Youn Sook Song

Chungbuk National University, Chinsen, North Chungcheong, South Korea

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Publications (4)11.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal cell differentiation alterations induced by mutant presenilin 2 (PS2) were investigated in transgenic mice expressing wild-type or mutant-type PS2. Progressive increases in differentiation and marker protein expression were found in neuronal cells expressing wild-type PS2, whereas these processes were much perturbed in mutant-type PS2 with elevated ryanodine-receptor (RyR) expression and intracellular calcium levels. Moreover, dantrolene, a blocker of RyR reduced the PS2 mutation-induced interference of cell differentiation and calcium release, but caffeine, an activator of RyR, exacerbated PS2 mutation-induced interference with cell differentiation. Our results indicate that mutant PS2 inhibits normal neuronal cell differentiation and that RyR-mediated calcium overrelease may be a significant factor.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2005 · Journal of Neuroscience Research
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous study showed that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) agonist 15-deoxy-PGJ(2) has the promoting ability to differentiate neuronal PC12 cells. To expand our study, the effect of 15-deoxy-PGJ(2) on the differentiation of embryonic midbrain cells into dopaminergic neuronal cells was investigated in this study. The relationship between cell differentiation with activation of PPAR-gamma and the possible signal pathway were also investigated. 15-Deoxy-PGJ(2) increased neurite extension, a typical characteristic of the differentiation of embryonic midbrain cells isolated from 12-day rat embryos in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of differentiation markers, neurofilament, tyrosine hydroxylase, and nestin, was also increased by the treatment of 15-deoxy-PGJ(2). Consistent with the increasing effect on cell differentiation, 15-deoxy-PGJ(2) increased the expression and transcriptional activity of PPAR-gamma in cultured embryonic midbrain cells. In addition, the expression of PPAR-gamma and NeuN in the differentiated neuron of fetus (17 days) and adult rat brain was co-localized. Furthermore, treatment of PPAR-gamma antagonist bisphenol A diglycidyl ether blocked 15-deoxy-PGJ(2)-induced neuronal differentiation of embryonic midbrain cells and expression of PPAR-gamma. To elucidate the possible signal pathway, the activation of mitogenic-activated protein (MAP) kinase family was determined. 15-Deoxy-PGJ(2) (0.5 microM) increased activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase but not extra-signal response kinase (ERK). In addition, NGF (50 ng/ml) further increased the 15-deoxy-PGJ(2)-induced JNK activation. Moreover, pretreatment of specific inhibitor of JNK SP600125 blocked the 15-deoxy-PGJ(2)-induced JNK activation. This inhibition correlated well with the inhibition of neurite extension and expression of PPAR-gamma induced by 15-deoxy-PGJ(2). The present results therefore indicate that 15-deoxy-PGJ(2) stimulates differentiation of embryonic midbrain cells into dopaminergic neuronal cells, and its effect may be PPAR-gamma and JNK signal pathway dependent.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Experimental Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of the apoptosis program by an increased production of beta-amyloid peptides (Abeta) has been implicated in the neuronal cell death of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Bcl-2 is a well-demonstrated anti-apoptotic protein, however, the mechanisms of anti-apoptotic action of Bcl-2 in Abeta-induced neuronal cell death are not fully understood. In the present study, we therefore have investigated the possibility that overexpression of Bcl-2 may prevent Abeta-induced cell death through inhibition of pro-apoptotic activation of p38 MAP kinase and the transcription factor NF-kappaB in nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiated PC12 cells. Treatment of Abeta into differentiated PC12 cells transfected with plasmid alone resulted in increase of cell death determined by measurement of cytotoxicity and apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. Consistent with the increase of cell death, treatment of Abeta resulted in increase of p38 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB activation. However, overexpression of Bcl-2 reduced Abeta-induced apoptosis, and suppressed the activation of p38 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB. In addition, a p38 MAP kinase specific inhibitor SB 203580 attenuated Abeta-induced apoptosis. This inhibitory effect was correlated well with the inhibition of p38 MAP kniase and NF-kappaB activation. Moreover, inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by sodium salicylates reduced Abeta-induced apoptosis and activation of p38 MAP kinase, and up regulated Bcl-2 expression. These results suggest that Bcl-2 overexpression protects against Abeta-induced cell death of differentiated PC12, and its protective effect may be related to the reduction of Abeta-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Neuroscience Research
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    ABSTRACT: 15-Deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15-deoxy-PGJ(2)), a naturally occurring ligand, activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma). Activation of PPAR-gamma has been found to induce cell differentiation in such cells as adipose cells and macrophages. Herein, we investigated whether 15-deoxy-PGJ(2) has neuronal cell differentiation and possible underlying molecular mechanisms. Dopaminergic differentiating PC-12 cells treated with 15-deoxy-PGJ(2) (0.2 to 1.6 microM) alone showed measurable neurite extension and expression of neurofilament, a marker of cell differentiation. However, a much greater extent of neurite extension and expression of neurofilament was observed in the presence of NGF (50 ng/ml). In parallel with its increasing effect on the neurite extension and expression of neurofilament, 15-deoxy-PGJ(2) enhanced NGF-induced p38 MAP kinase expression and its phosphorylation in addition to the activation of transcription factor AP-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, pretreatment of 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(pyridyl)1H-imidazole (SB203580), a specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, inhibited the promoting effect of 15-deoxy-PGJ(2) (0.8 microM) on NGF-induced neurite extension. This inhibition correlated well with the ability of SB203580 to inhibit the enhancing effect of 15-deoxy-PGJ(2) on the expression of p38 MAP kinase and activation of AP-1. The promoting ability of 15-deoxy-PGJ(2) did not occur through PPAR-gamma because synthetic PPAR-gamma agonist and antagonist did not change the neurite-promoting effect of 15-deoxy-PGJ(2). In addition, contrast to other cells (embryonic midbrain and neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells), PPAR-gamma was not expressed in PC-12 cells. Other structure-related prostaglandins (PGD(2) and PGE(2)) acting via a cell surface G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) did not increase basal or NGF-induced neurite extension. Moreover, GPCR (PGE(2) and PGD(2) receptors) antagonists did not alter the promoting effect of 15-deoxy-PGJ(2) on neurite extension and activation of p38 MAP kinase, suggesting that the promoting effect of 15-deoxy-PGJ(2) may not be mediated by GPCR either. These data demonstrate that activation of p38 MAP kinase in conjunction with AP-1 signal pathway may be important in the promoting activity of 15-deoxy-PGJ(2) on the differentiation of PC-12 cells.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2003 · Molecular Pharmacology