[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Approximately 10 years have passed since intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy was approved in Japan. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify the effectiveness and safety of IV alteplase therapy with the Japanese original dose around Hiroshima via consideration of the patients' backgrounds, examination findings, and outcomes.
All consecutive patients with ischemic stroke who received IV alteplase therapy between October 2005 and October 2010 were registered.
Four hundred twenty-nine patients with ischemic stroke (172 female [40.1%], mean age 73.7 ± 11.8 years) were registered. The proportion of patients over 75 years old was 51.5% (221 patients). The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at admission were 13 (interquartile range, 9-19), and the NIHSS scores 24 hours after alteplase infusion were 8 (interquartile range, 3-15). The proportion of intracerebral hemorrhage within the initial 36 hours was 20.2% (86 patients). After the multivariate regression analysis, a history of hypertension (odds ratio = 4.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-14.79; P = .01) and no recanalization (odds ratio = 10.10; 95% confidence interval, 3.03-39.33; P < .0001) were independently associated with a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 2 or higher at 3 months. Patients over 75 years old were not significantly associated with an intracerebral hemorrhage within the initial 36 hours and an mRS score of 2 or higher at 3 months.
The results of our study demonstrated that IV alteplase therapy with the Japanese original dose was effective and exhibited a safety profile similar to other studies. Moreover, we should not hesitate to IV alteplase therapy simply because of advanced age.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hyperintense vessel sign (HVS) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images can frequently be detected in patients with acute cerebral infarction attributable to large artery stenosis or occlusion. The prognostic values and clinical characteristics of HVS remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of HVS with ischemic lesions and severity of neurologic deficit.
A total of 96 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients (54 women, median age 76.5 [range 39-97] years), who had symptomatic severe stenosis or occlusion in the proximal middle cerebral artery that was detected with magnetic resonance angiography within 24 hours of onset, were enrolled. The extent of HVS was graded by a systematic quantitative scoring system (the HVS distribution score) based on Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomographic Score.
An HVS was detected in 89 patients (93%) at admission, and the patients who displayed wider HVS distribution scores exhibited more severe neurologic deficits at admission (P < .05). The follow-up magnetic resonance imaging, which was obtained in 79 patients (82%), was performed an average of 13 days. The association between HVS distribution score and final ischemic lesions was strongly observed (n = 67, P < .05) but not in the patients with intravenous thrombolysis (n = 12, P = .06).
Although the distribution of HVS reflected final ischemic lesion, this association might not apply to the patients with the thrombolysis treatment. The interpretation of HVS distribution score with acute ischemic stroke patients should be discussed dependent on thrombolysis.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Morning hypertension is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, particularly stroke. However, the optimal time at which to take antihypertensive medication to treat morning hypertension remains unclear. We prospectively enrolled elderly patients (over 65 years old) with morning hypertension who had suffered an ischemic stroke (or strokes). Additional treatments (one of six arms) were randomly administered for 10 weeks in the morning, in the evening or at bedtime (n=15 for each time point/medication). The patients measured their blood pressure and heart rate at home for 14 days prior to the intervention and for the final 14 days, and recorded the data in a blood pressure diary. The patients' urinary albumin/creatinine ratios were evaluated before and after the 10-week intervention. A total of 270 patients were enrolled in this study (mean age: 75.6±5.8 years; female/male ratio: 125/145). Their morning and evening systolic blood pressures were significantly decreased after following any of the study medication dosing schedules (P<0.001). However, the reductions in the differences between the morning and evening systolic blood pressures were significant only when the medication was taken in the evening or at bedtime (P<0.001 with repeated measures analysis of variance). Furthermore, the recovery rate from morning hypertension was also higher when the medication was taken in the evening (40.0%) or at bedtime (45.6%), rather than in the morning (22.2%; P=0.003 with the χ(2)-test). Antihypertensive medication taken in the evening or at bedtime is the most effective in treating morning hypertension when the patient adheres to the medication regimen.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Hypertension Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although several studies have reported various causes of ischemic stroke in patients with cancer, only a few have evaluated the clinical relevance of ischemic stroke pathogenesis to cancer. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the clinical characteristics of cancer-associated ischemic stroke.
We evaluated 154 ischemic stroke patients without cancer and 57 ischemic stroke patients with cancer who had either received continuous treatment for cancer within 5 years before to the onset of ischemic stroke, or who had been diagnosed with cancer within 1 year after the onset of ischemic stroke. Cancer patients were grouped into "cancer-associated ischemic stroke," the "conventional ischemic stroke," or "other."
A total of 15 patients (26%) were classified into the cancer-associated ischemic stroke in cancer patients. In univariate analysis of the cancer-associated ischemic stroke and the others, there were significant differences in the prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and advanced cancer (clinical stage IV), and the levels of d-dimer, fibrin degradation product and hemoglobin. With multivariate regression analysis of those factors, the prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and advanced cancer (clinical stage IV), and the levels of D-dimer and fibrin degradation product remained as statistically independent factors, which were associated with cancer-associated ischemic stroke (n = 111, χ(2) =67.21, P < 0.0001).
In acute ischemic stroke, the cancer-associated ischemic stroke is associated with elevated D-dimer and fibrin degradation products, even after controlling hypertension, hyperlipidemia and advanced cancer (clinical stage IV).
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Geriatrics & Gerontology International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurovascular protection against cerebral ischemia is not consistently observed with a postischemia hypotensive dose of candesartan. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of brain angiotensin II after reperfusion and the efficacy and therapeutic time window of postischemic treatments with hypotensive doses of candesartan for the treatment of cerebral ischemia.
Occlusions of the right middle cerebral artery (60 min) followed by reperfusion were performed using the thread method under halothane anesthesia in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Protein levels of brain angiotensin II and mRNA levels of renin-angiotensin system components were evaluated following reperfusion (n=184 in total). Low-dose or high-dose treatments with candesartan cilexetil (1 or 10 mg/kg per day, respectively) were administered orally immediately following reperfusion once daily for 4 or 7 days (n = 119 in total). An additional group was treated with low-dose candesartan cilexetil after a 12-h delay based on the brain angiotensin II levels (n = 14).
Levels of brain angiotensin II transiently increased 4-12 h after reperfusion, which followed an increase in angiotensinogen mRNA. Candesartan cilexetil treatments significantly reduced blood pressure (BP) in rats administered the high dose and moderately in rats receiving the low dose. A low dose of candesartan cilexetil reduced the infarct size, cerebral edema, and neurological deficits, whereas the high-dose treatments showed limited reductions. Furthermore, oxidative stress following reperfusion was reduced with the low-dose treatments. The therapeutic time window was open for at least 12 h after reperfusion when brain angiotensin II levels had peaked.
Postischemic treatments using low hypotensive doses of candesartan cilexetil provided protection against cerebral ischemic injury and may have a clinically relevant therapeutic time window.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the known causes of hypertension is vascular compression on the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). However, it remains unknown whether RVLM vascular compression causes the significant variability in blood pressure observed during acute ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in blood pressure variability and prognosis in acute ischemic stroke patients based on the presence or absence of RVLM vascular compression. We evaluated 56 patients with acute ischemic stroke. Blood pressure was measured every 6 h for 72 h after admission and evaluated with successive variation (SV). The presence of RVLM vascular compression was evaluated using time-of-flight 3D magnetic resonance imaging. Neurological severity was evaluated using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission and 14 days after admission, and clinical improvement was determined by taking the difference in the NIHSS scores between admission and at 14 days. Patient clinical outcome was evaluated with the modified Rankin scale on discharge. Vascular compression of the RVLM was identified in 15 patients (26.8%). The proportion of patients showing clinical improvement was significantly higher in the non-compression group (odds ratio, 0.21 (95% CI = 0.06-0.78); P = 0.01). The SV value for systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in the compression group (P < 0.0001). We found that patients with RVLM vascular compression had a greater variability in blood pressure during the acute ischemic stroke phase, which may be related to poorer prognosis.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Hypertension Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We classified acute ischemic stroke patients with cancer according to their causal relations, and attempted to evaluate the clinical characteristics of ischemic stroke associated with cancer.
This is a retrospective study of all acute ischemic stroke patients admitted to our hospital between January 2006 and March 2009. Among acute ischemic stroke patients, we identified 30 patients with a history of cancer, or who developed cancer within 1 year from their ischemic stroke onset. There were 2 patients excluded from our evaluation because they had undergone extirpation of their cancer more than 5 years before stroke onset, and no recurrence of cancer within 5 years of stroke onset was noted. Finally, 28 patients were enrolled and evaluated in this study. Ischemic stroke was classified based on the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria. In addition, we classified the patients according to their causal relations of ischemic stroke with cancer.
The median patient age was 74 years (range, 56 to 91 years); 68% of patients were men. Of these, 8 (29%) were classified into an ischemic stroke related to cancer group. There was a higher prevalence of ischemic stroke related to cancer in patients under 75 years old with clinical stage IV cancer (p=0.02). D-dimer tended to be higher in those patients with ischemic stroke related to cancer in this study (p=0.13).
Ischemic stroke related to cancer was found more frequently in patients under 75 years old with advanced cancer. Additionally, D-dimer tended to be higher in those patients with ischemic stroke related to cancer.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although MBs, ICH, and LI are secondary to cerebral microangiopathy, it remains unclear whether the location of subsequent ICH/LI corresponds to the previous location of MBs. We performed this study to clarify the positional relationship between recurrent ICH/LI and previously detected MBs.
We evaluated patients with recurrent ICH/LI who had MBs, as shown on prior T2*-weighted MR imaging. We assessed retrospectively whether the location of recurrent ICH/LI corresponded to that of the prior MB. Patients with ICH were divided into the deep ICH group and the lobar ICH group, and the positional relationship between hematoma and previously detected MBs was evaluated.
A total of 55 patients, including 34 with recurrent ICH and 21 with recurrent LI were evaluated. Although the location of the LI corresponded to prior MBs in only 1 patient (4.8%), the location of ICH corresponded to prior locations of MBs in 21 patients (61.8%) (OR, 32.3; 95% CI, 3.86-270.3; P < .001). Among the patients with ICH, the correspondence ratio was higher in the deep ICH group (19 of 24 patients, 79.2%) than in the lobar ICH group (2 of 10 patients, 20%) (OR, 15.2; 95% CI, 2.42-95.3; P < .002).
The close positional association between recurrent ICH and prior MBs suggests that MBs represent hemorrhage-prone microangiopathy. In addition, different correspondence ratios between the deep ICH group and the lobar ICH group may be attributable to their different pathogenesis.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a 58-year-old woman with adult onset Alexander disease. At the age of 54 she noticed numbness in bilateral legs and at 57 she developed left sided spastic gait. Her walking difficulty was gradually worsened and followed by the development of weakness in left arm, dysarthria and dysphagia. Her mother and elder brother also had similar clinical presentations which suggested an autosomal dominant neurological disorder. With MRI findings showing localized atrophy of medulla oblongata and upper cervical cord with hyperintensities on T2-weighted image, diagnosis of adult onset Alexander disease was made. We performed genetic analysis and found novel variant (S398F) in the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene. In case of slowly progressive myelopathy with bulbar palsy of unknown origin, especially those with atrophy limited to medulla oblongata and upper cervical cord, adult onset Alexander disease should be taken into consideration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have demonstrated abnormal MRI findings in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), especially hypertrophy and abnormal enhancement of spinal nerve roots, but there have been few reports on ultrasonographic findings of spinal nerve roots in CIDP. To determine whether ultrasonography (US) enables detection of hypertrophy of the cervical nerve roots, how frequently hypertrophy occurs in CIDP, and whether US findings correlate with any clinical and laboratory features, US of cervical nerve roots was performed using a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer in 13 CIDP patients and 35 control subjects. A coronal oblique plane with a transducer placed on the lateral side of the neck was used to visualize the cervical nerve roots just after their point of exit from the cervical foramina, and their diameters were measured. US demonstrated hypertrophy of the cervical nerve roots in 9 (69%) of the 13 CIDP patients as compared with findings in control subjects. The degree of hypertrophy was significantly associated with the level of CSF protein (chi2=5.8, p<0.05, logistic simple regression analysis) but not with other clinical features. US is considered to be a useful method for evaluating cervical nerve root hypertrophy, which is frequently seen in patients with CIDP, particularly in patients with elevated level of CSF protein.
No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Journal of the Neurological Sciences