[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic carcinoma is one of the most aggressive tumor entities, and standard chemotherapy provides only modest benefit. Therefore, specific targeting of pancreatic cancer for early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention is of great interest. We have previously shown that the cellular receptor for Shiga toxin B (STxB), the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb(3) or CD77) is strongly increased in colorectal adenocarcinoma and their metastases. Here, we report an upregulation of Gb(3) in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (21 of 27 cases) as compared with matched normal tissue (n = 27). The mean expression was highly significantly increased from 30 ± 16 ng Gb(3)/mg tissue in normal pancreas to 61 ± 41 ng Gb(3)/mg tissue (mean ± SD, P = 0.0006), as evidenced by thin layer chromatography. Upregulation of Gb(3) levels did not depend on tumor stage or grading and showed no correlation with clinical outcome. Tumor cells and endothelial cells were identified as the source of increased Gb(3) expression by immunocytochemistry. Pancreatic cancer cell lines showed rapid intracellular uptake of STxB to the Golgi apparatus, following the retrograde pathway. The therapeutic application of STxB was tested by specific delivery of covalently coupled SN38, an active metabolite of the topoisomerase I inhibitor irinotecan. The cytotoxic effect of the STxB-SN38 compound in pancreatic cancer cell lines was increased more than 100-fold compared with irinotecan. Moreover, this effect was effectively blocked by competing incubation with nonlabeled STxB, showing the specificity of the targeting. Thus, STxB constitutes a promising new tool for specific targeting of pancreatic cancer.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aim
Chemotactic cytokines play a role in angiogenesis and attraction of immune cells. However, their contribution to tumor formation remains incompletely understood. In a previous transcriptome study, we identified a family of structurally related chemokines of the CXC-family to be specifically up-regulated in colorectal cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of their expression in colon cancer cells and to test the hypothesis that altered CXC-chemokine expression is related to critical clinical parameters, such as survival or metastasis formation.
Materials and methods
Expression levels of interleukin-8 (CXCL-8) and growth-related oncogenes 2 and 3 (GRO-2/CXCL-2 and GRO-3/CXCL-3) were quantified using qRT-PCR in 97 patients with completely resected colon carcinoma and correlated with clinical parameters. Moreover, 16 samples of normal mucosa, nine samples of benign adenoma, and 11 samples of liver metastasis were analyzed. Next, the regulation of chemokine expression in response to various stimuli was tested in colon cancer cell lines (HT29, HCT116, CaCO2).
Expression of GRO-2, GRO-3, and IL-8 was significantly increased in colon cancer as compared to normal colon tissue. Expression of GRO-2 and GRO-3 was already enhanced in premalignant adenomas, and GRO-3 was significantly down-regulated in liver metastasis as compared to the primary tumor. Importantly, expression of GRO-3 was significantly higher in patients with local versus systemic disease. Moreover, IL-8 expression was significantly associated to overall post-operative survival. Finally, all chemokines were strongly induced by IL-1alpha in the colon cancer cell lines tested, indicating a potential link to inflammatory processes.
In accordance with earlier findings, we report here a significantly increased expression of GRO-2, GRO-3, and IL-8 in colon carcinoma as compared to normal tissue. Furthermore, GRO-3 was related to metastasis formation, and IL-8 was associated with survival, suggesting a potential predictive power of these markers.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · International Journal of Colorectal Disease