M. N. Premachandran

Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Koyambattūr, Tamil Nadu, India

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Publications (17)8.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Genomic constitution of commercially cultivated sugarcane varieties over the world is derived from few basic species clones of Saccharum complex. In order to impart new cytoplasmic and nuclear genome in sugarcane hybrids, untapped wild species of Saccharum spontaneum (S), Erianthus arundinaceus (E) and E. bengalense (Eb) were utilized to produce different combinations i.e., E. arundinaceus x S. spontaneum (ES), S. spontaneum x E. arundinaceus (SE) and S. spontaneum x E. bengalense (SEb) intergeneric hybrids (H). Subsequently, these resulting hybrids were repeatedly used as pistil parent and crossed with commercial sugarcane varieties as pollen parent for three (G3) to four (G4) generations to produce an array of advanced generation hybrids. Twenty six such advanced generation hybrids (G3 and G4) derived were evaluated for quality and yield contributing traits at 300 and 360 days after planting during 2010–2011 and 11–12 in augmented block design along with standard sugarcane varieties. The presence of E. arundinaceus cytoplasmic DNA was validated in intergeneric hybrids by PCR–RFLP of the amplified chloroplast DNA for psbC-trnS. Performance of ESH G3 and SEH G4 hybrids were comparable and some E. arundinaceus cytoplasm introgressed hybrids performed on par with standard varieties for yield and quality traits. Few intergeneric hybrids exhibited wider acclimatization in diverse agro-climatic conditions. Some of these intergeneric hybrids have potential for commercial cultivation and their utilization in breeding programme could help in broadening the genetic base and also for wider adaptability of future sugarcane varieties.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Sugar Tech
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    ABSTRACT: The cytoplasmic and nuclear genomic diversity in commercially cultivated sugarcane varieties over the world is derived from few basic species clones of Saccharum complex. To impart new cytoplasmic and nuclear genome in sugarcane hybrids, untapped wild species of S. spontaneum (S), Erianthus arundinaceus (E) and E. bengalense (Eb) were utilized to produce E. arundinaceus × S. spontaneum (ES), S. spontaneum × E. arundinaceus (SE) and S. spontaneum × E. benglense (SEb) hybrids (H). These resulting hybrids were repeatedly used as pistil parent and crossed with commercial sugarcane varieties for one (G1) to four (G4) generations to produce an array of hybrids. Seventy such different generation (G1, G2, G3 & G4) derived hybrids were evaluated for juice quality and yield contributing traits at 300 and 360 d after planting during 2010-11 and 2011-12 in augmented block design layout along with standard sugarcane varieties. The presence of E. arundinaceus cytoplasmic DNA was validated in intergeneric hybrids by PCR-RFLP of the amplified chloroplast DNA for psbC-trnS segment. SEH and SEbH category G1 hybrids were superior over ESH hybrids for juice quality, while G2 hybrids could not show any difference. ESH G3 hybrids recorded more than 50% and 90% improvement over ESH G1 hybrids for juice quality (CCS %, sucrose %, brix %) and single stalk weight (SSW), respectively. Performances of ESH G3 and SEH G4 hybrids were comparable and some E. arundinaceus cytoplasm introgressed hybrids performed at par with standard sugarcane varieties for yield and quality traits. Further utilization of these near commercial wild genome introgressed hybrids in breeding programme may lead to development of genetically diversified sugarcane varieties.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Indian Journal of Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: Erianthus is a wild relative of the genus Saccharum. It is well known for its high fibre, high biomass, tolerance to drought and water logging, pest and disease resistance with multi-ratooning ability. This study was conducted to investigate physiological and molecular responses of Erianthus spp. to drought stress. Out of seven Erianthus accessions screened, the drought responsiveness of the broad-leaved accession of Erianthus arundinaceus IK 76-81 was found the best and characterised by high cell membrane thermostability, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and relative water content and low photosynthetic rate under increased soil moisture stress. In addition, IK 76-81 also showed many fold increase in DREB2 and expansin gene expression with increase in soil moisture stress in comparison with the most popular moderately drought tolerant variety Co 86032. We have also evaluated few selected sugarcane × Erianthus hybrids and assessed the introgression of one of the key drought responsive characters i.e., cell membrane stability from Erianthus to sugarcane. This is perhaps the first report on the drought responsiveness of Erianthus.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Sugar Tech
  • A. Anna Durai · M. N. Premachandran · P. Govindaraj · P. Malathi · R. Viswanathan
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    ABSTRACT: The understanding on the available genetic variability in the breeding pool aids the breeder to choose better parental combinations for the desired genetic improvement in crop plants. The variability present in the National Hybridisation Garden (NHG) of sugarcane in India at Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore with an assemblage of 606 clones of sugarcane cultivars and other elite hybrids were studied for cane yield components, juice quality parameters and their level of resistance against red rot. The data on smut resistance, tolerance to stalk borer and tolerance to different abiotic stresses like drought, salinity, water logging, low temperature, high temperature and winter ratooning ability of these clones to be used parental clones were collected from the available literature. Significant leptokurtic distribution for the cane characters and right skewed distribution for juice quality traits were observed in this breeding pool. Correlation studies indicated that selection of parents contributing to high cane height and high number of millable canes (NMC) would result in progeny with high single cane weight (SCW) and cane yield because, the SCW was negatively correlated with NMC and cane thickness. Clones with high per se performance for important yield contributing characters were identified which are potential parents for yield improvement. For sucrose content, a highly heritable trait in sugarcane, nineteen clones with high juice sucrose of more than 20 % were found to be suitable as parents for quality enhancement. One hundred and thirty-seven clones were found as either resistant (R) or moderately Rto the most virulent races of red rot pathogen by testing with mixed inoculum of Cf 671 and Cf 94012 isolates. Screening of the clones for pollen fertility inferred that NHG has higher number of clones that can be used as female parent than as male parent. The synchrony in flowering of female and male parental clones with desirable traits of interest and the combining ability of the clones are also discussed in this paper. The critical consideration of the different parameters in choosing suitable parental clones in crossing programme will help in rapid varietal improvement for cane and sugar yield as well as to enhance the resistance against different biotic and abiotic stresses for increased sugarcane productivity.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Sugar Tech
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    Nair · N.V. · T. Rajula Shanthy · M.N. Premachandran · J. Srikanth · A. Bhaskaran · C. Jayabose · P. Malathi

    Full-text · Book · Jun 2013
  • Ravinder Kumar · K. Mohanraj · A. Anna Durai · M.N. Premachandran
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    ABSTRACT: The pedigree of the commercial sugarcane varieties ('Co'canes) evolved from Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Goimbatore, India during 1970-2009 was studied. A total of 1088 'Go' canes with known pedigree were evolved, among them 934 were from bi-parental crosses. The decade wise usage of breeding stocks revealed that clones Go 86011 (during 2000-2009), Go 7201 (during 1990-1 999), GoG 671 (during 1990-1999 and 1980-1989) and Go 775 (during 1970-1979) were the most successful parents in evolving 'Go' canes. Fifty nine breeding stocks produced 5 'Go' canes each, contributed nearly 80% gametes to the total 'Go' canes evolved during 1 970-2009.The pedigree study revealed that most of them (54) have POJ 2878 in recent ancestry indicating that their genetic variability is from limited origin. The breeding clones Go 775, GoG 671, Go 7201, Go 6806, Go 1148, Go 419 and Go 740 were the most successful parental stocks for evolving higher number of 'Go' canes across the studied period 1970-2009. The inbreeding coefficient or the coefficient of parentage (GoP) ranged from 0.00 (BO 17, Go 617, Go 853, Go 281, 0 63, Go 88002 and IG-91-1100) to 0.55 (Go 1307) with the average value of 0.09. Thirty-five parental clones have lower GoP than the average and their gametic contribution is evident to nearly 50% of the 'Go' canes evolved during the studied period.This indicated that even though having originated from limited clones of basic species, the genetic base of more than half of the breeding stocks is broader. More basic species clones are to be incorporated into the breeding programme for keeping higher level of genetic diversity in future sugarcane varieties.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding
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    Full-text · Book · Jan 2012
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    V. Raffee Viola · Maya Lekshmi · M. N. Premachandran

    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding
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    J. Srikanth · N. Subramonian · M. N. Premachandran
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    ABSTRACT: The first phase of transgenic research in sugarcane concentrated on the development and evaluation of transgenic lines transformed for resistance to biotic stresses, particularly diseases and insect pests. Sugarcane is attacked by a range of insects including tissue borers, sucking pests and canegrubs. Losses due to these pests are estimated to be around 10%. Although chemical control and integrated pest management are regularly practiced for the control of insect pests, success is often limited due to practical difficulties. The genetic complexity of sugarcane coupled with the non-availability of resistance genes in the germplasm has made conventional breeding for insect resistance difficult. In this context, transgenic technology has become a handy tool for imparting insect resistance to an elite variety which is otherwise superior for most other agronomic traits. A number of transgenic sugarcane lines have been developed with genes expressing Cry proteins, proteinase inhibitors or lectins resistant to borers, sucking insects or grubs. While commercializing transgenic lines, issues such as higher and stable transgene expression, preparedness for resistance management and non-target effects need to be addressed. To manage the constant threat of resistance development in target insects, it is imperative to deploy field-level strategies taking clues from other crops coupled with the search for new potent replacement molecules for transformation. KeywordsSugarcane–Insect pests–Transgenics– Bt toxins–Proteinase inhibitors–GNA–Insect resistance–Non-target effects
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Tropical Plant Biology
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    MN Premachandran · V.Raffee Viola · Maya Lekshmi

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011
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    Rafee Viola V. · Lalitha R. · Remadevi A.K · Maya Lekshmi · Premachandran M.N.
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    ABSTRACT: Sugarcane is an important agro-industrial crop in the tropical and subtropical parts of the world cultivated for sugar, ethanol and fibre. The sugarcane varieties commercially grown at present are derived from man made interspecific hybrids involving very few Saccharum officinarum L. clones, and thereby with a very narrow cytoplasmic diversity. Due to extensive cultivation of sugarcane varieties with same or very similar cytoplasmic background, the possibility of them becoming susceptible to various diseases and stress factors is high. To enhance the cytoplasmic diversity and to broaden the genetic base, variability could be introduced from other species and related genera. The wild related species S. spontaneum L. and Erianthus species are good candidates for such transfer of cytoplasm to sugarcane. The intergeneric hybrid between E. arundinaceus (Retz.) Jesw. clone IK 76-62 (2n=60) as female and S. spontaneum clone Iritty-2 (2n=64) which was confirmed to have Erianthus cytoplasm by chloroplast DNA polymorphism was used in crosses with sugarcane varieties Co 775 and CoC 671. The progeny raised was also confirmed to have Erianthus cytoplasm and the yield and quality characters of the plants were analyzed. These hybrids were further crossed with sugarcane and the backcross hybrids had Erianthus cytoplasm. These hybrids were having cane characters similar to commercial sugarcane varieties and had the sucrose % juice comparable to sugarcane clones. The chromosome number of the E. arundinaceus x S. spontaneum was 2n=62 and its hybrid with sugarcane varied from 2n=102 to 120. The backcross hybrids with sugarcane had the chromosome number ranging from 2n=102 to 114. The chromosome number of the backcross hybrids attained the level of chromosome number in commercial sugarcane varieties. Many of the backcross hybrids of sugarcane were male sterile, so that it could be easily made use of in crosses as female parent to evolve sugarcane varieties with Erianthus cytoplasm.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the insecticidal toxicity of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins against neonate larvae of sugarcane shoot borer Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in vitro on diet surface. With the lowest LC(50) value, Cry1Ab emerged as the most effective among the three toxins. Sugarcane cultivars Co 86032 and CoJ 64 were transformed with cry1Ab gene driven by maize ubiquitin promoter through particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation systems. Gene pyramiding was also attempted by retransforming sugarcane plants carrying bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (aprotinin) gene, with cry1Ab. Southern analysis confirmed multiple integration of the transgene in case of particle bombardment and single site integration in Agrobacterium-mediated transformants. The expression of cry1Ab was demonstrated through Western analysis and the toxin was quantified using ELISA. The amount of Cry1Ab protein in different events varied from 0.007 to 1.73% of the total soluble leaf protein; the events transformed by Agrobacterium method showed significantly higher values. In in vivo bioassay with neonate larvae of shoot borer, transgenics produced considerably lower percentage of deadhearts despite suffering feeding damage by the borer compared with the untransformed control plants. Expressed Cry1Ab content was negatively related to deadheart damage. Aprotinin-expressing sugarcane pyramided with cry1Ab also showed reduction in damage. The potential of producing sugarcane transgenics with cry1Ab and aprotinin genes resistant to early shoot borer was discussed in the light of the results obtained.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Plant Cell Reports
  • Maya Lekshmi · Lalitha R. · Remadevi A.K. · Premachandran M.N.

    No preview · Conference Paper · Jan 2010
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    S. Arvinth · R. K. Selvakesavan · N. Subramonian · M. N. Premachandran
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    ABSTRACT: Sugarcane being clonally propagated, its transgenics with the desired trait in a commercial variety need not undergo sexual cycle as that in seed propagated crops in varietal selection or maintenance breeding and in cultivation. Even then, the successful transmission of transgene to the progeny is important in breeding programmes involving transgenics for further improvement by hybridization and clonal selection. Sixty two plants in the progeny of the cross between a transgenic line CoJ 64-3 carrying the cry1Ab gene and an untransformed commercial variety Co 775 were tested by PCR analysis and 31 plants were found to have the transgene. The quantification of Cry protein in leaf samples was done by ELISA. The Cry protein in the total soluble leaf protein in the progeny varied from 0.15 % to 1.19 %, where as in parent it was 0.13 %. In the selfed progeny of three transgenics events of Co 86032 with aprotinin gene the transgene transmission was found to be 32 %, 34 % and 50 %, less than the frequency expected by Mendelian segregation.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Sugar Tech
  • R. Viswanathan · M. N. Premachandran · M. Balamuralikrishnan · R. Jothi
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    ABSTRACT: An unusual stalk rot was noticed in sugarcane varieties at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, and in clones of sugarcane germplasm at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute Research Centre, Kannur, at maturity stage of the crop. Affected cane stalks showed straw coloured rind discolouration. Internally, orange-brown rotting was noticed at nodal regions, which extended further to internodal region emitting a distinctive sour odour. In some cases brownish discolouration throughout the infected canes was noticed. In severe cases, rotting of entire stalks and desiccation were observed. Blackish discolouration of the dried canes revealed numerous coiled thread like spore masses extruding from black pustules that break through the rind of the entire cane stalk. A survey for the intensity of the disease revealed that collections ofSaccharum spp. as well as hybrid clones were affected to the tune of trace to cent per cent infection. The pathogen cultured from the infected canes was identified asPhaeocytostroma sacchari (Ellis and Everh.) Sutton. Association of other fungi such asFusarium moniliformae,Varonaea botryosa andColletotrichum gloeosporioides was also found in certain infected samples. This is the first report of stalk rot disease caused byP. sacchari in India.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2003 · Sugar Tech
  • R.Viswanathan · M.N.Premachandran · M.Balamuralikrishnan · R.Jothi
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    ABSTRACT: An unusual stalk rot was noticed in sugarcane varieties at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, and in clones of sugarcane germplasm at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute Research Centre, Kannur, at maturity stage of the crop. Affected cane stalks showed straw coloured rind discolouration. Internally, orange-brown rotting was noticed at nodal regions, which extended further to internodal region emitting a distinctive sour odour. In some cases brownish discolouration throughout the infected canes was noticed. In severe cases, rotting of entire stalks and desiccation were observed. Blackish discolouration of the dried canes revealed numerous coiled thread like spore masses extruding from black pustules that break through the rind of the entire cane stalk. A survey for the intensity of the disease revealed that collections of Saccharum spp. as well as hybrid clones were affected to the tune of trace to cent per cent infection. The pathogen cultured from the infected canes was identified as Phaeocytostroma sacchari (Ellis and Everh.) Sutton. Association of other fungi such asFusarium moniliformae, Varonaea botryosa and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was also found in certain infected samples. This is the first report of stalk rot disease caused by P. sacchari in India.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Sugar Tech
  • R.Viswanathan · M.N.Premachandran
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    ABSTRACT: The Sugarcane Breeding Institute at Coimbatore maintains the world collection of sugarcane germplasm at its research centre at Cannanore in Kerala, India. The germplasm has been maintained in the field by clonal replanting every year, in a relatively pest- and disease- free condition, for more than 3 decades. However, the presence of a new virus, sugarcane bacilliform badna virus (SCBV), which has been reported from most other sugarcane growing countries, was recently detected in some clones in Kerala. The foliar symptoms presumed to be those of SCBV varied in different clones, but the most pronounced were freckles, chlorotic stripes of varying length, narrowing of leaves and stunted growth. These symptoms were seen on many clones of Saccharum officinarum, S. barberi, S. sinense, S. robustum, and a few hybrids such as CP 44-101. Among the different species, the noble canes, S. officinarum, are most prone to this virus and clones of the species collected before 1970 were heavily infected compared with more recent additions. Almost all the clones of S. barberi and S. sinense were infected. Among the wild species of sugarcane (S. spontaneum and S. robustum) only a limited number of clones had suspected infection. Most of the hybrid clones housed here have not exhibited symptoms of the virus except the clones D 1135, D 1135 str., D 109 and CP 44-101, of which the first 3 are intraspecific hybrids of S. officinarum. Techniques such as ELISA and immune electron microscopy (IEM) were standardised for the detection of the virus in suspected clones. Occurrence of the virus in sugarcane germplasm in India and other countries is a serious hindrance to exchange of sugarcane germplasm. The precision of virus indexing in the suspected clones is to be enhanced by detecting the virus through DNA probes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. It is concluded that the development of strategies to eliminate the virus from infected clones needs immediate attention.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1998