Alfhild Kringstad

Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway

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Publications (2)8.9 Total impact

  • Ian J Allan · Kine Bæk · Alfhild Kringstad · Helge E Roald · Kevin V Thomas
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    ABSTRACT: Persistent organic pollutant (POP) biomonitoring in humans is challenging and generally carried out using blood, breast milk or adipose tissue, with concentrations normalised to the lipid content of the sample matrix. The goal of this cross-sectional pilot study was to evaluate the validity and feasibility of explanted silicone prostheses as a matrix for persistent organic pollutant biomonitoring in humans. We postulate that pollutant concentrations in silicone prostheses inserted in the body will equilibrate with that in the body over time and provide a measure of the overall body burden. This study included silicone prostheses from 22 female patients of the Colosseum clinic (Oslo, Norway) collected between September 2010 and April 2012. Absorption of chlorinated and brominated POPs into silicone prostheses during implantation was observed. Relative levels of the different contaminants measured in prostheses were in agreement with those from serum and breast milk analyses from the general Norwegian population. The comparison of serum and breast milk-based literature data with prosthesis concentrations transposed into lipid-normalised concentrations supports the validity of the prosthesis measurements. The median of relative percent differences between measurements with replicate silicone prostheses from 11 patients was below 30%. Observed increases in prosthesis concentrations with patients' age were found to be very similar to literature data from studies of the Norwegian population. Silicone prostheses therefore represent a promising matrix for the biomonitoring of nonpolar and non-ionic pollutants in humans. Sample accessibility and body burden representativeness of the silicone prostheses suggest that specimen banking should be initiated.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Environment international
  • Ian J Allan · Christopher Harman · Alfhild Kringstad · Erling Bratsberg
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing demand for simple and reliable passive samplers for monitoring hydrophobic organic contaminants in water has led to increased frequency of use of single-phase polymeric sampling devices. In this study, we evaluate the effect of sampler material on the passive sampling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two Norwegian rivers. Low density polyethylene membranes (LDPE), silicone strips and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) with the exact same surface area and conformation were exposed in the Drammen River for overlapping exposures of 24 and 51 d, under identical hydrodynamic conditions. Dissipation rates of performance reference compounds (PRCs) spiked in all samplers were consistent and demonstrated no significant differences in sampler-water analyte exchange kinetics between the two exposures. The transition to fully boundary layer-controlled uptake shown by PRC dissipation rates was confirmed by investigating PAH masses absorbed by the samplers. Masses of analytes with log K(ow)>4.5 absorbed into the samplers were similar and independent of the sampler material used, generally indicating for these compounds that the boundary layer dominated the resistance to mass transfer. The very low variability in analyte masses absorbed across sampler types observed here indicates that much of the overall variability in dissolved contaminant concentrations seen in passive sampler intercomparison studies is likely the result of the uncertainty associated with sampler-water partition coefficients and PRC dissipation rates. PRC dissipation rates and ratios of masses absorbed over 51 and 24 d for these compounds demonstrated integrative sampling over 51 d and no major effects of biofouling on sampling. The equivalence of data obtained using silicone strips and SPMDs supports the use of single-phase polymeric passive sampling devices.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Chemosphere