- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is diagnosed in 1-5% of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and is the second most common autoimmune complication in CLL after autoimmune haemolytic anemia. Here, we review the most recent data on epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of ITP in patients with CLL.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Given the recent findings on the importance of CD38 signaling in the pathogenesis of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), we hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the CD38 gene may be related to B-CLL risk. We evaluated two potentially functional CD38 SNPs, intronic rs6449182 (184C>G) and missense rs1800561 (418C>T, Arg140Trp) in two hospital-based case-control studies (study A and validation study B). Genotyping was done using PCR-based assays in a total of 460 Polish Caucasian patients with B-CLL and 503 age-matched and gender-matched controls. We found that frequencies of both variant alleles (rs6449182 G and rs1800561 T) were significantly higher in B-CLL. In study A, logistic regression analysis revealed an association between B-CLL and genotypes: rs6449182 CG [odds ratio (OR), 3.57; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.4-5.3], rs6449182 GG (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.36-11.5), and rs1800561 CT (OR, 6.72; 95% CI, 1.5-30.1), although no homozygous rs1800561 TT genotype was detected in either study. These results were confirmed in study B, which showed an association between B-CLL and genotypes rs6449182 CG (OR, 4.00; 95% CI, 2.7-6.0), rs6449182 GG (OR, 12.84; 95% CI, 4.3-38.7), and rs1800561 CT (OR, 10.12; 95% CI, 1.3-81.6), and in the combined analysis of both studies. We also observed that rs6449182 G carriers had more advanced clinical stage (P=0.002) and tended to be younger at diagnosis (P=0.056). Furthermore, we found higher CD38 transcript levels and higher proportions of CD38-positive cells in carriers of rs6449182 G and rs1800561 T alleles (P<0.05 for all comparisons). In conclusion, our data show that CD38 SNPs may affect CD38 expression and contribute to the increased risk of B-CLL carcinogenesis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop a more potent antithrombin agent with thrombolytic and antiplatelet properties, a new staphylokinase (SAK) variant was constructed. The kringle 2 domain (K2) of tissue type-plasminogen activator (t-PA) containing a fibrin-specific binding site (i), the RGD sequence (Arg-Gly-Asp) for the prevention of platelet aggregation (ii) and the antithrombotic agent - hirulog (iii) was assembled to the C-terminal part of recombinant staphylokinase (r-SAK). cDNA for the hybrid protein SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul was cloned into Pichia pastoris pPIC9K yeast expression vector. The introduction of K2 t-PA, the RGD sequence and hirulog into the C-terminus of r-SAK did not alter the staphylokinase activity. We observed a higher clot lysis potency of SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul as evidenced by a faster and more profound lysis of (125)I-labeled human fibrin clots. The potency of thrombin inhibition by the hirulog C-terminal part of the recombinant fusion protein was almost identical to that of r-Hir alone. These results suggest that the SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul construct can be a more potent and faster-acting thrombolytic agent with better antithrombin and antiplatelet properties compared to r-SAK and SAK-RGD-K2-Hir.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite similar clinical picture and neoplastic cell morphology, the individual prognosis of patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) varies considerably. Therefore, novel biologic prognostic factors need to be identified to assess risk of progression in early-stage disease that can be useful for future individualization of B-CLL therapy. One of promising novel prognostic factors in B-CLL is a membrane expression of CD38 antigen. Here, we review the accessible data on the prognostic value of CD38 in B-CLL as well as its potential role in pathogenesis of this tumor.