J. Wardlow

IT University of Copenhagen, København, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (95)399.52 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a list of candidate gravitationally lensed dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) from the HerMES Large Mode Survey (HeLMS) and the Herschel Stripe 82 Survey (HerS). Together, these partially overlapping surveys cover 372 deg^2 on the sky. After removing local spiral galaxies and known radio-loud blazars, our candidate list of lensed DSFGs is composed of 77 sources with 500 micron flux densities (S_500) greater than 100 mJy. Such sources are likely dusty starburst galaxies that are selected as bright sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs). We expect a large fraction of this list to be strongly lensed, with a small fraction made up of bright SMG-SMG mergers that appear as hyper-luminous infrared galaxies (HyLIRGs). Thirteen of the 77 candidates have spectroscopic redshifts from CO spectroscopy with ground-based interferometers, putting them at z>1 and well above the redshift of the foreground lensing galaxies. The surface density of our sample of 0.21 +/- 0.03 deg^-2. We also find nine radio-bright blazars that are also bright in the sub-mm with S_500 > 100 mJy. We present follow-up imaging of a few of the candidates that confirm their lensing nature. The sample presented here is an ideal tool for higher resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations to understand detailed properties of starburst phenomena in distant galaxies. The appendix also contains 250, 350 and 500\,$\mu$m flux densities of spiral galaxies and radio blazars with S_500 > 100 mJy in the HeLMS and HerS regions.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Selecting sources with rising flux densities towards longer wavelengths from Herschel/SPIRE maps is an efficient way to produce a catalogue rich in high-redshift (z > 4) dusty star-forming galaxies. The effectiveness of this approach has already been confirmed by spectroscopic follow-up observations, but the previously available catalogues made this way are limited by small survey areas. Here we apply a map-based search method to 274 deg$^2$ of the HerMES Large Mode Survey (HeLMS) and create a catalogue of 477 objects with SPIRE flux densities $S_{500} > S_{350} >S_{250}$ and a 5 \sigma cut-off $S_{500}$ > 52 mJy. From this catalogue we determine that the total number of these "red" sources is at least an order of magnitude higher than predicted by galaxy evolution models. These results are in agreement with previous findings in smaller HerMES fields; however, due to our significantly larger sample size we are also able to investigate the shape of the red source counts for the first time. We examine the 500 $\mu$m differential number counts of these sources, and we find that the resulting "red" counts are very steep and suggest strong evolution in the properties of this population. We have obtained spectroscopic redshift measurements for two of our sources using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). One source is at z = 5.126 and the redshift for the other object is z $\gtrsim$ 3.8, confirming that with our selection method we can indeed find high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: It is thought that a class of broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs, characterised by Fe absorption features in their UV spectra (called `FeLoBALs'), could mark a transition stage between the end of an obscured starburst event and a youthful QSO beginning to shed its dust cocoon, where Fe has been injected into the interstellar medium by the starburst. To test this hypothesis we have undertaken deep SCUBA-2 850 $\mu$m observations of a sample of 17 FeLoBAL QSOs with 0.89 $\leq$ z $\leq$ 2.78 and -23.31 $\leq$ M$_{B}$ $\leq$-28.50 to directly detect an excess in the thermal emission of the dust which would probe enhanced star-formation activity. We find that FeLoBALs are not luminous sources in the submillimetre, none of them are individually detected at 850 $\mu$m, nor as a population through stacking ($F_{s}=1.14\pm0.58$ mJy). Statistical and survival analyses reveal that FeLoBALs have sub-mm properties consistent with BAL and non-BAL QSOs with matched redshifts and magnitudes. An SED fitting analysis shows that the FIR emission is dominated by AGN activity, and a starburst component is required only in 6/17 sources of our sample; moreover the integrated total luminosity of 16/17 sources is L$\geq$10$^{12}$L$_{\odot}$, high enough to classify FeLoBALs as infrared luminous. In conclusion, we do not find any evidence in support of FeLoBAL QSOs being a transition population between a ULIRG and an unobscured QSO; in particular, FeLoBALs are not characterized by a cold starburst which would support this hypothesis.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We used wide-area surveys over 39 deg2 by the HerMES (Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey) collaboration, performed with the Herschel Observatory SPIRE multiwavelength camera, to estimate the low-redshift, 0.02 < z < 0.5, monochromatic luminosity functions (LFs) of galaxies at 250, 350 and 500 μm. Within this redshift interval, we detected 7087 sources in five independent sky areas, ∼40 per cent of which have spectroscopic redshifts, while for the remaining objects photometric redshifts were used. The SPIRE LFs in different fields did not show any field-to-field variations beyond the small differences to be expected from cosmic variance. SPIRE flux densities were also combined with Spitzer photometry and multiwavelength archival data to perform a complete spectral energy distribution fitting analysis of SPIRE detected sources to calculate precise k-corrections, as well as the bolometric infrared (IR; 8–1000 μm) LFs and their low-z evolution from a combination of statistical estimators. Integration of the latter prompted us to also compute the local luminosity density and the comoving star formation rate density (SFRD) for our sources, and to compare them with theoretical predictions of galaxy formation models. The LFs show significant and rapid luminosity evolution already at low redshifts, 0.02 < z < 0.2, with L$_{\text{IR}}^{\ast } \propto (1+z)^{6.0\pm 0.4}$ and $\Phi _{\text{IR}}^{\ast } \propto (1+z)^{-2.1\pm 0.4}$, L$_{250}^{\ast } \propto (1+z)^{5.3\pm 0.2}$ and $\Phi _{250}^{\ast } \propto (1+z)^{-0.6\pm 0.4}$ estimated using the IR bolometric and the 250 μm LFs, respectively. Converting our IR LD estimate into an SFRD assuming a standard Salpeter initial mass function and including the unobscured contribution based on the UV dust-uncorrected emission from local galaxies, we estimate an SFRD scaling of SFRD0 + 0.08z, where SFRD0 ≃ (1.9 ± 0.03) × 10−2 [M⊙ Mpc−3] is our total SFRD estimate at z ∼ 0.02.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We show that the use of red colour as the basis for selecting candidate high redshift dusty galaxies from surveys made with Herschel has proved highly successful. The highest redshift such object, HFLS3, lies at z=6.34 and numerous other sources have been found. Spectroscopic followup confirms that most of these lie at z>4. These sources are found in such numbers that they represent a challenge to current models of galaxy evolution. We also examine the prospects for finding dusty galaxies at still higher redshifts. These would not appear in the SPIRE surveys from Herschel but would be detected in longer wavelength, submm, surveys. Several such `SPIRE-dropouts' have been found and are now subject to followup observations.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We report contributions to cosmic infrared background (CIB) intensities originating from known galaxies and their faint companions at submillimeter wavelengths. Using the publicly available UltraVISTA catalog and maps at 250, 350, and 500 μm from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, we perform a novel measurement that exploits the fact that uncataloged sources may bias stacked flux densities-particularly if the resolution of the image is poor-and intentionally smooth the images before stacking and summing intensities. By smoothing the maps we are capturing the contribution of faint (undetected in KS ∼ 23.4) sources that are physically associated, or correlated, with the detected sources. We find that the cumulative CIB increases with increased smoothing, reaching 9.82 ± 0.78, 5.77 ± 0.43 and 2.32 ± 0.19 nWm-2 sr-1 at 250, 350, and 500 μm at 300 arcsec FWHM. This corresponds to a fraction of the fiducial CIB of 0.94 ± 0.23, 1.07 ± 0.31, and 0.97 ± 0.26 at 250, 350, and 500 μm, where the uncertainties are dominated by those of the absolute CIB. We then propose, with a simple model combining parametric descriptions for stacked flux densities and stellar mass functions, that emission from galaxies with log(M/M⊙) > 8.5 can account for most of the measured total intensities and argue against contributions from extended, diffuse emission. Finally, we discuss prospects for future survey instruments to improve the estimates of the absolute CIB levels, and observe any potentially remaining emission at z > 4. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We separate the extragalactic radio source population above ∼50 μJy into active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star-forming sources. The primary method of our approach is to fit the infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs), constructed using Spitzer/IRAC (Infrared Array Camera) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) and Herschel/SPIRE photometry, of 380 radio sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South. From the fitted SEDs, we determine the relative AGN and star-forming contributions to their infrared emission. With the inclusion of other AGN diagnostics such as X-ray luminosity, Spitzer/IRAC colours, radio spectral index and the ratio of star-forming total infrared flux to k-corrected 1.4 GHz flux density, qIR, we determine whether the radio emission in these sources is powered by star formation or by an AGN. The majority of these radio sources (60 per cent) show the signature of an AGN at some wavelength. Of the sources with AGN signatures, 58 per cent are hybrid systems for which the radio emission is being powered by star formation. This implies that radio sources which have likely been selected on their star formation have a high AGN fraction. Below a 1.4 GHz flux density of 1 mJy, along with finding a strong contribution to the source counts from pure star-forming sources, we find that hybrid sources constitute 20–65 per cent of the sources. This result suggests that hybrid sources have a significant contribution, along with sources that do not host a detectable AGN, to the observed flattening of the source counts at ∼1 mJy for the extragalactic radio source population.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We report contributions to cosmic infrared background (CIB) intensities originating from known galaxies, and their companions, at submillimeter wavelengths. Using the publicly-available UltraVISTA catalog, and maps at 250, 350, and 500 {\mu}m from Herschel/SPIRE, we perform a novel measurement that exploits the fact that correlated sources will bias stacked flux densities if the resolution of the image is poor; i.e., we intentionally smooth the image - in effect degrading the angular resolution - before stacking and summing intensities. By smoothing the maps we are capturing the contribution of faint (undetected in K_S ~ 23.4) sources that are physically associated with the detected sources. We find that the cumulative CIB increases with increased smoothing, reaching 9.82 +- 0.78, 5.77 +- 0.43, and 2.32 +- 0.19 nWm^-2/sr at 250, 350, and 500 {\mu}m at 300 arcsec full width half maximum. This corresponds to a fraction of the fiducial CIB of 0.94 +- 0.23, 1.07 +- 0.31, and 0.97 +- 0.26 at 250, 350, and 500 {\mu}m, where the uncertainties are dominated by those of the absolute CIB. We then propose, with a simple model combining parametric descriptions for stacked flux densities and stellar mass functions, that emission from galaxies with log(M/Msun) > 8.5 can account for the entire measured total intensities, and argue against contributions from extended, diffuse emission. Finally, we discuss prospects for future survey instruments to improve the estimates of the absolute CIB levels, and observe any potentially remaining emission at z > 4.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) has identified large numbers of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a wide range in redshift. A detailed understanding of these DSFGs is hampered by the poor spatial resolution of Herschel. We present 870um 0.45" imaging obtained in Cycle 0 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of a sample of 29 HerMES DSFGs. The ALMA imaging reveals that these DSFGs comprise a total of 62 sources (down to the 5-sigma limit in our ALMA sample; sigma~0.2 mJy). Optical imaging indicates that 36 of the ALMA sources experience a significant flux boost from gravitational lensing (mu>1.1), but only 6 are strongly lensed and show multiple images. We introduce and make use of uvmcmcfit, a general purpose and publicly available Markov chain Monte Carlo visibility plane analysis tool to analyze the source properties. Combined with our previous work on brighter Herschel sources, the lens models presented here tentatively favor intrinsic number counts for DSFGs with a break near 8 mJy at 880um and a steep fall off at higher flux densities. Nearly 70% of the Herschel sources break down into multiple ALMA counterparts, consistent with previous research indicating that the multiplicity rate is high in bright sources discovered in single-dish sub-mm or FIR surveys. The ALMA counterparts to our Herschel targets are located significantly closer to each other than ALMA counterparts to sources found in the LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey. Theoretical models underpredict the excess number of sources with small separations seen in our ALMA sample. The high multiplicity rate and low projected separations between sources seen in our sample argue in favor of interactions and mergers plausibly driving both the prodigious emission from the brightest DSFGs as well as the sharp downturn above S_880 = 8 mJy.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present the rest-frame optical spectral energy distribution and stellar masses of six Herschel- selected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 1 < z < 3. These galaxies were first identified with Herschel/SPIRE imaging data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). The targets were observed with Spitzer/IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5um. Due to the spatial resolution of the IRAC observations at the level of 2 arcseconds, the lensing features of a background DSFG in the near-infrared are blended with the flux from the foreground lensing galaxy in the IRAC imaging data. We make use of higher resolution Hubble/WFC3 or Keck/NIRC2 Adaptive Optics imaging data to fit light profiles of the foreground lensing galaxy (or galaxies) as a way to model the foreground components, in order to successfully disentangle the foreground lens and background source flux densities in the IRAC images. The flux density measurements at 3.6 and 4.5um, once combined with Hubble/WFC3 and Keck/NIRC2 data, provide important constraints on the rest-frame optical spectral energy distribution of the Herschel-selected lensed DSFGs. We model the combined UV- to millimeter-wavelength SEDs to establish the stellar mass, dust mass, star-formation rate, visual extinction, and other parameters for each of these Herschel-selected DSFGs. These systems have inferred stellar masses in the range 8 x 10^10 to 4 x 10^11 Msun and star-formation rates of around 100 Msun yr-1. This puts these lensed sub-millimeter systems well above the SFR-M* relation observed for normal star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The high values of SFR inferred for these systems are consistent with a major merger-driven scenario for star formation.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the search for Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) near the sub-millimeter bright starburst galaxy HFLS3 at $z$$=$6.34 and a study on the environment of this massive galaxy during the end of reionization. We performed two independent selections of LBGs on images obtained with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by combining non-detections in bands blueward of the Lyman-break and color selection. A total of 10 objects fulfilling the LBG selection criteria at $z$$>$5.5 were selected over the 4.54 and 55.5 arcmin$^2$ covered by our HST and GTC images, respectively. The photometric redshift, UV luminosity, and the star-formation rate of these sources were estimated with models of their spectral energy distribution. These $z$$\sim$6 candidates have physical properties and number densities in agreement with previous results. The UV luminosity function of this field at $z$$\sim$6 shows no strong evidence for an overdensity of relatively bright objects (m$_{F105W}$$<$25.9) associated with HFLS3. A Voronoi tessellation analysis also did not allow a detection of an overdensity around HFLS3. However we identified three faint objects at less than three arcseconds from HFLS3 with color consistent with those expected for $z$$\sim$6 galaxies. Deeper data are needed to confirm their redshifts and to study their association with HFLS3 and the galaxy merger that may be responsible for the massive starburst.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3 imaging and grism spectroscopy observations of the Herschel-selected gravitationally-lensed starburst galaxy HATLASJ1429-0028. The lensing system consists of an edge-on foreground disk galaxy at $z=0.218$ with a nearly complete Einstein ring of the infrared luminous galaxy at $z=1.027$. The WFC3 spectroscopy with G102 and G141 grisms, covering the wavelength range of 0.8 to 1.7 $\mu$m, resulted in detections of H$\alpha$+[NII], H$\beta$, [SII], and [OIII] for the background galaxy from which we measure line fluxes and ratios. The Balmer line ratio H$\alpha$/H$\beta$ of 7.5 $\pm$ 4.4, when corrected for [NII], results in an extinction for the starburst galaxy of E(B-V)=0.8 $\pm$ 0.5. The H$\alpha$ based star-formation rate, when corrected for extinction, is 100 $\pm$ 80 M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, lower than the instantaneous star-formation rate of 390 $\pm$ 90 M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ from the total IR luminosity. We also compare the nebular line ratios of HATLASJ1429-0028 with other star-forming and sub-mm bright galaxies. The nebular line ratios are consistent with an intrinsic ultra-luminous infrared galaxy with no evidence for excitation by an active galactic nuclei (AGN). We estimate the metallicity, 12 + log(O/H), of HATLASJ1429-0028 to be 8.49 $\pm$ 0.16. This value is below the average relations for stellar mass vs. metallicity of galaxies at $z \sim 1$ for a galaxy with stellar mass of 1.1 $\pm$ 0.4 $\times$ 10^11 M$_{\odot}$. The high stellar mass, lack of AGN indicators, low metallicity, and high star-formation rate of HATLASJ1429-0028 suggests that this galaxy is currently undergoing a rapid formation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We analyse HST WFC3/$H_{160}$-band observations of a sample of 48 ALMA-detected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South field, to study their stellar morphologies and sizes. We detect 79$\pm$17% of the SMGs in the $H_{160}$-band imaging with a median sensitivity of 27.8 mag, and most (80%) of the non-detections are SMGs with 870$\mu$m fluxes of $S_{870} < $3 mJy. With a surface brightness limit of $\mu_H \sim $26 mag arcsec$^{-2}$, we find that 82$\pm$9% of the $H_{160}$-band detected SMGs at $z =$ 1-3 appear to have disturbed morphologies, meaning they are visually classified as either irregulars or interacting systems, or both. By determining a S\'ersic fit to the $H_{160}$ surface-brightness profiles we derive a median S\'ersic index of $n = $1.2$\pm$0.3 and a median half-light radius of $r_e = $4.4$^{+1.1}_{-0.5}$ kpc for our SMGs at $z = $1-3. We also find significant displacements between the positions of the $H_{160}$-component and 870$\mu$m emission in these systems, suggesting that the dusty star-burst regions and less-obscured stellar distribution are not co-located. We find significant differences in the sizes and the S\'ersic index between our $z = $2-3 SMGs and $z \sim $2 quiescent galaxies, suggesting a major transformation of the stellar light profile is needed in the quenching processes if SMGs are progenitors of the red-and-dead $z\sim$2 galaxies. Given the short-lived nature of SMGs, we postulate that the majority of the $z = $2-3 SMGs with $S_{870} \gtrsim $2 mJy are early/mid-stage major mergers.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a technique to robustly select high-z (>4) dusty, massive, star forming galaxies using far-IR Herschel/SPIRE data. Follow up of the first handful of sources has proven this technique to be both efficient and reliable, yet the existence of these sources is emphatically not predicted by current models. mm spectroscopy of the first few sources has confirmed that they predominantly lie above z > 4, including one source at z=6.34, the current highest redshift for luminous dusty star forming galaxies. To constrain the stellar masses and populations of these extreme galaxies, IRAC is required. Here we propose IRAC imaging of 31 Herschel/SPIRE high-z candidates selected from the HerMES and Herschel-ATLAS surveys to: 1) provide a complete census of star formation and stellar populations, and 2) contribute to the identification of LBG sources associated with the large scale structures that host these dusty starbursts.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We propose Spitzer IRAC imaging of the two brightest spectroscopically confirmed dusty starburst galaxies at z>4 that do not yet have mid-IR observations. The targeted galaxies are members of a rare class of Herschel sources that provide some of the most stringent constraints on galaxy formation theories. The two targets already have complementary optical and far-IR observations, and the proposed short IRAC data are all that is missing to ~double the number of confirmed z>4 dusty starbursts with well-sampled stellar SEDs. The IRAC data are critical for deriving accurate measurements of physical conditions such as dust extinction and stellar mass to ~30% accuracy (~10x better than otherwise). The proposed data complete the IRAC coverage of the four most luminous confirmed z>4 dusty starburst galaxies, which will be observed with HST in cycle 22. The targets already have CO observations and their [CII] 158 micron emission is being mapped with ALMA in cycle 2; with the addition of the proposed IRAC data we will be able to probe the dust-to-gas and stellar-to-gas mass ratios at the highest redshifts and in the most active galaxies. The IRAC data are also key to determining whether these highest redshift dusty starbursts are markers of overdensities in the early Universe via photometric dropout searches. By probing the details of star-formation in the most extreme sources in the first 1.5 Gyr of the Universe the proposed observations will critically test theories of galaxy formation and evolution.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied in detail a sample of 967 SPIRE sources with 5σ detections at 350 and 500 μm and associations with Spitzer-SWIRE 24 μm galaxies in the HerMES-Lockman survey area, fitting their mid- and far-infrared, and submillimetre, spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in an automatic search with a set of six infrared templates. For almost 300 galaxies, we have modelled their SEDs individually to ensure the physicality of the fits. We confirm the need for the new cool and cold cirrus templates, and also of the young starburst template, introduced in earlier work. We also identify 109 lensing candidates via their anomalous SEDs and provide a set of colour–redshift constraints which allow lensing candidates to be identified from combined Herschel and Spitzer data. The picture that emerges of the submillimetre galaxy population is complex, comprising ultraluminous and hyperluminous starbursts, lower luminosity galaxies dominated by interstellar dust emission, lensed galaxies and galaxies with surprisingly cold (10–13 K) dust. 11 per cent of 500 μm selected sources are lensing candidates. 70 per cent of the unlensed sources are ultraluminous infrared galaxies and 26 per cent are hyperluminous. 34 per cent are dominated by optically thin interstellar dust (‘cirrus’) emission, but most of these are due to cooler dust than is characteristic of our Galaxy. At the highest infrared luminosities we see SEDs dominated by M82, Arp 220 and young starburst types, in roughly equal proportions.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present Keck-Adaptive Optics and Hubble Space Telescope high resolution near-infrared (IR) imaging for 500 um-bright candidate lensing systems identified by the Herschel Multi-tiered Extra-galactic Survey (HerMES) and Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Survey (H-ATLAS). Out of 87 candidates with near-IR imaging, 15 (~17%) display clear near-IR lensing morphologies. We present near-IR lens models to reconstruct and recover basic rest-frame optical morphological properties of the background galaxies from 12 new systems. Sources with the largest near-IR magnification factors also tend to be the most compact, consistent with the size bias predicted from simulations and pre- vious lensing models for sub-millimeter galaxies. For four new sources that also have high-resolution sub-mm maps, we test for differential lensing between the stellar and dust components and find that the 880 um magnification factor (u_880) is ~1.5 times higher than the near-IR magnification factor (u_NIR), on average. We also find that the stellar emission is ~2 times more extended in size than dust. The rest-frame optical properties of our sample of Herschel-selected lensed SMGs are consistent with those of unlensed SMGs, which suggests that the two populations are similar.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss the rest-frame ultraviolet emission from the starbursting galaxy HFLS3 at a redshift of 6.34. The galaxy was discovered in Herschel/SPIRE data due to its red color in the submillimeter wavelengths from 250 to 500 μm. Keck/NIRC2 Ks -band adaptive optics imaging data showed two potential near-IR counterparts near HFLS3. Previously, the northern galaxy was taken to be in the foreground at z = 2.1, while the southern galaxy was assumed to be HFLS3's near-IR counterpart. The recently acquired Hubble/WFC3 and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data show conclusively that both optically bright galaxies are in the foreground at z < 6. A new lensing model based on the Hubble imaging data and the millimeter-wave continuum emission yields a magnification factor of 2.2 ± 0.3, with a 95% confidence upper limit on the magnification of 3.5. When corrected for lensing, the instantaneous star formation rate is 1320 M ☉ yr–1, with the 95% confidence lower limit around 830 M ☉ yr–1. The dust and stellar masses of HFLS3 from the same spectral energy distribution (SED) models are at the level of 3 × 108M ☉ and ~5 × 1010M ☉, respectively, with large systematic uncertainties on assumptions related to the SED model. With Hubble/WFC3 images, we also find diffuse near-IR emission about 0.5 arcsec (~3 kpc) to the southwest of HFLS3 that remains undetected in the ACS imaging data. The emission has a photometric redshift consistent with either z ~ 6 or a dusty galaxy template at z ~ 2.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present a study of the radio properties of 870 mu m-selected submillimetre galaxies (SMGs), observed at high resolution with Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. From our initial sample of 76 ALMA SMGs, we detect 52 SMGs at >3 sigma significance in Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 1400 MHz imaging, of which 35 are also detected at >3 sigma in new 610 MHz Giant Metre-Wave Radio Telescope imaging. Within this sample of radio-detected SMGs, we measure a median radio spectral index a alpha(1400)(610) = -0.79 +/- 0.06, (with inter-quartile range alpha = [-1.16, -0.56]) and investigate the far-infrared/radio correlation via the parameter q(IR), the logarithmic ratio of the rest-frame 8-1000 mu m flux and monochromatic radio flux. Our median q(IR) = 2.56 +/- 0.05 (inter-quartile range q(IR) = [2.42, 2.78]) is higher than that typically seen in single-dish 870 mu m-selected sources (q(IR) similar to 2.4), which may reflect the fact that our ALMA-based study is not biased to radio-bright counterparts, as previous samples were. Finally, we search for evidence that q(IR) and alpha evolve with age in a codependent manner, as predicted by starburst models: the data populate the predicted region of parameter space, with the stellar mass tending to increase along tracks of q(IR) versus alpha in the direction expected, providing the first observational evidence in support of these models.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a search for submillimeter emission in the vicinity of one of the most distant, luminous galaxies known, HerMES FLS3 at z=6.34, exploiting it as a signpost to a potentially biased region of the early Universe, as might be expected in hierarchical structure formation models. Imaging to the confusion limit with the innovative, wide-field submillimeter bolometer camera, SCUBA-2, we are sensitive to colder and/or less luminous galaxies in the surroundings of HFLS3. We use the Millennium Simulation to illustrate that HFLS3 may be expected to have companions if it is as massive as claimed, but find no significant evidence from the surface density of SCUBA-2 galaxies in its vicinity, or their colors, that HFLS3 marks an over-density of dusty, star-forming galaxies. We cannot rule out the presence of dusty neighbours with confidence, but deeper 450-um imaging has the potential to more tightly constrain the redshifts of nearby galaxies, at least one of which likely lies at z>~5. If associations with HFLS3 can be ruled out, this could be taken as evidence that HFLS3 is less biased than a simple extrapolation of the Millennium Simulation may imply. This could suggest either that it represents a rare short-lived, but highly luminous, phase in the evolution of an otherwise typical galaxy, or that this system has suffered amplification due to a foreground gravitational lens and so is not as intrinsically luminous as claimed.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal

Publication Stats

2k Citations
399.52 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013-2015
    • IT University of Copenhagen
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2010-2014
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Irvine, California, United States
  • 2012
    • Leiden University
      • Leiden Observartory
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Cardiff University
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 2009-2012
    • Durham University
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Institute for Computational Cosmology "ICC"
      Durham, England, United Kingdom