. putida mt-2. The present study demonstrates that P. putida mt-2, incubated under aerobic conditions, has a metabolism that enables it to degrade OMW and, especially, to detoxify the effluent mixtures.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Environmental Engineering Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Different Lactobacillus collinoides and Brettanomyces/Dekkera anomala cider strains were studied for their ability to produce volatile phenols in synthetic medium. All strains were able to produce 4-ethylcatechol (4-EC), 4-ethylphenol (4-EP) and 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG) from caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, respectively. Interestingly, D. anomala and L. collinoides were also able to produce 4-EC, 4-EP and 4-EG in cider conditions. The quantities of ethylphenols produced by these two species were similar in both tested ciders. The impact of precursor quantities was studied and it showed that the addition of caffeic and p-coumaric acids in ciders allowed for higher 4-EC and 4-EP production by D. anomala and L. collinoides. In parallel, D. anomala and L. collinoides strains were isolated from a phenolic off-flavour defective bottled cider after ethylphenol production hence confirming the implication of these two species in this cider spoilage. Finally, detection thresholds of the main ethylphenols were determined in ciders by orthonasal and retronasal sampling. The 4-EC and 4-EP detection thresholds (close to 20-25mg/l and 1.5-2.0mg/l, respectively) were matrix dependant.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · International journal of food microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Representative cider microorganisms (47 yeast strains and 16 bacterial strains) were studied for their ability to produce volatile phenols in a synthetic medium simulating cider conditions and supplemented with the necessary precursors. The various strains were tested for cinnamoyl esterase activity and only Lactobacillus collinoides were able to hydrolyse chlorogenic acid. Phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) activities were observed for 6 yeasts and 4 bacterial species allowing them to produce vinylphenols from hydroxycinnamic acids. On the other hand, 4 bacterial species exhibited phenolic acid reductase (PAR) activities leading to the formation of hydroxyphenylpropionic acids. Brettanomyces/Dekkera anomala and L. collinoides were able to produce 4-ethylcatechol (4-EC) and 4-ethylphenol (4-EP) from caffeic and p-coumaric acid, respectively, indicating that both species exhibit PAD and vinylphenol reductase (VPR) activities. In the experimental conditions used, the production of ethylphenols by L. collinoides was faster than the one observed for D. anomala.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Food Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acid orange 52 (AO52), extensively used in textile industries, was decolorized by Pseudomonas putida mt-2. AO52 azoreduction products such as N,N'-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD) and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (4-ABS), were identified in the static degradation mixture. These amines were identified only in media of static incubation, which is consistent with their biotransformation under shaken incubation (aerobic conditions).
Tests with azo products were carried out, and whole cells were found able to easily degrade DMPD contrary to 4-ABS. However, this last could be attacked by cell extract, and an oxygen uptake was observed during the reaction.
Degradation of DMPD by entire cells led to the formation of catechol. These results show that P. putida was able to decolorize AO52 and metabolize its derivative amines. In addition, the ability of tested compounds was evaluated in vitro to reduce human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity.
Azoreduction products seem to be responsible for BuChE inhibition activity observed in static biodegradation extract. However, toxicity of AO52 completely disappears after shaken incubation with P. putida, suggesting that bacterium has a catabolism which enables it to completely degrade AO52 and especially, to detoxify the dye mixture.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new HPLC method using a diode array detector was developed and validated to quantify 4-ethylphenol, 4-vinylphenol, 4-ethylguaiacol, 4-vinylguaiacol and 4-ethylcatechol in cider. The procedure was linear up to 150 mg/l for each of the five volatile phenols, precise (RSD < 2.9%) and sensitive, with limits of detection between 0.03 and 0.10 mg/l; moreover, it did not require any sample preparation. This method was applied to 11 phenolic off-flavour defective ciders. In these ciders, the main volatile phenol corresponded to 4-ethylcatechol. Moreover, the observed concentrations (maximum of 164 mg/l) indicated, for the first time, that this compound is an important phenolic off -flavour marker in cider. Then, volatile phenols concentrations were determined for 47 French commercial ciders and showed mean quantities of 3.2 (4-EC), 0.8 (4-EP), 0.1 (4-EG), 0.2 (4-VP) and 0.3 mg/l (4-VG). The majority of the tested commercial ciders presented low volatile phenol levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dyes are widely used for industrial, printing, food, cosmetic and clinical purposes as well as textile dyeing because of their chemical stability, ease of synthesis, and versatility. Their stability, however, causes pollution once the dyes are released into the environment in effluents. More than 800,000 tons of dyes are annually produced worldwide, of which 60 to 70% are azo dyes. Considering the heterogeneous composition of these latter dyes, their degradation usually requires a chain of physical, chemical and biological treatments assuring the elimination of different pollutants in successive steps. In addition, some azo dyes are toxic and mutagenic and thus the biological treatment of these dyes is now of major scientific interest. Physical-chemical treatments (adsorption, coagulation/flocculation precipitation, etc.) are usually used for industrial effluents. In spite of their rapidity, these methods have turned out to be ineffective in attaining the standards required for these discharges. As a viable alternative, biological processes are receiving increasing interest owing to their cost effectiveness and their ability to produce less sludge. It has been found that some microorganisms can transform azo dyes into colourless products. Bacterial degradation of azo dyes is often initiated by an enzymatic biotransformation step that involves cleavage of azo linkages with the aid of an azoreductase and an electron donor. As the azoreductase in some microorganisms can catalyze the reductive cleavage of azo groups, they have potential advantages in developing bio-treatment methods of wastewater containing azo compounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Environmental pollutants such as heavy metals exert immunotoxic effects on aquatic organisms. The immune defence of molluscs is comprised of cell-mediated and humoral mechanisms, in which haemocytes play a key role. In this study, a model based on primary cultured haemocytes from the gastropod mollusc Haliotis tuberculata was established to investigate the effects of zinc in vitro. Cells were exposed for 24 h to ZnCl(2) concentrations of 0, 10, 100 or 1000 microM. The effects of zinc on haemocyte parameters were investigated using morphological, spectrophotometric and flow cytometry analysis. Immunotoxicity was reflected by a significant decrease in the number of viable haemocytes (LC(50)(24 h) = 314 microM). Moreover, the cell area was dramatically reduced, and the percentage of rounded cells increased with increasing zinc concentrations. Exposure to 1000 muM zinc induced a significant reduction in acid phosphatase activity, phagocytic activity and reactive oxygen species production in haemocytes. However, several haemocyte parameters increased significantly after 24 h of zinc exposure. In response to a 1000 microM exposure, the phenoloxidase level was 26-fold higher than that of the control, and non-specific esterase activity was increased by 69% above that of the control. These results suggest a relationship between zinc exposure and alterations in the functional responses of haemocytes from H. tuberculata.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Fish & Shellfish Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The toxicity of aluminum or zinc from either sacrificial anodes (SA) or their sulfate salts (SS) was evaluated in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos or sperm exposed to Al(III) or Zn(II) (SA or SS, 0.1-10 microM), scoring developmental defects (DDs), fertilization rate (FR), and mitotic abnormalities. A significant DD increase was observed in SS, but not SA Al(III)- and Zn(II)-exposed embryos vs. controls. Both Al(III) and Zn(II), up to 10 microM, from SA and SS, inhibited mitotic activity and induced mitotic aberrations in exposed embryos. SA-Al(III)-exposed sperm displayed a significant FR increase, unlike Al(III) sulfate overlapping with controls. Both SA-Zn(II) and Zn(II) sulfate sperm exposure resulted in a significant FR increase. The offspring of SA-Al(III)-exposed sperm displayed a significant DD decrease, unlike Al(III) sulfate exposure. Zinc sulfate sperm exposure resulted in a significant increase in offspring DDs, whereas SA-Zn(II) sperm exposure decreased DDs. Together, exposures to SA-dissolved Al(III) or Zn(II) resulted in lesser, if any toxicity, up to hormesis, compared to SS. Studies of metal speciation should elucidate the present results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 207 volatile compounds were identified in extracts of four French labeled brandies: Armagnac, Cognac, Calvados, and Mirabelle. Relative levels of all components were determined using GC-MS after integration of a selected peak of the mass spectrum of each. Each type of brandy could be clearly discriminated using PLS-DA statistical analyses based on these levels. French Mirabelle spirit, which was studied for the first time, was characterized by higher levels of many aldehydes and acetals and by the presence of compounds having an odd number of carbons together with benzaldehyde and some of its derivatives. Many possible derivatives of acrolein and high amounts of butan-2-ol were rather specific for the volatile composition of Calvados. The most important difference between the two wine-based samples seemed to be directly linked to the distillation system used. Many furanic compounds are specific to Cognac, whereas two or three compounds such as 1-(ethoxyethoxy)-2-methylbutane and gamma-eudesmol were specific to Armagnac. These two brandies presented rather high distributions of isobutanol and isopentanols, whereas Mirabelle and Calvados compositions offer more concentrated aliphatic linear alcohols.
No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acid violet 7 (AV7), mostly used in food, paper, cosmetic, and especially in textile industries, was degraded by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 at concentrations up to 200 mg/l.
In this study, toxicity of AV7, before and after biodegradation, was evaluated in vivo, in mouse bone marrow, by assessing the percentage of cells bearing different chromosome aberrations, membrane lipid peroxidation, and acetylcholinesterasic activity inhibition. The studies included same conditions for animal treatment, corresponding to increasing doses by intraperitoneal (ip) injection.
Results indicated that AV7 showed a significant ability to induce chromosome aberrations, lipid peroxidation, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect. The toxicity of AV7 increased significantly after static biodegradation with P. putida mt-2 and totally disappeared after shaken incubation. In addition, the toxicity generated by the pure azo dye and the corresponding azoreduction metabolites (4'-aminoacetanilide (4'-AA) and 5-acetamido-2-amino-1-hydroxy-3,6-naphtalene disulfonic acid (5-ANDS)) were compared. 4'-AA and 5-ANDS would be responsible of static biodegradation medium toxicity. The present study demonstrates that P. putida mt-2, incubated under aerobic condition, has a catabolism which enables it to degrade AV7, and especially to completely detoxify the dye mixture.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemical compositions of the essential oils of Pituranthos chloranthus harvested at the vegetative, flower budding, flowering and fruiting stages from three distinct geographical areas of Tunisia were investigated using GC-FID and GC-MS. One hundred and fifty compounds were identified in which alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, beta-myrcene, beta-phellandrene, p-cymene, 8-methyldecanal, exo-2-hydroxycineole acetate and carvacrol could reach more than 10% of the total amount. However, this composition varied with respect to both the geographical area and the season. A clear discrimination of samples could be achieved by submitting the results to PLS discriminant analysis. p-Cymenene was only detected at the floral budding stage (February), whereas high amounts of exo-2-hydroxycineole and exo-2-hydroxycineole acetate were specific for the flowering period (April). Carvacrol was showed to be characteristic mainly of the fruiting period (August), whereas the vegetative state (November) could be distinguished from the others by the presence of alpha- and beta-pinene. Limonene, camphene, geraniol and beta-damascenone were likely to be specific for the essential oils of this species collected from the different regions of Tunisia.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Natural product communications