[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been shown that prior experience with a task improves temporal prediction, even when the amount of prior experience with the task is often limited. The present study targeted the role of extensive training on temporal prediction. Expert and intermediate runners had to predict the time of a 5 km running competition. Furthermore, after the race's completion, participants had to estimate their running time so that it could be compared with the predicted time. Results show that expert runners were more accurate than intermediate runners for both predicting and estimating their running time. Furthermore, only expert runners had an estimation that was more accurate than their initial prediction. The results confirm the role of prior task experience in both temporal prediction and estimation.
Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Frontiers in Psychology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study deals with the impact on temporal estimation of previous knowledge about the duration of a specific task (referred to as "task duration knowledge"). Athletes were recruited in this study because they are assumed to have high levels of task duration knowledge in their discipline. In Experiment 1, 28 elite swimmers had to estimate the time it would take to swim a given distance using two different strokes for which they had different task duration knowledge levels. The swimmers estimated duration more accurately and with less uncertainty in the high-knowledge than in the low-knowledge condition. In Experiment 2, the swimmers had to produce 36 s of swimming in various contexts that altered the retrieval of their task duration knowledge, with and without a secondary task. When swimmers could not rely on their task duration knowledge, their productions were more affected by the secondary task. In Experiment 3, the swimmers were more precise at producing time when visualising something that they knew well (swimming) rather than something that they had never experienced, which shows that physical execution is not a mandatory requirement for observing the enhancement effect resulting from task duration knowledge. These three converging experiments suggest that task duration knowledge is strongly involved in time perception.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children's time estimation literature lacks of studies comparing prospective and retrospective time estimates of long lasting ecological tasks, i.e. tasks reflecting children's daily activities. In the present study, children were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively how much time they played a video game or read a magazine. Regardless of the task, the results revealed that prospective time estimates were longer than the retrospective ones. Also, time estimates of the video game task were longer, less accurate and more variable than those of the reading task. The results are discussed in the light of the current literature about time estimation of long lasting ecological tasks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The duration bisection paradigm is a classic task used to examine how humans and other animals perceive time. Typically, participants first learn short and long anchor durations and are subsequently asked to classify probe durations as closer to the short or long anchor duration. However, the specific representations of time and the decision rules applied in this task remain the subject of debate. For example, researchers have questioned whether participants actually use representations of the short and long anchor durations in the decision process rather than merely a response threshold that is derived from those anchor durations. Electroencephalographic (EEG) measures, like the contingent negative variation (CNV), can provide information about the perceptual and cognitive processes that occur between the onset of the timing stimulus and the motor response. The CNV has been implicated as an electrophysiological marker of interval timing processes such as temporal accumulation, representation of the target duration, and the decision that the target duration has been attained. We used the CNV to investigate which durations are involved in the bisection categorization decision. The CNV increased in amplitude up to the value of the short anchor, remained at a constant level until about the geometric mean (GM) of the short and long anchors, and then began to resolve. These results suggest that the short anchor and the GM of the short and long anchors are critical target durations used in the bisection categorization decision process. In addition, larger mean N1P2 amplitude differences were associated with larger amplitude CNVs, which may reflect the participant's precision in initiating timing on each trial across a test session. Overall, the results demonstrate the value of using scalp-recorded EEG to address basic questions about interval timing.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a "naturalistic environment" (gaming centers). In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that adolescents might underestimate time while playing a video game. To test this hypothesis, 116 adolescents (14–15 years old) had to judge prospectively or retrospectively the duration of three consecutive tasks: a 8min and a 24min task of playing video game (Tetris) and an 8min task of reading on a computer screen (control task). The main hypothesis received support: for a same duration, the video game task was estimated as shorter than the reading task. Moreover, participants with a game-inclined profile showed a stronger underestimation of time while playing. Finally, the short durations were overestimated and the long duration underestimated. The main findings are accounted for by an attention-based explanation.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Computers in Human Behavior
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sixty participants were asked to listen to two musical excerpts, one expected to generate joy and the other to generate sadness, and to complete a cognitive task between the musical excerpts. The task and excerpts lasted 180, 300, or 420 seconds. After listening to the excerpts and completing the cognitive task, the participants were asked to estimate retrospectively the duration of each excerpt and the cognitive task on the basis of three methods: verbal estimates (chronometric units), relative estimates of the three tasks based on the segmentation of a line, and estimates with line drawing in comparison with a standard line. Participants judged the duration of the joyful musical excerpt as longer than that of the cognitive task and systematically underestimated the duration of the cognitive task, i.e., judged it to be much briefer than it really was. This basic finding was consistent over the three methods. The sadness excerpt led to longer perceived duration than the cognitive condition only with the verbal and relative estimates methods. Also, there were systematic underestimations of long intervals and overestimations of short intervals in all conditions, except with the method involving a standard in the specific case of sadness. In general, there was more consistency between the verbal and relative methods than between the verbal method and the one based on the comparison with a standard.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to investigate the possibility of of improving the categorization time interval marked by visual signals in a context, involving multiple presentations of intervals marked by auditory signals. The study involved the participation of twelve volunteers from Canada's Laval University, including 10 females and 2 males. The intervals to be discriminated were silent durations between 20-ms auditory or visual stimuli. The auditory stimuli were 1-kHz pure sinusoidal sounds generated by an IBM Pentium IV micro-computer running E-Prime software. The visual stimuli was produced by a circular red-light-emitting diode (LED), which was placed about 1 m in front of the participant and subtending a visual angle of about 0.57°. Estimates of one standard deviation (SD) on the psychometric function was also determined, as an indicator of temporal sensitivity.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Acoustical Science and Technology