[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acromesomelic chondrodysplasias (ACDs) are characterized by disproportionate shortening of the appendicular skeleton, predominantly affecting the middle (forearms and forelegs) and distal segments (hands and feet). Here, we present two consanguineous families with missense (c.157T>C, p.(C53R)) or nonsense (c.657G>A, p.(W219*)) mutations in BMPR1B. Homozygous affected individuals show clinical and radiographic findings consistent with ACD-type Grebe. Functional analysis of the missense mutation C53R revealed that the mutated receptor was partially located at the cell membrane. In contrast to the wild-type receptor, C53R mutation hindered the activation of the receptor by its ligand GDF5, as shown by reporter gene assay. Further, overexpression of the C53R mutation in an in vitro chondrogenesis assay showed no effect on cell differentiation, indicating a loss of function. The nonsense mutation (c.657G>A, p.(W219*)) introduces a premature stop codon, which is predicted to be subject to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, causing reduced protein translation of the mutant allele. A loss-of-function effect of both mutations causing recessive ACD-type Grebe is further supported by the mild brachydactyly or even non-penetrance of these mutations observed in the heterozygous parents. In contrast, dominant-negative BMPR1B mutations described previously are associated with autosomal-dominant brachydactyly-type A2.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 16 October 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.222.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deletions of the chromosomal region 2q37 cause brachydactyly-mental retardation syndrome (BDMR), also known as Albright hereditary osteodystrophy-like syndrome. Recently, histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) haploinsufficiency has been postulated to be the critical genetic mechanism responsible for the main clinical characteristics of the BDMR syndrome like developmental delay and behavioural abnormalities in combination with brachydactyly type E (BDE). We report here on the first three generation familial case of BDMR syndrome with inheritance of an interstitial microdeletion of chromosome 2q37.3. The deletion was detected by array comparative genomic hybridization and comprises the HDAC4 gene and two other genes. The patients of this pedigree show a variable severity of psychomotor and behavioural abnormalities in combination with a specific facial dysmorphism but without BDE. Given that only about half of the patients with 2q37 deletions have BDE; we compared our patients with other patients carrying 2q37.3 deletions or HDAC4 mutations known from the literature to discuss the diagnostic relevance of the facial dysmorphism pattern in 2q37.3 deletion cases involving the HDAC4 gene. We conclude that HDAC4 haploinsufficiency is responsible for psychomotor and behavioural abnormalities in combination with the BDMR syndrome-specific facial dysmorphism pattern and that these clinical features have a central diagnostic relevance.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 28 November 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.240.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Indian hedgehog (IHH) is a secreted signaling molecule of the hedgehog family known to play important roles in the regulation of chondrocyte differentiation, cortical bone formation, and the development of joints. Here, we describe that copy-number variations of the IHH locus involving conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) are associated with syndactyly and craniosynostosis. These CNEs are able to drive reporter gene expression in a pattern highly similar to wild-type Ihh expression. We postulate that the observed duplications lead to a misexpression and/or overexpression of IHH and by this affect the complex regulatory signaling network during digit and skull development.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal-dominant brachydactyly type E (BDE) is a congenital limb malformation characterized by small hands and feet predominantly as a result of shortened metacarpals and metatarsals. In a large pedigree with BDE, short stature, and learning disabilities, we detected a microdeletion of approximately 900 kb encompassing PTHLH, the gene coding for parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHRP). PTHRP is known to regulate the balance between chondrocyte proliferation and the onset of hypertrophic differentiation during endochondral bone development. Inactivation of Pthrp in mice results in short-limbed dwarfism because of premature differentiation of chondrocyte. On the basis of our initial finding, we tested further individuals with BDE and short stature for mutations in PTHLH. We identified two missense (L44P and L60P), a nonstop (X178WextX( *)54), and a nonsense (K120X) mutation. The missense mutation L60P was tested in chicken micromass culture with the replication-competent avian sarcoma leukosis virus retroviral expression system and was shown to result in a loss of function. Thus, loss-of-function mutations in PTHLH cause BDE with short stature.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · The American Journal of Human Genetics