[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vehicles of neighbouring states are more prone to violate Indian Motor Vehicles Act, 1988. An algorithm has been developed to automatically recognize the vehicles not registered in Jharkhand, a state of India for appropriate legal action using wavelet based intelligent techniques. The image of Vehicle Licence Plate (VLP) is extracted using Extended Hough Transform (EHT). Four features are obtained using four levels of decomposition using Haar wavelet and used as inputs to different classifiers. A comparative assessment regarding the efficacy of all classifiers indicates SVM to be the most suitable classifier for the intended automated VLP identification.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With increasing number of vehicles in developing countries, the traditional practice of manual monitoring of vehicles is becoming cumbersome, ineffective and economically unviable. This study uses an image-processing-based frequency-domain approach using wavelet multiresolution analysis (MRA) to overcome the difficulties associated with the conventional approach of employing manual observation for vehicle identification. The classification algorithm uses features extracted from an image of vehicle license plate (VLP). Wavelet MRA technique is used to extract the features of image exploiting its abrupt change of intensities. As the features of an image are wavelet dependent, a number of wavelets have been used to extract features of the same image of a VLP. The wavelet that results in features for distinct classification is selected for this application. The case studies pertaining to vehicles in India validate the efficacy of the proposed methodology.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · IET Intelligent Transport Systems
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, piecewise linearization has developed as an attractive tool for the representation of various complex nonlinear systems. The piecewise linearization of individual functions provide a platform for the piecewise affine approximation of nonlinear systems containing a large number of scaler valued nonlinear functions. Inspite of the wide application of piecewise linearization, the optimal approximation of a continuous time nonlinear function by the minimum number of piecewise linearised functions has not been addressed properly in literature. This paper deals with an evolutionary optimization based clustering approach for obtaining the optimal piecewise linear approximation of a class of nonlinear functions. The technique is based on the trade-off between increasing the approximation accuracy and simplifying the approximation by the minimum number of linearized sectors. The technique has been successfully applied to some common nonlinear functions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present work is concerned to model the molecular signalling pathway for vasodilation and to predict the resting young human forearm blood flow under heat stress. The mechanistic electronic modelling technique has been designed and implemented using MULTISIM 8.0 and an assumption of 1V/ degrees C for prediction of forearm blood flow and the digital logic has been used to design the molecular signalling pathway for vasodilation. The minimum forearm blood flow has been observed at 35 degrees C (0 ml 100 ml(-1)min(-1)) and the maximum at 42 degrees C (18.7 ml 100 ml(-1)min(-1)) environmental temperature with respect to the base value of 2 ml 100 ml(-1)min(-1). This model may also enable to identify many therapeutic targets that can be used in the treatment of inflammations and disorders due to heat-related illnesses.
No preview · Article · May 2010 · Computers in Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Motors impact every aspect of our lives. Motors provide motion whether linear or rotational; it helps us to move people and machines. The electric motors are all around us, from common appliances to most sophisticated computers. Out of the several different types, Switched Reluctance Motors find wide applicability because of their simple construction, low manufacturing cost, rugged construction, fault-tolerant operation, high efficiency, high reliability and robustness in operation. This technology is persisting since 100 years, but now the time has come to put it to maximum use by way of ssensor less position control of the rotor which finds use in variable speed drives and servo drives.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a probabilistic approach for DNA sequence analysis. A DNA sequence consists of an arrangement of the four nucleotides A, C, T and G and different representation schemes are presented according to a probability measure associated with them. There are different ways that probability can be associated with the DNA sequence: one way is when the probability of an occurrence of a letter does not depend on the previous one (termed as unsuccessive probability) and in another scheme the probability of occurrence of a letter depends on its previous letter (termed as successive probability). Further, based on these probability measures graphical representations of the schemes are also presented. Using the diagram probability measure one can easily calculate an associated probability measure which can serve as a parameter to check how close is a new sequence to already existing ones.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) method has been applied to capture localized time-frequency in-formation of rat electroencephalogram (EEG) in dif-ferent vigilance states and analyze alterations in transients during awake, slow wave sleep (SWS), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stages due to ex-posure to high environmental heat. Rats were divided in three group (i) acute heat stress-subjected to a sin-gle exposure for four hours in the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) incubator at 38C; (ii) chronic heat stress-exposed for 21 days daily for one hour in the incubator at 38C, and (iii) handling control groups. After two hours long EEG recordings from young healthy rats, EEG data representing three sleep states was visually selected and further subdivided into 2 seconds long epoch. Powers of wavelet spectra corresponding to delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands at all scales and locations were computed and varia-tion in their states investigated. The wavelet analysis of EEG signals following exposure to high environ-mental heat revealed that powers of subband fre-quencies vary with time unlike Fourier technique. Changes in higher frequency components (beta) were significant in all sleep-wake states following both acute and chronic heat stress conditions. Percentage power of different components of the four bands was always found to be varying at different intervals of time in the same signal of analysis.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Journal of biomedical science and engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a probabilistic approach for DNA sequence analysis. A DNA sequence consists of an arrangement of the four nucleotides A, C, T and G. There are various representation schemes for a DNA sequence. This paper uses a representation scheme in which the probability of a symbol depends only on the occurrence of the previous symbol. This type of model is defined by two parameters, a set of states Q, which emit symbols and a set of transitions between the states. Each transition has an associated transition probability, aij, which represents the conditional probability of going to state j in the next step, given that the current state is i. Further, the paper combines the different types of classification classes using a Fuzzy composition relation. Finally a log-odd ratio is used for deciding to which class the given sequence belongs to.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat stress is known to induce high mortality rate due to multi-system illness, which demands urgent attention to reduce the
fatality rate in such patients. Further, for the diagnosis and supportive therapy, one needs to define the severity of heat
stress that can be distinguished as mild, intermediate and severe. The objective of this work is to develop an automated unsupervised
artificial system to analyze the clinical outcomes of different levels of heat related illnesses. The Kohonen neural network
program written in C++, which has seven normalized values of different clinical symptoms between 0–1 fed to the input layer
of the network with 50 Kohonen output neurons, has been presented. The optimized initializing parameters such as neighborhood
size and learning rate was set to 50 and 0.7, respectively, to simulate the network for 10million iterations. The network
was found smartly distinguishing all 51 patterns to three different states of heat illnesses. With the advent of these findings,
it can be concluded that the Kohonen neural network can be used for automated classification of the severity of heat stress
and other related psycho-patho-physiological disorders. However, to replace the expert clinicians with such type of smart
diagnostic tool, extensive work is required to optimize the system with variety of known and hidden clinical and pathological
No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many mathematical models of thermoregulation in humans have been developed, so far. These models appeared to be very useful tools for studying temperature regulation in humans under adverse environmental conditions. However, no one discussed the heat transfer characteristics of denervated subjects. Thus, the present study is concerned with aspects of the passive system for denervated subjects: (1) modeling the human body extremities (2) modeling heat transport mechanism within the body and at its periphery. The present model was simulated using the software (Wintherm 8.0, Thermoanalytics, USA) for different body segments to predict the heat flow between body core and skin surface with changes in environmental temperature with fixed relative humidity and wind velocity. The simulated model for comparative study of internal temperature distribution of hand, arm, leg and feet segments yielded remarkably good results and observed to be in trends with previously cited work under ambient environmental condition and at controlled room temperature. Models could be used to measure the temperature distribution in human limbs during local hyperthermia and to investigate the interaction between limbs and the thermal environment.
No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Journal of Medical Systems
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We are introducing in this paper a digital-analog hybrid model approach for the study of a complete gene regulatory network; the heat shock response (HSR) network of eukaryotes. HSR is a crucial and widely studied cellular phenomenon occurring due to various stresses on the cell, and is characterised by the induction of heat shock genes resulting in the production of heat shock proteins (HSPs) which restores cellular homeostasis by maintaining protein integrity. We are proposing a model which incorporates simple digital and analog components which mimic the functioning of biological molecules involved in HSR and model their dynamics and behaviour. The simulation result of the circuit for the production of HSP70 has been found to be consistent with published experimental results. The qualitative behaviour of the HSR is expressed through a truth table. Through this novel approach, the authors have tried to develop a level of understanding of the interactions of the parts of the HSR system and of this system as a whole.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The thermoregulatory control of human skin blood flow is vital to maintain the body heat storage during challenges of thermal homeostasis under heat stress. Whenever thermal homeostasis disturbed, the heat load exceeds heat dissipation capacity, which alters the cutaneous vascular responses along with other body physiological variables. Whole body skin blood flow has been calculated from the forearm blood flow. Present model has been designed using electronics circuit simulator (Multisim 8.0, National Instruments, USA), is to execute a series of predictive equations for early prediction of physiological parameters of young nude subjects during resting condition at various level of dry heat stress under almost still air to avoid causalities associated with hot environmental. The users can execute the model by changing the environmental temperature in degrees C and exposure time in minutes. The model would be able to predict and detect the changes in human vascular responses along with other physiological parameters and from this predicted values heat related-illness symptoms can be inferred.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Journal of Medical Systems
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The thermoregulatory control of human skin blood flow is vital to maintain the body heat storage during challenges of thermal
homeostasis under heat stress. Whenever thermal homeostasis disturbed, the heat load exceeds heat dissipation capacity, which
alters the cutaneous vascular responses along with other body physiological variables. Whole body skin blood flow has been
calculated from the forearm blood flow. Present model has been designed using electronics circuit simulator (Multisim 8.0,
National Instruments, USA), is to execute a series of predictive equations for early prediction of physiological parameters
of young nude subjects during resting condition at various level of dry heat stress under almost still air to avoid causalities
associated with hot environmental. The users can execute the model by changing the environmental temperature in °C and exposure
time in minutes. The model would be able to predict and detect the changes in human vascular responses along with other physiological
parameters and from this predicted values heat related-illness symptoms can be inferred.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Journal of Medical Systems
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soft computing techniques such as artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic have been used to design an intelligent drive for induction motor control. The objective of this work is to present a new method of control of induction motor using less Central Processing Unit (CPU) time. To achieve this, fuzzy logic controller with reduced rule base has been designed along with a modular type of neural observer to completely design the intelligent drive. Performance superiority over existing control mechanisms is not kept presently within the scope of work. Reduced CPU time, with speed controls within acceptable limits, achieved from this work will help to utilize available CPU time in other controls in an integrated automatic control system. Several comparative results are presented in the paper.
No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Control and Intelligent Systems
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exertional heat illness is primarily a multi-system disorder results from the combined effect of exertional and thermoregulation stress. The severity of exertional heat illness can be classified as mild, intermediate and severe from non-specific symptoms like thirst, myalgia, poor concentration, hysteria, vomiting, weakness, cramps, impaired judgement, headache, diarrhea, fatigue, hyperventilation, anxiety, and nausea to more severe symptoms like exertional dehydration, heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat injury, heatstroke, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure. At its early stage, it is quite difficult to find out the severity of disease with manual screening because of overlapping of symptoms. Therefore, one need to classify automatically the disease based on symptoms. The 7:10:1 backpropagation artificial neural network model has been used to predict the clinical outcome from the symptoms that are routinely available to clinicians. The model has found to be effective in differentiating the different stages of exertional heat-illness with an overall performance of 100%.
No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Journal of Medical Systems
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sliding Mode Control (SMC) is an appropriate robust control method for a specific class of nonlinear systems. SMC is recently used in control of switch mode power supplies as against different control algorithms like PID control, current programmed control etc. In this paper Fuzzy Sliding Mode Like Control (FSMLC) is build through fuzzy knowledge base which has advantage of still higher robustness. FSMLC is further modified by adding additional boundary layer in the phase plane to avoid drastic changes in the control variable. It is implemented in real time using TMS320LF2407A Digital Signal Processor (DSP) as against the conventional microprocessor implementations through lookup tables. Experimental results are in accordance with the simulated results carried out in Matlab Simulink. The comparison of the FSMLC is shown with conventional PID controller and SMC.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Control and Intelligent Systems
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the increasing use of electronic equipments, the problem of low power factor and input current harmonics associated with AC to DC conversion stage has been a matter of concern for all. Passive PFC methods have certain disadvantages against active PFC methods, which use high frequency converters to provide high power factor with negligible harmonics. In the present work neural network based intelligent controller is
proposed for active power factor correction and voltage regulation using Zeta converter for dc-to-dc conversion stage. The proposed model is simulated using PSIM and MATLAB. Neural Network is trained offline using current-mode-controller with PI controllers. This considerably improves the startup response (after training) and reduces the harmonics which intern improves the power factor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, a new parallel-connected single phase power factor correction (PFC) topology using flyback converter in parallel with forward converter is proposed to improve the input power factor with simultaneously output voltage regulation taking consideration of current harmonic norms. Paralleling of converter modules is a well-known technique that is often used in medium-power applications to achieve the desired output power by using smaller size of high frequency transformers and inductors. The proposed approach offers cost effective, compact and efficient AC-DC converter by the use of parallel power processing. Forward converter primarily regulates output voltage with fast dynamic response and it acts as master which processes 60% of the power. Flyback converter with AC/DC PFC stage regulates input current shaping and PFC, and processes the remaining 40% of the power as a slave. This paper presents a design example and circuit analysis for 300 W power supply. A parallel-connected interleaved structure offers smaller passive components, less loss even in continuous conduction inductor current mode, and reduced volt-ampere rating of DC/DC stage converter. MATLAB/Simulink is used for implementation and simulation results show the performance improvement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several methods have been proposed and published for control of induction motors. The objective of this work is to develop a fuzzy controller with reduced rule base. Using concepts of direct torque control, a fuzzy controller has been designed with a cascaded final state selector, which reduced rule base and gave birth to a new control technique of induction motor. Details and perfor-mance of the fuzzy controller has been discussed in the paper.