[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For more than thirty years, scutellarin (Scu) has been used in China to clinically treat acute cerebral infarction and paralysis. Scutellarein (Scue), the major Scu metabolite in vivo, exhibits heightened neuroprotective effects when compared to Scu. To explore the neuroprotective role of these compounds, we performed ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS) coupled with a pattern recognition approach to investigate metabolomic differences in a rat model of ischemia after treatment with each compound. We examined metabolites in urine, hippocampal tissue, and plasma, and we tentatively identified 23 endogenous metabolites whose levels differed significantly between sham-operated and model groups. Upon pathway analysis, we found an additional 11 metabolic pathways in urine, 14 metabolic pathways in the hippocampal tissue, and 3 metabolic pathways in plasma. These endogenous metabolites were mainly involved in sphingolipid metabolism, lysine biosynthesis, and alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism. We found that metabolic changes after ischemic injury returned to near-normal levels after Scue intervention, unlike Scu treatment, further validating the heightened protective effects exerted by Scue compared to Scu. These results demonstrate that Scue is a potential drug for treatment of ischemic insult.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance:
The compatibility of Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui) and Carthami Flos (Honghua), a famous herb pair Gui-Hong, can produce synergistic and complementary hematinic effects. Our previous studies have indicated that Gui-Hong has therapeutic potential treatment in hemolytic and aplastic anemia (HAA). The present study aimed to investigate the hematinic effects of Danggui, Honghua and Gui-Hong on HAA rats induced by acetyl phenylhydrazine (APH) and cyclophosphamide (CP) and to explore the underlying hematinic regulation mechanisms.
Materials and methods:
Rats were divided into 5 groups, and drugs were administered by oral gavage one time each day for continuous 7 days from the experiment began. Urine and plasma were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS). Partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) models were built to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Danggui, Honghua and Gui-Hong. Pearson correlation matrix analysis method was used to discover the correlations between potential biomarkers and biochemical indicators of HAA rats.
Seven potential biomarkers contribute to the separation of model group and control group were tentatively identified. The levels of l-kynurenine, phenylalanine, nicotinic acid and sphingosine increased significantly (P<0.05) in HAA rats, while the levels of l-isoleucine, l-tyrosine and serotonin decreased significantly (P<0.05) in comparison with control rats. Those endogenous metabolites were chiefly involved in phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism and tyrosine metabolism. The metabolic deviations could be regulated closer to normal level after Danggui, Honghua and Gui-Hong intervention. In term of hematinic effects, Gui-Hong was the most effective as shown by the relative distance in PLS-DA score plots and relative intensity of potential biomarkers. The result reflected the synergic action between Danggui and Honghua. The above results were found to be reasonable in explaining the hematinic effects mechanism of Gui-Hong.
The results of routine blood, urinary metabolic pattern and plasma metabolic pattern show the Danggui, Honghua and Gui-Hong groups are moving toward the control group and the HAA was being prevented and alleviated. The effect of Gui-Hong group is more remarkable than Danggui and Honghua groups. Some potential biomarkers like l-kynurenine, phenylalanine, l-isoleucine, l-tyrosine, serotonin, nicotinic acid and sphingosine have been found and identified. The work shows that the metabonomics method is a promising tool in the efficacy and mechanism research of traditional Chinese medicines.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fo-Shou-San (FSS) is an ancient and classic formula comprised of Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui, DG) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuanxiong, CX) in a weight ratio of 3:2 with nourishing blood and dissipating blood stasis activities for the treatment of blood deficiency and blood stasis. In this study, a ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TQ-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous quantification of three aromatic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid) and six phthalides (senkyunolide I, senkyunolide H, senkyunolide A, butylphthalide, ligustilide and butylidenephthalide) in DG, CX and FSS. The nine components were simultaneously determined within 10min. The proposed method was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability as well as recovery. The results showed that there were significant differences in their contents of DG and CX, and there were remarkable differences between the theorized content and observed content in FSS. The content of each component in formulae was not just the simple addition among its content in the single herbs. These research results might be helpful to illustrate the drug interactions during decocting process of herb pair according to the quantity changes of these marker compounds, which would lay foundation to further reveal the compatibility rule of the herb pair and other related formulae.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The compatibility of Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui, DG) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuanxiong, CX), a famous herb pair Gui-Xiong (GX), can produce synergistic and complementary hematopoiesis. In present study, global metabolic profiling with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS) combined with pattern recognition method was performed to discover the underlying hematopoietic regulation mechanisms of DG, CX and GX on hemolytic and aplastic anemia rats (HAA) induced by acetyl phenylhydrazine (APH) and cyclophosphamide (CP). Thirteen endogenous metabolites contributing to the separation of model group and control group were tentatively identified. The levels of LPCs including lysoPC (18:0), lysoPC (20:4), lysoPC (16:0) and lysoPC (18:2), sphinganine, nicotinic acid, thiamine pyrophosphate, phytosphingosine, and glycerophosphocholine increased significantly (p<0.05) in HAA, while the levels of oleic acid, 8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid, ceramides (d18:1/14:0), and 17a-hydroxypregnenolone decreased significantly (p<0.05) in comparison with control rats. Those endogenous metabolites were chiefly involved in thiamine metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism. The metabolic deviations could be regulated closer to normal level after DG, CX and GX intervention. In term of hematopoietic function, GX was the most effective as shown by the relative distance in PLS-DA score plots and relative intensity of metabolomic strategy, reflecting the synergic action between DG and CX. The relative distance calculation was firstly used in metabolomics for semi-quantization.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Chromatography A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sargassum pallidum is one of the Traditional Chinese Medicine widely used for phlegm elimination and detumescence. Arsenic is present in high concentration in seaweed belonging to the genus Sargassum. Therefore, the consumption of S. pallidum is a route of exposure to arsenic. Since the toxicity of arsenic is highly dependent on its chemical speciation, the determination of total arsenic is not adequate to assess the risks. Here, a high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS) was developed for determination of the common arsenic species including arsenite [As(III)], dimethylarsinate (DMA), methylarsonate (MMA) and arsenate [As(V)] simultaneously. This method was applied to study the pharmacokinetic profile of these arsenic species in rats after oral administration of S. pallidum extract at different doses. The described assay was validated for limit of quantification, linearity, intra-day and inter-day precisions, accuracy, extraction recovery and stability according to the FDA validation guidelines. As(III) or MMA was not detected in any samples collected at all time points using the present HPLC-HG-AFS method. As(V) and DMA in the S. pallidum could be readily absorbed and eliminated in rats. A trend of dose-dependence was shown for DMA and As(V) in the drug concentration-time profiles. This study would be helpful for the apprehension of the action mechanism and clinical application of medicinal seaweeds.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood deficiency is commonly encountered among women, and is the root of many gynaecological disorders. Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD), a classical traditional Chinese formula which is composed of Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) at the ratio of 5:1 (w/w), is widely used in TCM clinics for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome. This study is to compare the in vivo pharmacokinetic properties of seven major bio-active components in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of DBD.
Blood deficiency rats were induced by bleeding from orbit at the dosages of 5.0mL/kg each day for 12 days. Normal and blood deficiency rats were administrated of DBD on the 12(th) day at the dosage of 20g/kg, and blood was collected at different time points after then. Concentrations of ferulic acid, caffeic acid, butylphthalide, ligustilide, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin, and astragaloside IV in plasma were quantified by UPLC-TQ/MS, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0.
It was found that Cmax, Tmax and MRT0~T of astragaloside IV, Cmax, T1/2Z, AUC0~T and MRT0~T of calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, T1/2Z and AUC0~T of ferulic acid, T1/2Z, AUC0~T and MRT0~T of ononin, and MRT0~T of ligustilide, butylphthalide, and caffeic acid in blood deficiency rats was significantly different (P<0.05) from normal rats.
This study was the first report about pharmacokinetic investigation in blood deficiency animals which was conducted by bleeding. And the results demonstrated that the seven DBD constituents in normal and blood deficiency rats had obvious differences in some pharmacokinetic characteristics, suggesting that the rate and extent of drug metabolism were altered in blood deficiency animals.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) were frequently combined and used in China as herbal pair called as Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD) for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome, such as women's ailments. This study is to investigate the tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active constituents (ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV) in DBD after oral administration of DBD in blood deficiency rats, and to compare the difference between normal and blood deficiency rats. The blood deficiency rats were induced by bleeding from orbit at the dosages of 5.0mLkg(-1) every day, and the experimental period was 12 days. At the finally day of experimental period, both normal and blood deficiency rats were orally administrated with DBD, and then the tissues samples were collected at different time points. Ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV in different tissues were detected simultaneously by UPLC-TQ/MS, and the histograms were drawn. The results showed that the overall trend was CLiver>CKidney>CHeart>CSpleen>CLung, CC-30min>CM-30min>CM-60min>CC-5min>CM-5min>CC-60min>CM-240min>CC-240min. The contents of the detected compounds in liver were more than that in other tissues no matter in normal or blood deficiency rats. Compared to normal rats, partial contents of the compounds in blood deficiency rats' tissues at different time points had significant difference (P<0.05). This study was the first report about tissue distribution investigation in blood deficiency animals which is conducted by bleeding. And the results demonstrated that the five DBD components in normal and blood deficiency rats had obvious differences in some organs and time points, suggesting that the blood flow and perfusion rate of the organ were altered in blood deficiency animals.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuan-Xiong, CX), the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae), is one of the most popular plant medicines in the World. Modern research indicates that organic acids, phthalides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, ceramides and cerebrosides are main components responsible for the bioactivities and properties of CX. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support CX's use worldwide. In the past two decades, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of CX research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of CX, and to highlight new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radix Angelica Sinensis (RAS) and Rhizome Ligusticum (RLC) combination is a popular herb pair commonly used in clinics for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome in China. The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of ferulic acid (FA), a main bioactive constituent in both RAS and RLC, between normal and blood deficiency syndrome animals, and to investigate the influence of compatibility of RAS and RLC on the pharmacokinetic of FA. The blood deficiency rats were induced by injecting 2% Acetyl phenylhydrazine (APH) on the first day, every other day, to a total of five times, at the dosage of 100, 50, 50, 30, 30 mg/kg body mass, respectively. Quantification of FA in rat plasma was achieved by using a simple and rapid HPLC method. Plasma samples were collected at different time points to construct pharmacokinetic profiles by plotting drug concentration versus time, and estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. Between normal and blood deficiency model groups, both AUC((0-) (t) ()) and C(max) of FA in blood deficiency rats after RAS-RLC extract administration increased significantly (P < 0.05), while clearance (CL) decreased significantly. Among three blood deficiency model groups, t(1/2α), V(d), AUC((0-) (t) ()) and AUC((0-∞)) all increased significantly in the RAS-RLC extract group compared with the RAS group. The results indicated that FA was absorbed better and eliminated slower in blood deficiency rats; RLC could significantly prolong the half-life of distribution, increase the volume of distribution and the absorption amount of FA of RAS in blood deficiency rats, which may be due to the synergic action when RAS and RLC were used together to treat blood deficiency syndrome.
Preview · Article · Dec 2012 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anticancer activities of alkyl esters and NO-donors of ferulic acid (FA) and caffeic acid (CA) were assessed by a high-throughout screening (HTS) method, and the structure-activity relationships were described. CA alkyl esters had better anticancer activities than FA alkyl esters with the same alkyl substituent. Mono-nitrates and phenylfuroxan nitrates were more potent than the dual nitrates. Phenylsulfonylfuroxan nitrates of FA, especially compounds 8b-8d, exhibited more potent activities in anticancer.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A comparative quantitative analysis of major bioactive components including three aromatic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid) and four phthalides (senkyunolide I, senkyunolide H, Z-ligustilide and Z-butylidenephthalide) inAngelica sinensis(DG), Ligusticum chuanxiong (CX), and the herb pair ‘Gui-Xiong’ with seven ratios and three preparation methods was carried out by a simple HPLC coupled with photodiode array detection (PAD). The aim was to evaluate the content changes of seven bioactive components, to reveal compatibility rule of the herb pair ‘Gui-Xiong’, and to establish material basis for interpreting pharmacological effect changes. The results showed that water extracts of ‘Gui-Xiong’ could better increase the dissolution of aromatic acids and phthalides in comparison with single herb. And the contents of total acids in ethanol and water-alcohol extracts of DG, ‘Gui-Xiong’ and CX were higher as the proportionality coefficient of CX increasing. The contents of total phthalides in water extracts of ‘Gui-Xiong’ were higher as the proportionality coefficient of CX increasing, while the contents of total phthalides in ethanol and water-alcohol extracts of ‘Gui-Xiong’ changed erratically. On the condition of same extract method, the contents of total phthalides in DG, ‘Gui-Xiong’ and CX were higher than the content of total acids. And some chemical correlations were tried with their pharmacological effect changes. These research results can be helpful to illustrate the drug interactions during decocting process of herb pair according to the quantity changes of these marker compounds.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detection (DAD) was established for simultaneous determination of ten aromatic acids in five Siwu series decoctions (Xiongqiong decoction, Siwu decoction, Taohongsiwu decoction, Xiangfusiwu decoction, Shaofuzhuyu decoction) and related 16 crude herbs. These ten compounds were analyzed simultaneously with a SunFire C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 µm) by gradient elution using 0.5% aqueous acetate acid (v/v)-methanol as the mobile phase, the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. The sample was detected with DAD at 230, 254 and 323 nm and the column was maintained at 25 °C. All the compounds showed good linearity (r > 0.9998) in the range of the test concentration. The precisions were evaluated by intra-day and inter-day tests, and relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values were reported within the range of 0.23-2.28% and 0.26-2.79%. The recovery studies for the quantified compounds were observed over the range of 94.8% and 104.6% with R.S.D. values less than 3.29%. The validated method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of the aromatic acids contents in five formulae and 16 crude herbs, and some aromatic acids were identified for the first time in theses crude herbs. The results also indicated that the contents of some aromatic acids varied greatly in different decocting process. This research provided some experimental data reference for clinic application of the relative herbs, and it could enhance to study the compatibility rule of traditional Chinese medicine.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Through establishing different blood deficiency animal model, to evaluate enriching blood effect changes of the drug pair of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Chuanxiong Rhizoma and each single herb, and to explore the effect characteristics of their compatibility.
Three different methods of acetyl phenylhydrazine (APH) hemolytic method, cyclophosphamide (CTX) chemical damage method, APH-CTX complex method were used respectively to copy different blood deficiency model mice. Changes of orbit blood routine, thymus index, spleen index and ATPase activity of red cell membrane of model mice were tested.
Compared with normal group, all indexes had significant differences in three model mice. The drug pair and each single herb had significant impact on most indexes of the APH-CTX complex model mice, and on the individual indexes of APH hemolytic model mice and CTX chemical damage model mice. Therefore, APH and CTX complex blood deficiency model was more suitable for the enriching blood mechanism study of the drug pair of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Compared with the single herb of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Chuanxiong Rhizoma, the drug pair of them had presented enriching blood effect at different extent with strengthening trend in regulating the invigorating blood indexes, immune organs and energy metabolic enzymes.
The results of this research have provided scientific basis for revealing the mutual promotive composition law of the drug pair of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and responded effectively the mult-link and mult-target effect characteristics of Chinese medicine bio-effect, to offer reference for the bio-effect research of the complicated substance group of Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese medicine formulae, and to supply demonstrative reference for researching the formulae compatibility law which takes the single drug-drug pair-formulae as main line.
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the effect of Radix Angelica and Rhizoma Chuanxiong with different proportions (1 : 0, 2 : 1, 1.5 : 1, 1 : 1, 1 : 1.5, 1 : 2, 0 : 1), different extraction in order (by water, by ethanol, firstly by alcohol then by water) on dysmenorrhea model mice in order to observe their compatibility rules and material foundation.
The mice model of primary dysmenorrhea was used to study the effect of Radix Angelica and Rhizoma Chuanxiong with different proportions and preparation methods on writhing response and the levels of nitric oxide and calcium ion in mice uterine tissue.
Danggui-Chuanxiong (1. 5 : 1) and solution extracted firstly by alcohol then by water showed the strongest effect on primary dysmenorrhea by reducing the writhing times, increasing nitric oxide (NO) concentration and reducing calcium ion (Ca2+) concentration in uterine tissue.
Radix Angelica and Rhizoma Chuanxiong with different proportions and preparation methods showed different antidysmenorrheic trend on dysmenorrhea model mice, which was related with the containing constituents.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica